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PRESSES OF EDWARDS & BROUGHTOK COMPANY 




The Restored Chapel of Fort Raleigh on Roanoke Island 



EMERGENCY RELIEF IN 
NORTH CAROLINA 



A Record of the Development and the Activities of 

THE NORTH CAROLINA 
EMERGENCY RELIEF ADMINISTRATION 

1932-1935 



NORTH CAROLINA EMERGENCY RELIEF COMMISSION 

Howard W. Odum, Chairman 
C. A. Dillon Terry A. Lyon 

L. H. KiTCHiN Harriet W. Elliott 



STATE ADMINISTRATOR 
Mrs. Thomas O'Berry 



Edited by 

J. S. Kirk 
Walter A. Cutter Thomas W. Morse 

1936 



To 

The Workers 

on the staffs of the North CaroUna Emer- 
gency ReUef Administration whose en- 
during services made possible its record 
of achievements in the State, this book is 
gratefully dedicated. 



NORTH CAROLINA 

EMERGENCY RELIEF ADMINISTRATION 

RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA 



John C. B. Ehringhaus 
governor 

howard w. odum, chairman 
clyde a. dillon 
harriet w. elliott 
leland h. kitchin 
terry a. lyon 

commission 



Mrs. Thomas O'Berry 
administrator 






Honorable J. C. B. Ehringhaus 
Governor of North Carolina 
State Capitol 
Raleigh, North Carolina 

Mj> dear Governcr Ehringhaus: 

I have the honor to submit herewith the final report of the North Carolina Emergency Relief 
Administration covering the period from August 8, 1933, to December 5, 1935, operating as a 
state agency under Federal direction. 

Included with the report of this administration is a brief summary of the preceding administra- 
tion under Doctor Fred W. Morrison, State Director of the Governor's Office of Relief, for the 
period October, 1932, to August 8, 1933, which summary has been approved by the Executive 
Assistant to the former Relief Director. 

This report was prepared not only as a permanent record of the administration of relief in 
North Carolina, including the accounting of all funds advanced to the Emergency Relief Adminis- 
tration, but also as a reference book through which students and public citizens alike may find an 
accurate picture of conditions as they were at the beginning of Federal aid for relief to the state and 
the progressive development of measures and activities to relieve the situation. 

On behalf of the administration, permit me to express the appreciation of your splendid co- 
operation, and the cooperation of all the departments of state government in furthering the pro- 
gram and policies under the direction of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. 

I also desire to record the fine cooperation of local municipal and governmental units in furth- 
ering the program in political subdivisions and the loyal and unselfish service of the members of 
the staff and of the employees of both state and local administrations. 



With high esteem, I am 



Respectfully yours. 



L^t-X^u-V^.^,..^- A-. (^/^ 




Mrs. Thomas O'Berry, 

AdministraUr. 



September i, 1936 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Frontispiece 2 

Administrator's Foreword 7 

Introduction 9 

Development of Administration of Relief in North Carolina 22 

Observations and Recommendations 63 

Civil Works Administration 65 

Reports of the Divisions of the Emergency Relief Administration and Reports on 
Special Programs 123-279, 317-386 

Rural Rehabilitation 281-315 

Directory of Personnel 115-118, 387-413 

Appendix 415 

Index 539 

Guide to Appendix : Legislative Acts, Explanations, Summaries and Tables in the Ap- 
pendix 542 

List of Tables in Text 543 

List of Maps and Charts in Text 543 



FOREWORD 



In compiling the final report of the North CaroHna Emergency ReHef Administration, we have 
endeavored to present a complete summary of the program as a permanent record of the relief 
problems and activities in the state. Included with a detailed account of the Emergency Relief 
Administration is a brief summary of the activities of the preceding program financed from Recon- 
struction Finance Corporation funds, administered by the Governor's Office of Relief, and of the 
Civil Works Administration. It is hoped that it may serve as a reference volume wherein may be 
found the inception and development of the Federal program of unemployment relief The Con- 
gressional Acts authorizing each appropriation will be found in the appendix. 

The second annual report of the Emergency Relief Administration was in the process of prepara- 
tion in 1935 when it was announced that direct relief would be discontinued in the early fall, to be 
followed by the liquidation of the Emergency Relief Administration, and that its program would 
be absorbed by other agencies. It was then decided to include the annual report in a final report 
of the entire relief program. 

A pictorial review of work projects and special programs has been combined in this one volume 
with the narrative and statistical accounts. The photographs were made by photographers on ERA 
work relief projects. 

It has been a privilege to have a part in the President's Recovery Program, and the courageous 
leadership of the Federal Administrator and his assistants has been a constant inspiration to all 
members of the relief organization. 

On behalf of the entire Emergency Relief Administration, both state and local, I wish to express 
our gratitude to the Governor of North Carolina, who at all times gave full cooperation in the 
interpretation and application of the policies of the Federal Administration in the state, and con- 
structive criticism and advice in administrative matters and relief policies. 

We acknowledge with appreciation the cooperation of all Federal agencies in the effort to coordi- 
nate policies and programs, thus aiding in the success of the relief program. 

State officials and all the departments of the state government have contributed their full 
assistance in furnishing information, and in the supervision of work projects concerned with the 
functions of their respective departments. 

The state educational institutions have rendered invaluable service in directing research, furnish- 
ing technical information and supervision in all phases of the relief program. 

A further contribution of the state has been the provision of rental and maintenance of offices 
for the state administration. 

Local government officials have contributed materials, supervision for work projects, and 
assistance in administrative matters. In the majority of counties and districts, office space and 
equipment were made a\'ailable to the relief administration by the local governments. 

Special mention should be made of the leaders of the Adult Education Movement in the state 
who have so generously assisted in the Emergency Relief Education Program. 

Religious, fraternal, civic, and private charitable organizations, and interested citizens have been 
generous in their services. 

Recognition should be given to those representatives of the press who have endeavored to 
interpret the policies and purposes of the relief program in their true light. 



8 Emergency Relief in North Carolina 

The entire Relief Administration is grateful to all those who ha\'e so splendidly cooperated in 
furthering the relief program. 

The administratix'e personnel of the state office, the local and district administrations, and others 
who have been a part of the organization, have served with a devotion to a cause, a loyalty and an 
enthusiasm rarely found. A unity of purpose and action and an "esprit" on the part of all who 
were responsible for the welfare of those for whom the Emergency Relief Administration was created 
to serve has been evident. Whether the position was minor or executive, the work has been regarded 
as an opportunity rather than a job. No work has been too hard, no hours too long, for the staffs 
to respond to the constant demands made upon them. During my thirty months as administrator 
they have never failed to swing into action for reorganization or for a pressing request of any kind. 
To them, my co-workers in the program, I pay tribute for their courage, their loyalty, and their 
determination to do the job to the best of their ability, regardless of the personal sacrifice involved. 
Their hearts were in the success of the program. Their consideration was for the people whom 
the Emergency Relief Administration served. No reference is made to names of those in the em- 
ploy of the Emergency Relief Administration, but the names of the administrators of the reorgan- 
ized districts and the full staffs for the peak month are given in the personnel directory. The names 
of persons on administrative projects are not included in the personnel directory, but the Adminis- 
tration recognizes and appreciates their valuable service in directing special programs. 

The liquidation of the Emergency Relief Administration, begun immediately following the 
cessation of relief on December 5, 1935, has progressed in an orderly fashion and as rapidly as 
possible. Social work records were transferred to the State Public Welfare Department. Financial, 
statistical, and work project records were checked and filed for future reference. Materials and 
equipment have been made axailable to the Works Progress Administration, the Resettlement 
Administration, and other Federal and state government agencies. Other materials, tools, and 
equipment have been transferred to the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation for continued use in the 
state. The final audit of all expenditures will be completed at the earliest possible date. 

For the preparation of this report, we acknowledge with appreciation the cooperation of the 
State Treasurer in furnishing the administration with financial figures of the state government ; the 
Local Government Commission in furnishing analyses of municipal and county finances ; the 
Public Welfare Department in furnishing the summary of activities of the Governor's Council of 
Unemployment, and state and county aid to Public Welfare ; and the county officials in furnishing 
the figures on local contributions to charitable institutions and county relief. 

This report has been compiled from the reports of heads of divisions of the Emergency Relief 
Administration, whose names are gi\en in the directory of personnel, many of whom are now with 
other organizations. The responsibility for compiling and editing this report has fallen on a few 
people, to whom acknowledgment is due. The Bookkeeping Division, under Mr. S. A. Rowe, and 
the Statistical Division, under Dr. Hugh P. Brinton, Mr. Thomas Betts, and Mr. J. S. Kirk, have had 
a major part in preparing the work project and statistical analyses ; the Works Division report was 
written and compiled by Mr. T. W. Morse ; reports on special programs have been compiled by 
Mr. W. A. Harris ; the graphs and charts were made by Mr. Waller Wynne, Mr. Arthur Carraway, 
and Mr. J. S. Kirk ; Miss Cora Page Godfrey, Mrs. Mary Dunaway Scheld, and Miss Georgia Biggs 
have typed the copy for the printer ; and the entire xolume was edited by Dr. Walter Cutter, 
Mr. J. S. Kirk, and Mr. T. W. Morse. 

Mrs. Thomas O'Berry, 

State Administrator. 



INTRODUCTION 



The forms of public relief, limited as they were, which existed in the United States before the 
present emergency, were in a line of direct descent from the English poor law system established in 
the i6th century. With the enactment of the Statute of Henry XVIII in 1536 which enjoined local 
public officials and church wardens to search out and make provision for the poor, the foundation 
of both English and American poor law was laid. 

Although no public funds were set aside for the relief of such persons, this law marked a decisive 
step away from the repressive and penal measures which had been enforced in the period immedi- 
ately preceding, when the swarms of masterless and landless men which were roving over England, 
due to the dissolving of the monasteries and the gradual breaking-up of the feudal system, seemed to 
call for summary action. 

Publicly financed relief really began in 1572, with the Second Statute of Elizabeth. Although 
there had been an injunction, accompanied by some compulsion, to contribute in the past, this law 
marked an advance by providing for the appointment of specific civil officers ("collectors and over- 
seers of the poor") to administer needed relief and to levy a tax on their fellow citizens for the purpose. 

When the British Parliament, in 1597 and 1601, codified English poor laws, certain major prin- 
ciples were enunciated : (i) Persons unable to work were to be maintained, usually in almshouses ; 
(2) Work was to be provided for those able to work, and punishment for those able but unwilling to 
work ; (3) Needy children were to be bound out as apprentices ; (4) Relatives were made responsible 
for needy kinsfolk ; (5) Public relief was to be financed by taxation ; (6) There was to be administra- 
tion by overseers of the poor appointed by justices of the peace. 

This Elizabethan Poor Law was the first great systematic relief measure in modern times. Until 
1834, it served as the legal and philosophic basis of English poor relief, and when the early colonists 
came to America, this philosophy of relief was brought along as were so many other British insti- 
tutions. 

Although poor laws and relief of poverty in the United States continued to rest upon the principle 
of the British law until the beginning of the present decade, there was in the American system one 
basic diflference. Whereas in England, legislation and provision for the poor tended to be national 
in its character, in this country it was local. While greater economic opportunity made poverty 
relatively rare, there were, as early as the 17th century, certain definite methods of dealing with 
poverty. 

The almshouse was the commonest form of relief, and even recently, it has been described as the 
fundamental institution of American poor relief This institution, unfortunately, became the reposi- 
tory for all types of dependency and maladjustment, being used for aged persons, sick and insane 
persons, persons with contagious diseases, transients, or as popularly termed, tramps, crippled per- 
sons, and perhaps worst of all, children. 

Relief outside of the almshouse in general, took three forms : (i) Children, and those adults who 
were physically able were farmed out to work to contractors who supplied in whate\er measure the 
needs of the workers in return for the work to be gotten out of them. (2) Another form of relief 
disposed of needy persons to employers who contracted to care for them, the usual auctioning pro- 



10 Emergency Relief in Nokth Cabolina 

cedure being re\'ersed in that the unfortunate person went to the lowest bidder. (3) Direct aid 
was sometimes extended in the home, but such aid was infrequent, inadequate and extended usually 
when the need was of brief duration. 

Public poor relief was provided only by local governments, with two types of poor law adminis- 
tration being developed, based on the township and the county. Gradually these types were supple- 
mented by the city plan of relief administration. When state governments entered relief activity, 
and this was comparatively recently, they restricted their participation almost exclusively to super- 
vision. 

Relief Practices Undergo Significant Changes 

In the period elapsing between colonial times and the present emergency certain profoundly 
significant changes in public relief practices transpired, some gradual, some of recent occurrence. 

1. There has been a growing tendency towards the use of "outdoor relief," that is, direct relief 
outside of institutions, and toward the segregation of different types of dependents. This tendency has 
served to a great extent to displace the almshouse as the fundamental institution of poor relief 

2. The almshouse, which is now called by \arious names, the county home, the county infirmary, 
etc., ceased to be the repository for all types of delinquents, and for children, and became an insti- 
tution primarily for the care of the aged and infirm. 

While there was no comprehensi\'e plan for the adequate care of all types of needy persons, there 
were, nevertheless, appreciable adxances. 

3. Public relief activities underwent appreciable coordination and centralization, proving 
conducive to both uniformity and to elevating standards for administration. 

4. Other trends became increasingly important as time went on, although these were limited in 
their influence until the present emergency, (a) Needy persons have come to place an increasing 
relative dependence on public relief as compared with private charity ; (b) More adequately trained 
and better qualified persons ha\e been used to a greater extent in the administration of relief; 
(c) There ha\e been growing attempts, with some degree of success, to pro\-ide more adequate relief 
and individualized treatment ; (d) Pre\enti\e and rehabilitati\e measures ha\e been substituted for 
merely palliative relief. 

But even in the present century, the majority of people were reluctant to accept public aid, its 
acceptance being regarded as a humiliation and a disgrace, attaching an undesirable stigma to the 
recipient. This attitude has developed, doubtless, from a number of causes. The repressive and 
penal character of early English "poor relief" legislation undoubtedly played a large part. Then 
the perfectly understandable human aversion to being considered a failure in the battle of life has 
entered in. This consideration joins naturally with our American individualism. There is always 
a public feeling that failure to achieve success (usually measured in material gain) is proof positive 
of a basic lack, and for this lack the unfortunate person should be penalized, and his care should be 
so arranged that it could be undertaken at the least possible expense. 

But it becomes increasingly apparent, that the State in its general program of protecting its 
citizens has as a fundamental responsibility the lending of assistance to those whose welfare and actual 
security is endangered. Normally, when times are less disturbed, care for destitution is a compara- 
tively minor governmental acti\ity. In an emergency as widespread as that of the present, govern- 
mental participation in the problem of relieving relief is of an importance difficult to appraise. 

In the past five years of economic depression, vast numbers of workers, normally independent, 
have been compelled to accept private and public aid as a desirable alternative to starvation. A 
peculiarity about this crisis lies in the large numbers and classes of persons involved who were fortu- 



Emekgency Relief in North Carolina 11 

nate in escaping the consequences of previous periods of economic upheaval. This almost unbeliev- 
able increase in dependency has compelled the State and Federal Governments to assume a larger 
share of the responsibility for relief With the development of new plans and new methods, the 
administration of relief has become a major function of government. 

With this brief notice of the historical antecedents of our present day views of relief, it will be 
valuable to trace the developing recognition of the Federal Government's direct responsibility to 
supplement state funds in aiding impoverished citizens. 

Developing Recognition of Government Responsibility 

In a statement made by President Herbert Hoo\er to United States Senators Robinson and Wat- 
son, he proposed that loans to the states for relief purposes be made through the existing Reconstruc- 
tion Finance Corporation. Excerpts from his statement, published in the New York Herald Tribune 
on May 13, 1932, follow: 

"The policy steadfastly adhered to up to the present time has been that responsibility for relief 
to distress belongs to pri\'ate organizations, local communities and the states. That fundamental 
policy is not to be changed. But since the fear has arisen that existing relief measures and resources 
may pro\'e inadequate in certain localities and to insure against any possible breakdown in those 
facilities it is proposed that authority be granted to the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to assist 
such states as may need it by underwriting only state bonds or by loaning directly to such states as 
may not be in position temporarily to sell securities in the market. The funds so obtained to be used 
for relief purposes and the total limited to $250,000,000 or $300,000,000. 

"The second part of the program contemplates providing the machinery whereby employment 
may be increased through restoring normal occupations rather than works of artificial character. 
Without entering the field of industrial or public expansion, there are a large number of economi- 
cally sound and self-supporting projects of a constructive replacement character that would un- 
questionably be carried forward were it not for the present situation existing in the capital markets 
and the inadequate functioning of the credit machinery of the country. They exist both in the field 
of public bodies and of industry. There is no dearth of capital, and on the other hand there is a 
real demand for capital for productive purposes that have been held in abeyance. The problem 
is to make the existing capital available and to stimulate its use in constructive capital activities. 
This involves under existing conditions resort to special machinery which is adapted to furnish the 
necessary element of confidence. 

"It is proposed to use the instrumentality of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, which has 
a nation-wide organization, by authorizing the corporation either to underwrite or make loans for 
income-producing and self-sustaining enterprises which will increase employment whether under- 
taken by public bodies or pri\ate enterprises. 

"In order to safeguard the program beyond all question it is proposed that there must be proper 
security for the loans; that, as said, projects must be income-producing; that borrowers must 
have sufficient confidence to furnish part of the capital and that the project must contribute to early 
and substantial employment. 

"It is proposed to provide the necessary funds as they are required by the sale of securities of the 
Reconstruction Finance Corporation and its total borrowing powers to be increased up to $3,000,- 
000,000. It is not proposed to issue government bonds. It is hoped that this further process of 



12 Emergency Relief in North Carolina 

speeding up the economic machine will not involve any such sum. But in view of the early ad- 
journment of Congress it is desirable to provide an ample margin. 

"It is necessary sharply to distinguish between the use of capital for the above purposes and its 
use for unproducti\'e public works. This proposal represents a flow of funds into productive enter- 
prises, which is not taking place today because of abnormal conditions. These being loans on se- 
curity and being self-liquidating in character, do not constitute a change against the taxpayer 
or the public credit. The issue of bonds for public works, non-productive of revenue, is a direct 
charge either upon the taxpayer or upon the public credit, the interest on which and the ultimate 
redemption of which must be met from taxation. 

"An examination shows that to increase Federal government construction work during the next 
year beyond the amounts already provided for would be to undertake works of largely artificial 
character far in advance of public return and would represent a wasteful use of capital and public 
credit." 

The Reconstruction Finance Corporation, July, 1932 

In July, 1932, legislation empowering the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to use certain 
funds was enacted and the Corporation was authorized to make a\'ailable the sum of §300,000,000.00 
to aid the several States and Territories. (The full text of this legislation will be found in the Ap- 
pendix.) This act provided for payments to the governors of the several states, after application 
had been made and approved, with the reservation that not more than 15 per cent of this sum 
could be made a\'ailable to any one State or Territory. 

Provision was made for systematic repayment to the Corporation by deductions from regular 
Federal grants made to the States (for highway construction and rural post roads). Interest was 
to be at 3 per cent per annum. Pro\ision was made also for successive applications, when necessary, 
by the state governors. The central social provision of this legislation is found in an excerpt from 
the statement of description, that the money should be used "in furnishing relief and work relief 
to needy and distressed people and relieving the hardship resulting from unemployment." 

On this basis, the Federal funds were made available to the states in the early fall of 1932, the 
states having full control of expenditures of the funds advanced to them, and full responsibility for 
determining policies best adapted to the \arying local conditions. During the winter of 1932 and 
1933, millions of people, suddenly thrown out of employment through the rapid failure of banks, 
industrial and business plants, were facing starvation. Aid was extended in both direct and work 
relief. No uniform plan was developed until the Emergency Relief Act was passed in May, 1933. 

Following his inauguration. President Roosevelt, in his message to Congress, on March 21, 
1933, presented his plans for an expanded and unified program of unemployment relief. These 
plans included a broad public works program with the double objecti\e of giving needed employ- 
ment, and the conser\ation and development of the country's natural resources. The President's 
recommendations resulted in the immediate passage of CCC legislation, on March 31, 1933, and 
the Federal Emergency Relief Act on May 12, 1933. 

President Roosevelt's Message of March 21, 1933, to Congress, Resulting 

in the FERA Legislation 
(As published in the New York Times, March 22, 1933.) 
To the Congress: 

"It is essential to our recovery program that measures immediately be enacted aimed at unemploy- 
ment relief A direct attack on this problem suggests three types of legislation. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 13 

"The first is the enrollment of workers now by the Federal Government for such public employ- 
ment as can be quickly started and will not interfere with the demand for or the proper standards 
of normal employment. 

"The second is grants to States for relief work. 

"The third extends to a broad public works labor-creating program. 

"With reference to the latter I am now studying the many projects suggested and the financial 
questions inxolved. I shall make recommendations to the Congress presently. 

"In regard to grants to States for relief work I advise you that the remainder of the appropriation 
of last year will last until May. Therefore, and because a continuance of Federal aid is still a def- 
inite necessity for many States, a further appropriation must be made before the end of this special 
session. 

"I find a clear need for some simple Federal machinery to coordinate and check these grants of 
aid. I am, therefore, asking that you establish the office of Federal Relief Administrator, whose 
duty it will be to scan requests for grants and to check the efficiency and wisdom of their use. 

"The first of these measures which I have enumerated, however, can and should be immediately 
enacted. I propose to create a Civilian Conservation Corps to be used in simple work, not inter- 
fering with normal employment, and confining itself to forestry, the prevention of soil erosion, 
flood control and similar projects. 

"I call your attention to the fact that this type of work is of definite, practical value, not only 
through the prevention of great present financial loss but also as a means of creating future national 
wealth. This is brought home by the news we are receiving today of vast damage caused by floods 
on the Ohio and other rivers. 

"Control and direction of such work can be carried on by existing machinery of the Departments 
of Labor, Agriculture, War and Interior. 

"I estimate that 250,000 men can be given temporary employment by early summer if you give 
authority to proceed within the next two weeks. 

"I ask no new funds at this time. The use of unobligated funds, now appropriated for public 
works, will be sufficient for several months. 

"This enterprise is an established part of our national policy. It will conserve our precious 
natural resources. It will pay dividends to the present and future generations. It will make 
improvements in national and state domains which have been largely forgotten in the past few 
years of industrial development. 

"More important, however, than the material gains will be the moral and spiritual value of such 
work. The overwhelming majority of unemployed Americans who are now walking the streets 
and receiving private or public relief would infinitely prefer to work. We can take a vast army of 
these unemployed out into healthful surroundings. We can eliminate to some extent at least the 
threat that enforced idleness brings to spiritual and moral stability. 

"It is not a panacea for all the unemployment, but it's an essential step in this emergency. I 
ask its adoption." 

The Civilian Conservation Corps Legislation, March 31, 1933 

In the period elapsing between the Presidential message to Congress, and the passage of legislation 
necessary to set up the FERA, there was another significant development which occurred, the estab- 



14 Emebgenct Relief in ISTokth Carolina 

lishment, by Act of Congress, of the Civilian Consenation Corps, usually designated the CCC. 
Designed to provide employment for unemployed young men, this CCC program has been one of 
the most profitable activities among those in which the Federal Government has engaged. The 
Corps was to engage in "the construction, maintenance and carrying on of works of a public nature 
in connection with the forestation of land belonging to the United States or to the several States 
which are suitable for timber production, the prevention of forest fires, floods and soil erosion, 
plant pest and disease control, the construction, maintenance or repair of paths, trails and firelanes 
in the national parks and national forests, etc., etc. (The full text of this act will be found in the 
Appendix.) 

The advantages of the CCC program were so numerous that after it had been operating for a 
period, the enrollment was increased so that more young men could receive the benefits of camp 
life while contributing subsistence to their families and useful public services to the States. The 
Corps has made a distinguished record throughout the nation. The report of its activities in this 
state will be found elsewhere in this \olume. 

The Federal Emergency Relief Act, May, 1933 
(The full text of this act may be found in the Appendix) 

In May, 1933, a national relief authority, designed to avert the collapse of state and local relief 
was created by act of Congress. This authority was the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, 
which assumed, under the act, responsibility for the distribution of Federal relief funds and for the 
coordination of relief activities in the various states. The sum of $500,000,000.00, later augmented 
by an additional $950,000,000.00, was put at the disposal of this authority to assist the states in 
meeting relief costs and to permit more adequate standards of relief A further purpose was to 
improve the methods employed by relief administrative units in the several states. 

Under the Federal Emergency Relief Act, the duties and powers of the national organization 
are cleai'ly prescribed. One of its essential features was a recognition of the duty of the Federal 
government to contribute directly to the aid of the States, and without pro\ision for future repay- 
ment. 

Grants were made on a twofold basis : which provided (i) that each state should receive a 
"matched" appropriation, paid quarterly, equal to one-third of the amount of public funds spent 
for relief purposes within the State in the preceding quarter year ; and (2) that further grants should 
be made to those States which could demonstrate that funds under the matching provision were 
inadequate. The funds provided were to be used by the States to provide direct relief in cash or 
in kind, to pay work relief wages, and to finance other specified types of aid. Funds for transient 
relief and for grants to self-help organizations are allotted apart from the "matching" provision. 

Under the provisions of the Federal Emergency Relief Act, there came into existence the largest 
relief-dispensing agency that this country has ex'er seen. The operation of the various programs 
under its regulations has constituted a social phenomenon of a magnitude and significance difficult 
to appraise with any adequacy at the present time. It is sufficient to say that in one way or another 
the effects of this bold and unprecedented excursion into the field of public relief will have an 
undeniable influence on any future philosophy of dispensing monetary or other aid to those suflfering 
the evils of widespread unemployment. 

Beginning in July as a combination work and direct relief program, it soon became apparent 
that measures to accelerate actual employment were necessary, so the CWA, a strictly works program, 
was inaugurated by Executive Order of the President on November 9, 1933. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 15 

Executive Order of the President of the United States 

Creation of the Federal Civil Works Administration: 

By virtue of the authority vested in me under title II of the National Industrial Recovery Act 
of June i6, 1933 (Public, No. 67, 73d Cong.), and for the purpose of increasing employment quickly : 

(i) I hereby establish a Federal Civil Works Administration, and appoint as Administrator 
thereof the Federal Emergency Relief Administrator, as an agency to administer a program of public 
works as a part of, and to be included in, the comprehensive program under preparation by the 
Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works, which program shall be approved by the 
Federal Emergency Administrator of Public Works and shall be known as the "civil works program." 

(2) The Federal Emergency Relief Administrator, as the head of the Federal Civil Works 
Administration, is authorized to construct, finance, or aid in the construction or financing of any 
public-works project included in the civil works program and to acquire by purchase any real or 
personal property in connection with the accomplishment of any such project and to lease any such 
property with or without the privilege of purchase. 

(3) The said Administrator is further authorized to appoint without regard to the civil service 
laws or the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, and fix the compensation of such officers, experts, 
and employees, and prescribe their duties and authority and make such expenditures (including 
expenditures for personal services and rent at the seat of government and elsewhere, for law books 
and books of reference, and for paper, binding, and printing), as may be necessary to carry out the 
purposes of the Federal Civil Works Administration and, with the consent of the State or municipality 
concerned, may utilize such State and local officers and employees as he may deem necessary. 

(4) For the purposes of this order, there is hereby allocated to the Federal Civil Works Admin- 
istration the sum of $400,000,000 out of the appropriation of $3,300,000,000 authorized by section 
220 of the National Industrial Recovery Act and made by the Fourth Deficiency Act, fiscal year 
I933> approved June 16, 1933 (Public, No. 77, 73d Cong.). 

Franklin D. Roosevelt. 
The White House, 
November 9, 1933. 

The general plan for CWA as given, on November 15, 1933, by Harry Hopkins, Federal Emer- 
gency Relief Administrator, is printed in full in the text because of its social significance. Part is 
given immediately following, and that part which deals specifically with the actual set up and 
procedures of CWA will be found immediately preceding the CWA report on page 65. 

The Plan for CWA as Outlined in Harry Hopkins' Speech of November 15, 1933 

"I think everybody in this room knows as much about this relief business as I do. You know 
that last winter four and a half million families were receiving public relief, or about 21,000,000 
people in the United States. You know that that list has come down from four and a half million 
families to about three million families in September, but that those three million families still repre- 
sent between fourteen and fifteen million people. You know that these fifteen million people in 
America have been placed upon a relief basis, that these carpenters, brick-layers, masons, engineers, 
architects, draughtsmen, have gone to relief offices and have filled out application blanks and an 
investigator has gone to their homes to find out whether or not they had any money in the bank or 
whether they had a life insurance policy, whether or not they had any resources, and that a record 



16 Emergency Relief in N^oeth CAEOLiN^i 

was made of that information, and then if that person was in need he or she was gi\'en rehef. He 
was given a grocery order or perchance his rent was paid or his gas bill was paid by an order. 

"Other large numbers of them numbering well over a million, were given what is known as work- 
relief, and they were given as many hours of work per week on some kind of public project as would 
provide enough money to meet this minimum budget. Many of them on work relief instead of re- 
ceiving cash were given grocery orders for their work relief, so that literally millions and millions 
of people in this country for the past two years have never seen any money, have been living on a 
scheme and a system of grocery orders. Other millions who have received cash or work relief have 
received how much? Well, the whole four and a half million families last winter received an averasre 
of fifty cents a day per family, and right now they are getting about sixty cents a day per family — 
fifteen million people in America placed on a standard of living that nobody in this room would 
say is a decent American standard. Then on top of that these fine people, the finest there are in 
the country, have got to come to these relief offices of ours, no matter how well they are run, and ask 
for relief, have strangers come into their homes, and, in the main, get a grocery order. Nobody likes 
it. Let no one say that the people that have been administering relief in the United States like it. 
They ha\e been trying to do a job and in the main that job has been well done. Relief, in the main, 
over the United States has been administered on a fair, decent basis. People have been treated 
decently when they have gone into those offices. But the idea of fifteen million people depending 
for their livelihood in that fashion is unthinkable ; it is unthinkable that that system should be con- 
tinued any longer than it absolutely has to be. 

"The President has decided that in so far as it is humanly possible that shall be wiped out, and 
in its place men able and willing to work on the relief rolls and other millions not on the relief rolls 
shall be given a job on public works that is a real job at a fair wage, at a going rate, so that they 
can be self-supporting, independent American citizens. The program I am going to discuss with 
you this morning is the program of the President by which he proposes to put four million men in 
the United States to work in thirty days. So much for that speech. 

"This could not have been possible were it not for the fact that the Public Works Board appropri- 
ated $400,000,000 to the Fedreal Emergency Relief Administration, which in turn by the President's 
order has become the Ci\'il Works Administration to prosecute those projects. Our funds for this 
come from Public Works entirely and therefore any funds that we spend from this $400,000,000 
must be expended according to the Public Works Law." 

Beginning of an Expanded ERA Program 

After four months of operation of the CWA, a program which for the rapidity with which it was 
begun and the tempo at which it operated is unequaled by any venture of comparable size, there 
was a decision on the part of President Roosevelt to discontinue it and to absorb its activities in the 
work program of ERA. Accordingly the President made a statement on February 28, 1934, which 
statement is reprinted from the New York Sun of the same date." 

President Roosevelt's Statement of February 28, 1934, Concerning His Plan for the 

Job Program to take the place of CWA 

"The experience of the last nine months has shown that the problem of unemployment must be 
faced on more than one front. 

"Coincident with the plans for the demobilization of civil works has been the development of a 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 17 

program to meet the peculiar needs of three separate and distinct groups in need through no fault 
of their own. 

"It has been found that these three groups fall into the following classifications : 

1. Distressed families in rural areas. 

2. Those composing 'stranded populations,' i.e., living in single-industry communities in which 
there is no hope of future reemployment, such as miners in worked-out fields. 

3. The unemployed in large cities. 

"The administration will be guided by these groupings in expending the $950,000,000 recently 
appropriated by Congress. 

"The care of needy persons in rural areas is a problem quite distinct and apart from that of the 
industrial unemployed. Their security must be identified with agriculture. They must be placed 
in positions of self-support. In many parts of the country this calls for a change from commercial 
farming and dependence upon a single cash crop, to the raising of the various commodities needed 
to maintain the families. 

"Relief funds, therefore, will be expended on behalf of rural families in a manner and to an 
extent that will enable them to achieve self-support. Work for wages from relief funds is not an 
essential part of this phase of the program and will be provided only in so far as it is necessary to 
accomplish the primary objectives. No encouragement of an extension of competitive farming is 
contemplated, but rather the placing of thousands of persons, who have made their li\'ing from 
agriculture, into a relationship with the soil that will provide them a security they do not now enjoy. 

"Some of the methods to be employed include building or rebuilding to provide adequate farm 
homes ; the provision of seed, and of stocks for other than commercial purposes, and opportunities to 
these workers to earn modest cash incomes through part-time or seasonal employment in small indus- 
trial enterprises. There should also be a planned distribution of the regular jobs on highways in the 
national and State parks and forests, and other public work prosecuted in agricultural communities, 

"The plan calls for complete cooperation with the Department of Agriculture, and with the State 
and county agricultural departments throughout the country. It substitutes for direct relief an 
opportunity to obtain and maintain self-support in an accustomed environment, and completely 
di\'orces relief activities in rural areas from those in the cities. 

"Only a careful sur\-ey can determine the number of families included in 'stranded populations,' 
but there are sufficient data already collected to indicate a situation of substantial proportions. The 
solution of the problem of these families involves their physical transplanting in a large majority of 
cases since the areas in which they concentrated offer neither future employment at wages nor oppor- 
tunities for self-support through agriculture. 

"It is planned to explore this difficult situation and, in collaboration with the Subsistence Home- 
steads Division of the Department of the Interior, and with other Federal and local agencies devise 
and apply definitely remedial measures which will affect an appreciable number of these families. 
These measures will be directed first at maintenance on small tracts of land and then at the develop- 
ments of supplemental or industrial opportunities to provide for a normal standard of living. 

"The needy unemployed living in cities and towns, who, in the course of coming months may 

reasonably look forward to regular jobs are entitled to, and should receive, in so far as possible, 

2 



18 Emergency Relief in North Carolina 

adequate assurance of means to maintain themselves during the balance of the period of their en- 
forced idleness. The Federal Government, both in its relief measures and in its Civil Works program, 
now nearing completion, has been meeting an emergency situation. 

"Direct relief as such, whether the form of cash or relief in kind, is not an adequate way of meeting 
the needs of able-bodied workers. They very properly insisted upon an opportunity to give the 
community their services in the form of labor in return for unemployment benefits. The Federal 
Government has no intention or desire to force either upon the country or the unemployed themselves 
a system of relief which is repugnant to American ideals of indi\idual self-reliance. Therefore, work 
programs which would not normally be undertaken by public bodies, but which are at the same time 
outside of the field of private industry, will be projected and prosecuted in and near industrial 
communities. Labor on these projects will not be expected of dependent members of the com- 
munities who are unable to work, but will be confined to those needy unemployed who can give 
adequate return for the unemployment benefits which they receive. 

"Work will be given to an individual for a period not to exceed six months. This is in order that 
it may not be considered, or utilized, as a permanent method of support. It will be administered 
by and under the direction of these relief activities in industrial communities. 

"Every eflfort will be made to continue opportunities for work for the professional groups in 
need — teachers, engineers, architects, artists, nurses and others. 

"This program expresses a conviction that industrial workers who are unemployed and in need 
of relief should be given an opportunity for livelihood by the prosecution of a flexible program of 
public works. The several States will be aided, as the Federal relief law provides, in the financing 
of this enterprise." 

The Discontinuance of CWA and the Reorganization of ERA 

CWA was discontinued on March 31, and its activities were absorbed in the expanded Emer- 
gency Relief Administration. 

Full administrative control of the work program was returned from Federal authority under 
CWA to the State Relief Administration. Under the re-organized Emergency Relief Program, 
as of April i, 1934, the work program was reestablished as work relief 

The primary objective of the ERA had been that of providing subsistence as a temporary means 
of relief for distressed persons. Under the expanded program, it became a long-range program for 
the rehabilitation of persons in rural areas and stranded populations, and to provide work for the 
unemployed through a comprehensive program of conser\ation of our natural resources and pro- 
motion of public works and professional services not in competition with private industry. 

The Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 

Again on January 4, 1935, the President addressed Congress on the "State of the Nation," out- 
lining plans for further reorganization of the Emergency Relief Program which message resulted in 
the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935. 

President Roosevelt's Message to Congress, January 4, 1935 
(as published in the New York Tzmej, January 5, 1935) 

"In defining immediate factors which enter into our quest, I have spoken to the Congress and the 
people of three great divisions : 

I. The security of a livelihood through the better use of the national resources of the land in 
which we live. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 19 

2. The security against the major hazards and vicissitudes of life. 

3. The security of decent homes. 

"I am now ready to submit to the Congress a broad program designed ultimately to establish 
all three of these factors of security — a program which because of many lost years will take many 
future years to fulfill. 

"A study of our national resources, more comprehensive than any previously made, shows the 
vast amount of necessary and practicable work which needs to be done for the development and 
preservation of our natural wealth for the enjoyment and advantage of our people in generations to 
come. The sound use of land and water is far more comprehensive than the mere planting of trees, 
building of dams, distributing of electricity or retirement of submarginal land. It recognizes that 
stranded populations, either in the country or the city cannot have security under the conditions 
that now surround them. 

"To this end we are ready to begin to meet this problem — the intelligent care of population 
throughout our nation, in accordance with an intelligent distribution of the means of livelihood 
for that population. A definite program for putting people to work, of which I shall speak in a 
moment is a component part of this greater program of security of livelihood through the better use 
of our national resources. 

"Closely related to the broad problem of livelihood is that of security against the major hazards 
of life. Here also a comprehensive survey of what has been attempted or accomplished in many 
nations and in many States proves to me that the time has come for action by the national govern- 
ment. I shall send to you, in a few days, definite recommendations based on these studies. These 
recommendations will cover the broad subjects of unemployment insurance and old-age insurance, 
of benefits for children, for mothers, for the handicapped, for maternity care and for other aspects 
dependency and illness where a beginning can now be made. 

"The third factor — better homes for our people — has also been the subject of experimentation and 
study. Here, too, the first practical steps can be made through the proposals which I shall suggest 
in relation to giving work to the unemployed. 

"Whatever we plan and whatever we do should be in the light of these three clear objectives of 
security. We cannot afford to lose valuable time in haphazard public policies which cannot find a 
place in the broad outlines of these major purposes. In that spirit I come to an immediate issue 
made for us by hard and inescapable circumstance — the task of putting people to work. In the 
Spring of 1933, the issue of destitution seemed to stand apart; today, in the light of our experience 
and our new national policy, we find we can put people to work in ways which conform to, initiate 
and carry forward the broad principles of that policy. 

"The first objectives of emergency legislation of 1933 were to relieve destitution, to make it possible 
for industry to operate in a more rational and orderly fashion, and to put behind industrial recovery 
the impulse of large expenditures in government undertakings. The purpose of the National Indus- 
trial Recovery Act to provide work for more people succeeded in a substantial manner within the 
first few months of its life, and the act has continued to maintain employment gains and greatly 
improved working conditions in industry. 



20 Emergency Relief in Noeth Cakolina 

"The program of public works provided for in the Recovery Act launched the Federal Govern- 
ment into a task for which there was little time to make preparation and little American experience 
to follow. Great employment has been given and is being given by these works. 

"More than two billions of dollars have also been expended in direct relief to the destitute. Local 
agencies of necessity determined the recipients of this form of relief With inevitable exceptions the 
funds were spent by them with reasonable efficiency, and as a result actual want of food and clothing 
in the great majority of cases has been overcome. 

"But the stark fact before us is that a great number still remain unemployed. 

"A large proportion of these unemployed and their dependents have been forced on the relief 
rolls. The burden on the Federal Government has grown with great rapidity. We have here a 
human as well as an economic problem. When humane considerations are concerned, Americans 
give them precedence. The lessons of history, confirmed by the evidence immediately before me, 
show conclusively that continued dependence upon relief induces a spiritual and moral disintegration 
fundamentally destructive to the national fiber. Work must be found for able-bodied but destitute 
workers. 

"The Federal Government must and shall quit this business of relief 

"I am not willing that the vitality of our people be further sapped by the giving of cash, of market 
baskets, of a few hours of weekly work cutting grass, raking leaves or picking up papers in the public 
parks. We must preserve not only the bodies of the unemployed from destitution, but also their 
self-respect, their self-reliance and courage and determination. This decision brings me to the 
problem of what the government should do with approximately five million unemployed now on the 
relief rolls. 

"About one million and a half of these belong to the group which in the past was dependent upon 
local welfare efforts. Most of them are unable for one reason or another to maintain themselves inde- 
pendently — for the most part through no fault of their own. Such people, in the days before the 
great depression, were cared for by local efforts — by States, by counties, by towns, by cities, by 
churches and by private welfare agencies. It is my thought that in the future they must be cared 
for as they were before. I stand ready through my own personal efforts, and through the public 
influence of the office that I hold, to help these local agencies to get the means necessary to assume 
this burden. 

"The security legislation which I shall propose to the Congress will, I am confident, be of assist- 
ance to local effort in the care of this type of cases. Local responsibility can and will be resumed, for, 
after all, common sense tells us that the wealth necessary for this task existed and still exists in the 
local community, and the dictates of sound administration require that this responsibility be in the 
first instance a local one. 

"There are, however, an additional 3,500,000 employable people who are on relief With them 
the problem is different and the responsibility is different. This group was the victim of a nation- 
wide depression caused by conditions which were not local, but national. The Federal Government 
is the only governmental agency with sufficient power and credit to meet this situation. We have 
assumed this task and we shall not shrink from it in the future. It is a duty dictated by every intelli- 
gent consideration of national policy to ask you to make it possible for the United States to give em- 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 21 

ployment to all of these 3,500,000 employable people now on relief, pending their absorption in a 
rising tide of private employment. 

"It is my thought that with the exception of certain of the normal public building operations of the 
government, all emergency public works shall be united in a single new and greatly enlarged plan. 

"With the establishment of this new system we can supersede the Federal Emergency Relief Ad- 
ministration with a coordinated authority which will be charged with the orderly liquidation of our 
present relief activities and the substitution of a national chart or the giving of work. 

"This new program of emergency public employment should be governed by a number of 
practical principles : 

1. All work undertaken should be useful — not just for a day, or a year, but useful in the sense 
that it affords permanent improvement in living conditions or that it creates future new wealth 
for the nation. 

2. Compensation on emergency public projects should be in the form of security payments which 
should be larger than the amount now received as a relief dole, but at the same time not so large a3 
to encourage the rejection of opportunities for private employment or the leaving of private employ- 
ment to engage in government work. 

3. Projects should be undertaken on which a large percentage of direct labor can be used. 

4. Preference should be given to those projects which will be self liquidating in the sense that 
there is a reasonable expectation that the government will get its money back at some future time. 

5. The projects undertaken should be selected and planned so as to compete as little as possible 
with private enterprises. This suggests that if it were not for the necessity of giving useful work to 
the unemployed now on relief, these projects in most instances would not now be undertaken. 

6. The planning of projects would seek to assure work during the coming fiscal year to the indi- 
viduals now on relief, or until such time as private employment is available. In order to make 
adjustment to increasing private employment, work should be planned with a view to tapering it 
off in proportion to the speed with which the emergency workers are offered positions with private 
employers. 

7. Effort should be made to locate projects where they will serve the greatest unemployment 
needs as shown by present relief rolls, and the broad program of the National Resources Board should 
be freely used for guidance in selection. Our ultimate objective being the enrichment of human lives, 
the government has the primary duty to use its emergency expenditures as much as possible to serve 
those who cannot secure the advantages of private capital." 

The Creation of New Federal Programs and the Discontinuance of ERA 

The Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 was passed by Congress on April 8, 1935, and 
plans for reorganizing the relief activities divorcing the work program from relief slowly took shape. 
Two new Federal agencies were created to take over two major programs of ERA as Federal pro- 
grams, the WPA to absorb the works program, and the P.esettlement Administration to take over 
Rural Rehabilitation. The Federal Government discontinued grants to the States on December i , 
1935, for direct relief, placing this responsibility on the States. It is expected that the unemployable 
persons on relief will receive aid under the provisions of the Social Security Act. 



22 Emehgency Relief in North Carolina 



DEVELOPMENT OF ADMINISTRATION OF RELIEF IN NORTH CAROLINA 

Prior to 1932, relief of destitution was a minor phase of govern lental activity in North Carolina. 
Each county provided, through public funds, for its own indigents — mostly the aged and infirm — by 
outside poor relief, or in county homes. The state and counties, jointly, through the Public Welfare 
Departments, cared for a relatively small number of dependents. In general, needy and unfortu- 
nate persons were aided through churches, pri\'ate organizations, and charitable agencies — from 
funds contributed by indi\iduals. The responsibility of investigations and aid rendered was usu- 
ally delegated to members of boards or committees who gave such voluntary service as their time 
and pri\ate responsibilities would permit. In a few of the large towns and cities, part and full- 
time social workers were employed by private agencies. 

During the economic crisis of the past few years, thousands of independent workers were thrown 
out of jobs, while thousands of persons of both large and small incomes were left penniless by failures 
of banks and businesses. Private and public agencies could no longer carry even the pre-depression 
numbers of destitute families, as incomes of contributors to relief funds were swept away, and 
taxable resources depleted. The Federal Government was compelled to assume responsibility for 
the citizens who otherwise faced slow starvation. 

Preceding this crisis which was reached in 1932, the rising tide of unemployment was a matter 
of grave concern. The first organized effort to cope with the situation was the appointment, by 
Governor Gardner, in December, 1930, of an emergency committee, which was designated as the 
Go\ernor's Council on Unemployment and Relief The members appointed by the Governor were : 
Eugene Newsome, Chairman, Durham ; Mrs. W. T. Bost, Vice Chairman, Raleigh ; Frank D. Grist, 
Raleigh ; Robert Latham, Asheville ; Oscar A. Hamilton, Wilmington ; Albert S. Keister, Greens- 
boro ; Reuben Robertson, Canton ; Dr. J. M. Parrott, Kinston ; R. R. Lawrence, Winston-Salem ; 
Dr. Carl Taylor, Raleigh ; E. B. Crow, Raleigh ; Mrs. Palmer German, Raleigh ; Julian S. Miller, 
Charlotte. Mr. R. W. Henninger, of the State College School of Science and Business, was ap- 
pointed Executive Secretary to the Council. The Council was appointed to cooperate with the 
various Federal, State, and local agencies as a study and planning unit to work out a program to 
meet the conditions brought about by widespread unemployment and the accompanying need for 
relief. 

Under direction of the Council, local councils or coordinating committees were organized in 
many counties and cities for the purpose of coordinating all of the Federal, State, and local agencies 
to meet the relief needs. Bulletins were issued frequently by the Executive Secretary, suggesting 
plans and means of meeting the situation. Local communities were considerably strengthened in 
meeting local conditions through the aid of the Governor's Council. 

In 1932, the Council was reorganized and enlarged, made up of the following members repre- 
senting both public and private agencies : Stuart W. Cramer, President's Committee ; Mrs. W. T. 
Bost, Commissioner of Public Welfare ; Frank D. Grist, Commissioner of Labor ; Dean I. O. Schaub, 
Agriculture Extension ; Mrs. Jane S. McKimmon, Director Home Demonstration ; Reuben Robert- 
son, Champion Fibre Company ; R. R. Lawrence, President North Carolina Federation of Labor ; 
E. B. Jeffress, State Highway Commissioner ; A. T. Allen, Superintendent Public Instruction ; 
Dr. J. M. Parrott, State Board of Health ; Mrs. E. M. Land, Federation of Women's Clubs ; T. A. 
Finch, Thomas\illc Chair Company ; Dr. Fred Morrison, Tax Commission ; Mrs. Raymond Binford, 
President Parent-Teacher Association ; Miss Lona Glidewell, Business and Professional Women's 
Clubs ; Rev. R. T. Weatherby, Chairman Negro Advisory Committee. 



Emergency Helief in North Carolina 23 

During 1930, the Executive Secretary and staff members of the State Welfare Department 
visited the cities and counties to advise with and assist them in organizing the counties. As the 
work increased in 1932, voluntary field organizers were added, their only compensation being 
traveling expenses. 

Although no appropriation Was made for the work of the Council, Governor Gardner provided 
funds for the administration out of the State Emergency Fund. This money was expended for the 
Council through the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare. The amount spent for this pur- 
pose was $17,469.96, all of which came from the State Emergency Fund, except $1,028.72 collected 
from private sources. The Council was nominally discontinued on July i, 1932. 

The Governor's Office of Relief 

Under authority granted by the United States Congress to the Reconstruction Finance Cor- ^ 
poration in July, 1932, Federal funds were made available to the states for relief needs. On Sep- 
tember I, 1932, Governor Gardner created the Governor's Office of Relief as the agency to direct 
relief activities in North Carolina. Dr. Fred W. Morrison, Executive Secretary to the State Tax 
Commission, was appointed State Director of Relief. The State Commissioner of Public Welfare 
was appointed Administrative Assistant, in charge of county and city organizations. Dr. Roy M. 
Brown, instructor in the School of Public Administration of the University of North Carolina, was 
loaned by the University to fill the position of Technical Supervisor for the Governor's Office of 
Relief Other members of the staff were : Mr. Ronald B. Wilson, Executive Assistant to the 
Director ; Mr. George W. Bradshaw, Accountant ; Julian S. Miller, Director of Public Relations ; 
Felix A. Grisett, Assistant Director of Public Relations ; and ten Field Supervisors — T. L. Grier, 
Mrs. May E. Campbell, William Curtis Ezell, W. T. Mattox, Mrs. Thomas O'Berry, Mrs. J. H. Frye, 
Miss Lois Dosher, Miss Pearl Weaver, Miss Nancy Austin, and Miss Mary Ward ; and secretarial 
and stenographic assistants — Miss Emma Neal McQueen, Miss Doryce Wynn, and Miss Cora Page 
Godfrey. 

Existing local private and public agencies were used to direct the program in the political 
subdivisions. Relief Directors, chiefly Superintendents of Public Welfare, were appointed in each *^ 
of the one hundred counties. In counties in which the Superintendents of Public Schools were 
ex-officio Superintendents of Public Welfare, Superintendents of Public Schools were appointed 
Directors of Relief Superintendents of Public Welfare and Superintendents of Schools served in 
this dual capacity without compensation. All additional administrative personnel employed for 
the relief program was paid from relief funds. Exceptions were made in Franklin, Durham, and 
Cumberland counties, due to local conditions. In these counties, Relief Directors were appointed 
who were officially connected with existing agencies. 

In the seven largest cities in the state, the relief program was directed by recognized private ^ 
agencies. Public officials acted in advisory capacity only. Local Advisory Boards, composed 
of members representing local government officials, and public and private agencies, were ap- 
pointed in each political subdivision. 

Full authority for administrative control and determining the policies and standards of relief 
rested in the state administration. Considerable latitude was permitted the political subdivisions 
in administering the program. 

The grants from the RFC to the state for relief purposes were made on the basis of a loan to be 
absorbed in the Federal Road Program. The following table gives the allotments from the RFC to 
the State from October, 1932, through May, 1933; total allotments to the counties made by the 
Governor's Office of Relief ; case load for the state ■ and number on work relief 



24 





Emekgency Eelief in North C. 


iROLINA 




1932 


RFC Grants 


County 


Case 


jVo. on 


Month 


to N. C. 


Allotments 


Load 


Work Relief 


October 


$407,500.00 


$376,000.00 






November 


407,500.00 


426,851.00 


87,187 




December 


571,000.00 


515,800.00 


136,436 




'933 










January 


825,000.00 


740,000.00 


166,901 


97,257 


February 


825,000.00 


895,000.00 


176,124 


98,484 


March 


849,166.00 


1,071,000.00 


168,183 


90,929 


April 


1,188,834.00 


947,000.00 


148,692 


61,286 


May 


876,000.00 


866,000.00 


122,963 


46,823 


June* 




662,350.00 


102,744 


40,667 



These funds were supplemented by pri\ate contributions, and contributions by local private 
agencies, American Red Cross, local governmental organizations, etc. In many local units, funds 
from these sources were pooled with Federal funds and deposited with the county or city treasurer. 

The case load reached the peak of 176,124 in February, or 26 per cent of the state population. 
After February, the case load decreased each month, and in June, at the close of the RFC program, 
the case load was 102,344 or 10 per cent of the state's population. This decrease is partly accounted 
for by the fact that in April relief was discontinued in rural areas for a period of three weeks, in 
order to get people started on the farms. When relief was reopened in rural areas in May, clients 
receiving American Red Cross flour only, or aid from churches only were not included in the case 
load as being on public relief rolls. 

Summary of Activities 

The relief program provided both direct relief, and work relief for persons able to work. In 
selecting work projects, preference was given to public works of permanent value that would not have 
been undertaken at this time except for the availability of Federal funds. These projects included : 
assistance in highway and road maintenance ; construction, and repair of public buildings ; beauti- 
fication and impro\'ement of school grounds and other public buildings ; improvement and beauti- 
fication of municipal parks ; drainage ; water and sewer extensions ; city streets ; geodetic surveys ; 
lunches for school children of families on relief; farm and garden work ; and other work benefiting 
communities at large. By No\'ember 7, approximately 107 projects of these types had been set up 
in the counties. 

Construction and all types of engineering were practically at a standstill. The engineering 
profession was among the first to feel the widespread effects of unemployment. North Carolina was 
the first state to initiate Geodetic Surveys as work relief projects. Exceptionally good work was 
accomplished in North Carolina in this field under RFC and continued under CWA and ERA. 

The approved wage scale ranged from 50c per day for unskilled to $2.50 per day for skilled 
labor, according to the prevailing wage rates in the community, type of work and labor. 

No materials were purchased from Federal funds. The funds provided from local public and 
private sources usually exceeded the expenditure of Federal funds on work projects. Under this pro- 
gram, 52 new school buildings and 209 classrooms were constructed, part of which were completed 
under ERA ; 69 gymnasiums and work shops were undertaken and completed under this program 
and ERA ; 396 were repainted and repaired ; school grounds were improved at 639 schools. Ex- 
penditures of Federal funds for school improvements were $273,217.19, and from the Literary 



* Funds granted in June were emergency relief funds. 



Emekoenoy Relief in North Caeolina 25 

Loan fund, local public funds, and private contributions, $338,851.53 was spent for materials and 
skilled labor. 

Following the passage of the CCC legislation by Congress, the first enrollment for GCC camps 
was in April, 1933. The quota for North Carolina was 6,500. An additional quota of 1,150 was 
received in May. North Carolina was the first state to complete the enrollment. 

In the early spring, Mr. Charles A. Sheffield, Assistant Director of Extension Service, was loaned 
by State College to the Governor's Office of Relief to direct the farm and garden program. With 
the cooperation of the Home Demonstration Agents and local communities, the relief agencies, 
under Mr. Sheffield's direction, conducted a really remarkable garden program. This farm and 
garden program was inaugurated under the RFC program and completed under ERA. The ex- 
penditure of $496,086.17 from RFC and ERA funds for seeds, fertilizer, cultivation, canning equip- 
ment, harvesting, supervision, and labor, yielded a return of $12,335,825.17 in fresh vegetables, 
canned and dried fruits and vegetables, syrup, etc., which were used for relief clients. 

There were 90,831 transients aided by local relief agencies during the period from October i, 
1932, to July I, 1933. 

In December, 1932, a percentage of relief funds was set aside to provide compensation under the 
North Carolina law for workers injured on relief projects. 

The cooperation of local physicians in giving their services without compensation, in most in- 
stances, made it possible to provide medical care for relief clients. No physicians' fees were ap- 
proved. The purchase of drugs and hospitalization in emergency cases at charity rates were 
approved. In the early part of the program, no fees for hospitals were paid, and throughout the 
program, many hospitals continued free care for the clients. 

Training of Personnel 

From the beginning, the relief agencies were handicapped by inadequate personnel in investi- 
gating and aiding the overwhelming numbers applying for relief. The few trained workers in the 
state were employed by the relief agencies, and additional workers drawn from the most experienced 
and qualified persons available. In June, 1933, through the cooperation of the Division of Public 
Welfare and Social Work of the School of Public Administration of the University of North Carolina, 
the Governor's Office of Relief was enabled to send to Chapel Hill over one hundred workers for an 
Institute of one month. The workers were given instruction in case work methods and administra- 
tion, especially office organization. 

In April, 1933, Dr. Morrison resigned as Director of Relief to accept a private position, and the 
Executi\e Assistant, Mr. Ronald B. Wilson, was appointed Acting Director. He served in this 
position until August 8 when the State Relief Commission and a State Emergency Relief Administra- 
tor were appointed. 

Following the enactment of the Federal Emergency Relief Act in May, 1933, the Relief and 
Reconstruction Act of 1932 was ineffisctive as of June i, and all unused funds were transferred to the 
FERA. The first ERA funds were received in North Carolina June, 1933. The relief activities 
in North Carolina were continued under the direction of the Governor's Office of Relief until the 
reorganization of the administration of relief as the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administra- 
tion on August 8, 1933, to conform with the Federal organization. 

The relief program under the Governor's Office of Relief was the pioneer program in the State. 
There was no precedent to follow. No definite policies nor regulations had been formulated by the 
Federal Government. Each state was feeling its way on uncharted seas. 



26 Emeegenct Relief in IN^orth Cakolina 

North Carolina is largely a rural state. It should be remembered that in 1932, farm land values, 
and farm incomes reached the lowest ebb. Farmers could not receive sufficient income from the sale 
of crops to pay e\'en very low rates for farm labor. With this condition, the rate of the minimum 
of 50c per day on relief work in rural areas presented a problem. 

The experiences of these first few months in relief as a governmental actixity on a large scale 
formed the basis on which succeeding programs were founded. 

Reorganization of Relief Administration, May, 1933 

Harry L. Hopkins was appointed Federal Relief Administrator, in May, by the President, 
following the passage of the Relief Act by Congress. Federal Emergency Relief Field Representa- 
tives, Field Engineers, and Special Representatives had general supervision over the State Admin- 
istration, acting as liaison officers between it and the Federal Administration. 

The first grant of Federal funds under the provisions of the Emergency Relief Act of May, 1933, 
was made to North Carolina on May 29, 1933. However, the general reorganization to conform 
to the policies of the new Federal Emergency Relief Administration did not take place until the 
creation of the State Emergency Relief Commission, and the appointment, in August, of the State 
Relief Administrator. 

Under the Governor's Office of Relief, which was financed by funds from the Reconstruction 
Finance Corporation, full administrative control of relief policies and expenditures rested in the 
state. Under the new Federal Emergency Relief Administration, although funds granted the state 
became state funds, and although the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration was a 
state agency, policies and regulations were prescribed by the Federal Emergency Relief Adminis- 
tration. The Federal Relief Administrator held direct control over state administrations, through 
authority provided by the Relief Act, to grant or withhold funds, and to assume full control of 
state agencies when "in his judgment more efFecti\e and efficient cooperation between the state and 
Federal authorities may thereby be secured in carrying out the purposes of this Act." (See Relief 
Act of May, 1933, Appendix.) 

Funds were granted the state upon application by the Governor, who was requested to furnish 
the following information with the application: (i) the extent of relief needs in the state, and 
state and local funds a\ailable for relief purposes ; (2) the provision made to assure adequate super- 
vision ; (3) the provision made for suitable standards of relief; and (4) the purposes for which the 
funds requested would be used. 

The State Organization 

On August 8, 1933, the Governor of North Carolina appointed an Emergency Relief Commission 
of five members, and a State Emergency Relief Administrator to administer relief funds in the state. 

Functions of the Commission 

The North Carolina Emergency Relief Commission functioned as a policy-making body, 
interpreting policies of the FERA, and formulating policies for the state in harmony with those 
established by the FERA. It also exercised general advisory control of the relief program and 
standards in the state. The Commission held regular monthly meetings, and special meetings as 
occasions arose making consideration by the Commission necessary. The Commission approved 
and recommended to the Governor the amount of Federal funds required for adequate administra- 
tion and to meet relief needs. 

Administrative authority and responsibility were vested in the State Relief Administrator, who 



Emekgency Relief in North Carolina 27 

was directly responsible to the Commission and to the Federal Administrator. The Administrator 
was responsible for furnishing reliable information to the Commission, at all times, concerning 
local conditions which indicated relief needs and affected relief administration. 

Administrative Personnel 

Immediately upon the appointment of the Commission and the State Administrator, the state ^ 
relief agency was reorganized, to conform with the new policies of the FERA. The administrative 
acti\'ities fell into three groups, Social Service, Accounting and Auditing, and Work Relief, with a 
state director for each division. The Director of the Social Service Division had the responsibility 
of determining social work policies, standards of relief, and the approval of social work personnel 
in the local administrations. 

Control of the accounting and disbursing of relief funds in state and local units was effected by 
the appointment of a Chief Auditor and a staff of Field Auditors. The Field Auditors were directly 
responsible to the Chief Auditor, their duties being to examine and ratify the expenditures of local 
administrations. A uniform system of accounting and financial control was established in all 
local administrations. 

Emergency Relief funds had been disbursed locally by county government officials until the 
reorganization of ERA in 1934. At this time, ERA bonded disbursing officers were employed in 
each local administration, responsible to the local administrator, and to the Chief Auditor, for the 
disbursement of local ERA funds. 

A control of work relief standards, and the selection of work projects, was established under a 
State Works Project Supervisor. A State Statistician was added to the staff who was responsible 
for the proper reporting of case loads and obligations incurred from all local units to the state 
office, and then to Washington. 

The Transient Division was established under the direction of a State Transient Director, whose 
duties included directing the care of homeless and nonresident individuals and families. 

A Director of Public Relations, to interpret relief policies, and the progress of the relief program 
to the public, was appointed. These officers, in addition to the Assistant to the State Administrator, 
the Director of County Administrations, an Accounting Officer, and District Supervisors, composed 
the administration of the organization prior to CWA. Heads of departments and state staff mem- 
bers were directly responsible to the State Administrator. 

The District Supervisors, later called Field Representatives, were directly responsible to the 
Director of the Division of Social Service and through him to the State Administrator. Although 
a part of the personnel of the Social Service Division, and selected for their ability to supervise case 
work, these District Supervisors came to be the general Field Representatives of the State Adminis- 
trator in the areas to which they were assigned, and were held responsible for the operation of all 
phases of the program in these areas. When other specialized field representatives were added 
to the staff during the Civil Works Administration, the former District Supervisors were made the 
ranking representatives in each division in the state and directly responsible to the State Adminis- 
trator. The Field Representative stood as a liaison officer between the state office and the local 
office, interpreting each to the other : policies and regulations on the one hand, and practices, 
needs, and unusual local situations on the other. 

The inauguration of the Civil Works Administration added almost over night engineers, archi- 
tects, construction men, and the Divisions of Purchasing, Pay Roll, Compensation, Safety, and 
Women's Work. With further reorganization following CWA, the Rural Rehabilitation program 
added trained agriculturists, practical farmers, and home economists. 

This rapid expansion of the program developed within a few months a direct and work relief. 



28 



Emergency Relief in N'orth Carolina 



PER CENT DISTRIBUTION OF DISTRICT ADMINISTRATIVE PERSONNEL 

BY FIELD OF ACTIVITY 



January, igjj 



June, 1935 



Other 

Executive 



Rural 
Rehabilitation 



Work Division 



Finance and 
Statistics 



Social 
Service 




Other 
Executive 

Work Division 



Finance and 
Statistics 



Rural 
Rehabilitation 



Social Service 



Emekqency Relief in North Carolina 29 

and rehabilitation organization, employing in state, district, and county organizations over 2,000 
persons, with an administrati\'e cost well below the national a\erage. Personnel was selected solely 
on the basis of qualifications, experience, or training. 

County or Local Administrations 

Reorganization of local administrati\e units followed the reorganization of the State Adminis- 
tration. Since regulations of the FERA required that Federal funds be administered by public 
agencies, the private agencies formerly directing relief activities in the seven larger towns and 
cities were taken o\'er by the Emergency Relief Administration and converted into public agencies. 

In the counties where the Superintendents of Schools were ex-officio Superintendents of Public 
Welfare, full-time Relief Administrators were appointed with salaries paid from Federal funds. 

The local administrators appointed by the State Administrator were the executives upon whom 
depended the success of the local relief programs. They had full responsibility and authority for 
the administration of the relief program in each of the local political subdivisions and were given 
discretionary powers within the state regulations of the Federal and State Administrations. They 
were responsible to the State Administrator in the execution of the program. As the program 
developed, in the local administrations in the larger cities and counties, divisions corresponding to 
those of the state office were created. The local administrative personnel was selected and appointed 
by the local administrator, the state administration retaining approval of the supervisory personnel. 

The local administrator was responsible for furnishing to the state office full information regarding 
conditions affecting relief needs, such as agricultural, industrial, and business conditions, seasonal 
employment, health conditions, and unusual occurrences, such as strikes, epidemics, etc. The 
coordination of reUef activities, commitments against relief funds, certified reports, and information 
required by the state administration were further responsibilities of the administrator. 

County Ad\'isory Committees, composed of public officials, heads of private agencies, and 
interested socially-minded citizens, were appointed to interpret the relief needs of the community 
to the administrator and relief policies to the public. Where these committees functioned actively, 
they rendered valuable service as liaison groups between the relief organization and the public. 

With the reorganization of ERA in 1934, a budget was fixed in the state office for each local 
administration, based on the consideration of: (i) the extent of need as shown by the local adminis- 
trator's request for funds ; and (2) the amount of Federal funds granted the state as a whole. The 
local administrator was responsible for keeping expenditures within the budget. 

Consolidation of County Administrative Units 

Constant efforts were made to increase the efficiency of the state-wide organization through the 
adoption of uniform case records, project, accounting, and report forms, and the coordination of 
administrative procedures. To further reduce administrative expense, increase general efficiency, 
and to strengthen social work, the local administrations were consolidated, in the fall of 1934, into 
thirty-three, and later, thirty-one district units, the administrator assuming full authority over the 
counties in the district. 

All social work, engineering, and rural rehabilitation supervision, accounting, disbursing, 
statistical work, and commodity distribution were consolidated under the appropriate division 
directors on the district staff. A branch social work office, with a head case worker in charge, was 
retained in each county, in order to continue close contact with relief clients. An assignment clerk 
was responsible for assigning clients to work projects, the hours to be worked by the client being 
governed by his budgetary needs as determined by the case worker. Local farm foremen for rural 



30 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 




NORTH CAROLINA 



NORTH CAROLINA EMERGENCY RELIEF ADMINISTRATION DISTRICTS AFTER CONSOLIDATION 
OF COUNTY UNITS— NOVEMBER 1934— AUGUST 1935 

(Districts 6 and 25 consolidated into Districts 10 and 26 respecti\'Qly) 




NORTH CAROLINA EMERGENCY RELIEF ADMINISTRATION DISTRICTS AFTER SEPTEMBER 1935 
ARRANGED BY AREAS COTERMINOUS WITH THE WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 31 

rehabilitation clients worked out of each county office. The personnel of the Social Service Division 
was increased from approximately 600 to about 1,100, while the number of workers in other divisions 
was decreased. In August, 1935, existing administrative units were consolidated into eight districts 
to coincide with the eight WPA districts in the state. 

Although there is always some waste in a program of such magnitude, the entire relief program 
has been executed with a keen sense of responsibility, throughout the whole organization, for handling 
public funds wisely, efficiently, and honestly. The administration kept abreast of the developing 
program, adjusting the organization to meet demands made upon it, gradually evolving a coordi- 
nated administrative control of all relief activities. 

The Administration of Civil Works 

In November, 1933, when the Civil Works Administration was established, the State and Local 
ERA Administrators were appointed by the Federal Civil Works Administrator as Civil Works 
Administrators to act in the dual capacity of Emergency Relief and Civil Works Administrators. 
The ERA staff members also served in the dual capacity. The Administrator and staff took and 
subscribed to the Federal Oath of Office. 

The State Disbursing Officer for the Veterans Bureau was State Civil Works Disbursing Officer, 
directly responsible to the United States Treasury Department for all CWA disbursements. Assistant 
Civil Works Disbursing Officers who disbursed Civil Works funds locally were appointed in the 107 
administrative units by the State Civil Works Administration with the approval of the State Dis- 
bursing Officer. They were responsible to both the State Disbursing Officer and the State Civil 
Works Administrator. In addition to the new divisions created, the personnel in all divisions 
rapidly increased to handle the tremendous Civil Works Program. Copies of all local administrative 
and project pay rolls and checks were sent to the state office weekly where they were carefully 
checked and forwarded to the Federal Civil Works Administration in Washington. The adminis- 
trative control of CWA was in the Federal Administration, but at the close of CWA, administrative 
control of the work program was transferred to the State Administration. 

Trend of Economic Conditions, 1933- 1936 

Before entering upon a discussion of the volume of relief in this state, and other aspects of relief 
administration, it may be well to notice the general trend of economic conditions between 1933 and 
1936. The intention here is not to present an analysis of the economic forces which were operative, 
but merely to record the fact that conditions grew better through a combination of forces, govern- 
mental effort, and the natural forces of recovery. 

In discussing general economic recovery, it may be asserted that it is important that incomes 
become larger. It is more important, however, that such incomes be equitably distributed among 
individual famihes. Not the number of dollars, but the purchasing power of each dollar, not the 
number of persons paying income tax, but incomes among the lowest earning groups ; these are the 
facts that must be considered. Although accurate figures are not available, certain trends are 
indicated. 

Persons on relief rolls come, as a rule, from groups who have had the least economic advantages. 
It is well known that all classes do not benefit equally with improvement in business conditions. 
Certain groups are the first to feel the effects of depression and last to receive the advantage of 
returning prosperity. Generally conceded as falling under this classification are the following : 
unskilled laborers, both farm and city ; farm tenants ; and domestic and personal service workers. 
More than three-fourths of all persons on relief belong in this category. While improvement in 



32 



Emeegenct Relief in ISTokth Caeolina 

DISTRIBUTION OF RESIDENT PERSONS ON 

RELIEF IN NORTH CAROLINA 

JUNE. 1935 



N.C.ERa StalialiMt Divisin 






1 DOT=100 Persons on Relief 




GENERAL RELIEF CASE LOAD FOR NORTH CAROLINA BY MONTHS 



<: 

O 



Q 
< 

O 
X 
H 









































































110 

8o 
5o 
40 

QO 









\ 
































































■ 










\ 


\ 














/ 


1 


\ 










































• 












\ 


\ 






/ 


\ 


/ 


/ 




\ 




-' 




y 


■v 


\ 


/ 


/ 




\ 




— 


\ 


\ 














• 
















\ 


'^ 


' 










































\ 


\ 




\ 




■ 






































































\ 


■ 


■ 




































































' 


■ 



J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D 
■933 '934 '935 



Emergency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 



33 



PER CENT RELIEF AND GENERAL POPULATION IN NORTH CAROLINA BY COLOR 

AND PLACE OF RESIDENCE 



Open country 
and \illages 
2,500 or Less 



General 
Population 

J^'orth Carolina 

Relief 
Population 



General 
Population 



Relief 
Population 



^M 


y// ^3' v//////a 


11 


^^^^H 










^M 


VA ^^^ /^^^% 


^^^^^^^406^^^^! 




s 


V/////////////A 


ill 


1^ 26^g^^^H 




^^ 


/// ''"'^ ///////// 


il 


1 ^9-' ^^^^1 



Cities and to^s•ns 
2,500 to 5,000 



General 
Population 



Relief 
Population 




82.3 




177 




Cities 
5,QD0 to 25,000 



General 
Population 



Relief 
Population 




Cities 
over 25,000 



General 
Population 



Relief 
Population 




Colored 

White 



\Mk 



Population Based on 1930 Census 

Relief Cases Based on April, 1935, Case Load 



N.CERA Statistical Division 



34 Emeegenct Relief in I^orth Carolina 

general business is undeniable, it has not as yet had the efFect which might be expected upon those 
on the relief rolls. This is due to a considerable extent to the accident of birth into an unfa\'orable 
economic situation rather than to inherent defects, physical or mental. The majority of those on 
the present work program are able to do a good day's work when given the opportunity. Through 
no fault of their own, they are a group apart, for whom there is no place in the economic mechanism. 

Possibly half of those on relief when the depression was most severe have now found sufficient 
employment to sustain themselves for the year without the necessity of requesting governmental aid. 
Another group, certainly over 50,000, cannot live for a year without help at one or more times of 
seasonal unemployment. They are the victims of changing conditions in agriculture and industry 
which even a return to the boom conditions of the twenties would not absorb. In addition, there 
is a large group of persons, variously estimated at from 20,000 to 30,000, who are permanently 
incapable of earning a living because of old age, mental disease or defect, or physical handicap. 
These would all come under the proposed Social Security program. 

Since North Carolina is predominantly an agricultural state, an examination of certain farm 
statistics may furnish a clue to some of the economic forces at work during the depression. Farm 
operators in the Federal farm census of 1935, when compared with the 1930 census, show an increase 
of 7.6 per cent, or 21,259 family units. This group obviously did not move to the country in order 
to earn a better living, but they migrated as a last resource when all hope of making a li\elihood in 
town was gone. In most cases it meant a definite lowering in their standards. During this same 
period, there was a reduction of about 670,000 acres in cotton and 200,000 acres in tobacco com- 
pared with an increase of 445,000 acres of corn, 456,000 acres of hay, and 143,000 acres of wheat. 

Although acreage of cash crops decreased, the higher prices received have actually meant a 
greater net income to farm owners. In 1932, cash income from all North Carolina crops was 
$81,136,000, while, in 1934, it had jumped to ^223,730,000. As for tenants, and more especially 
farm laborers, it is doubtful if their position has improved. The crops substituted for cotton and 
tobacco are such as require much less hand labor. Agriculture in the state is becoming better 
balanced at the expense of work opportunities for farm laborers. In certain sections, a trend 
toward the payment of day wages rather than tenant contracts has been noted. Such a system 
would greatly increase the severity of seasonal unemployment in agriculture. 

Figures concerning industrial employment are not available, but from the experience of local 
relief administrators, certain facts appear. All three of North Carolina's chief industries show 
wide seasonal variations. Stemming and redrying of tobacco employ many unskilled and semi- 
skilled persons during the fall and early winter, but employment declines abruptly just at the time 
when the demand for farm labor is at its lowest point. Each year a great increase in case load was 
noted in late winter in all the important tobacco centers. By spring, many of these same people 
were engaged in farm work and did not need help again until the following January. 

The dull season for the textile industry occurs during mid-summer when most mills operate only 
part time and many close altogether. This phenomenon was observed during each of the past 
three summers. Dwellers in mill villages have little chance to secure other income when the local 
plant closes, since more than most groups they are dependent upon a single occupation. Conditions 
during the past four years have not changed greatly, although in the summer of 1935, the dull 
period was more severe than usual, lasting in some sections for more than five months. 

There was a decided increase in private building during 1935 which has continued into 1936. 
However, it has little effect upon the relief rolls, as this work employs largely skilled artisans who 
have never constituted a significant number of those requiring Federal aid. Retail business, likewise, 
has improved without reducing the need for relief Based on figures for March, 1935, and January, 
1 936, there has been some lessening in the number of domestic and personal service workers on 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 35 

relief. Better business has caused an increased demand for servants, but at wages that are still 
pitifully inadequate. 

The general picture is one of small gains here and losses there, with no decided reduction in the 
severity of seasonal influences nor increase in the purchasing power of the ordinary laboring man, 
whether on farm or in factory. Such slight stimulus as was given by the NRA has now been lost. 

The factors discussed above may be examined briefly, as they bear upon conditions in the three 
chief geographical divisions of the state, namely the mountain, piedmont, and coastal plain areas. 

Mountain Area 

The mountains of North Carolina, justly famed for their scenic beauty, afford their inhabitants 
only the barest li\'ing, below all minimum standards of well-being. From the very first days of 
relief, this area proved to be the most intense problem in the entire state, and with the improvement 
in general economic conditions, this section has shown least change. It is primarily a land of small 
home owners who grow their own food on the small amount of productive land which is available 
and depend on outside employment for the little cash income they are able to obtain. Even before 
1929, they were in distressed circumstances, due to the depletion of timber resources and the lack of 
demand for mineral products. With the depression, two important sources of supplementary 
income disappeared entirely, namely, the sale of wood products, flora, and herbs and the trade with 
tourists in handicraft articles. Probably the greatest hope for the future in Western North Carolina 
lies not in industry but in the development of recreational areas which will attract tourists from the 
urban centers of the east and the middle west. At present a National park-to-park highway is 
actually under construction. 

Piedmont Area 

The piedmont area is the center of the industrial life of the state, where are located most of the 
important textile, tobacco, and furniture factories. Agriculture is also important, with diversified 
farming in the western part, cotton in the south and east, and tobacco in the north. There has 
been a gradual decline in the rural case load, but the urban load has been subject to violent fluctua- 
tions due to mills closing. Local conditions, such as floods, droughts, hail storms, etc., have affected 
agriculture in limited areas, but the problem has not become very serious, and it is the general 
impression that the entire rural population is considerably better off now than two years ago. In 
the cities there is a large population now employed on the Works Program who would not possibly 
be absorbed by private employment even under best conditions. They are the group which suffers 
from technological improvements that allow business to produce the same output with less man- 
power. 

Coastal Plain 

The coastal plain is a predominantly rural area, with the chief crops consisting of tobacco, 
cotton, peanuts, potatoes, and early vegetables. Industries are few, the most important being the 
highly seasonal one of processing tobacco. There are a few cotton mills, fertilizer factories, saw 
mills, and cotton seed and peanut oil mills operating mostly only part of the year. 

This is distinctly an area of cash crops and large plantations operated by tenants and day laborers. 
As such, it benefited most from higher agricultural prices, although it is doubtful to what extent 
relief clients have benefited proportionately. Seasonal labor, both in town and country, presents a 
problem for which, as yet, there is no solution. In the tidewater country is an area of very high 
relief case load due partially to the severe storm of 1933 and to the depressed condition of the fishing 
industry. The fisherman's cooperative is a method of helping these people to become self-supporting. 
The only hope of prosperity in the tidewater region is in the development of the sea food industry. 



36 



Emergency Relief in North Cabolin; 



N.C.ERA Statistical Division 



RESIDENCE OF RELIEF CASES 
NORTH CAROLINA 



OPEN COUNTRY 

36.5% 





CITIES OF 
25,000 AND OVER 

24-5% 



JUNE, 1935 
TOTAL RELIEF CASES FOR MONTH 62,010 



Emebgenoy Relief in North Carolii 



Volume of Relief 

In February, 1933, the number of families and single persons on relief reached the peak of 
176,124, or 27.3 per cent of the state's population. In June, 1933, this number had been reduced 
to 102,744 including 14,871 recipients of American Red Cross flour and other commodities only, 
or 16.0 per cent of the state's population. In June, 1933, those aided from public funds only (not 
including American Red Cross commodities) number 87,873. Due to discontinuing relief in rural 
areas on account of the harvesting of crops, the case load dropped to 55,054 in September. 

In 1934, the highest number of families and single persons on relief was 96,230 in March, the 
lowest number, 62,207 in October. The average for the year was 76,175, or 11.8 per cent of the 
state's population. 

In 1935, the peak was 74,155 cases in January. In June, 62,010 were on relief The average 
for the first six months was 68,907 cases, or 10.7 per cent of the state's population. The case load 
dropped very rapidly the last six months of 1935 as clients were arbitrarily cut off due to the reduc- 
tion in Federal grants to the state and the starting of WPA projects in October. In November, 
there were 42,919 on relief, and for December, 14,986 received relief through December 5, when 
relief was discontinued in the state. 

The relief population was constantly changing ; as persons on relief found employment or sources 
of income were available, their cases were closed. Others, as their resources were exhausted, came 
on relief for the first time. A third group included those who had been on relief, but having found 
only temporary or seasonal work, were forced to come back on relief, and were known as re-opened 
cases. This case load turnover given below depicts clearly the constantly changing relief population. 

For comparison, the case load turnover is given, by seasons, for the winter months from Novem- 
ber, 1934, through April, 1935, and for the summer months from May, 1935, through October, 
1935. This includes only those who were accepted for relief Approximately 60 per cent of 
applicants was accepted as relief cases. 



Case Load Turnover 











Total 




1934-35 


New Cases 


Reopened Cases 


Cases Added 


Cases Closed 


November 




5>722 


12,727 


18,449 


10,816 


December 




4=899 


11,646 


16,545 


11,103 


January 




5=737 


9,836 


15,573 


17,218* 


February 




4>347 


7,611 


11,958 


15,010* 


March 




3>48i 


7,687 


11,168 


9,635 


April 




■ 4>45i 


7,177 


11,628 


9,123 


May 




2,669 


5,453 


8,122 


6,132 


June 




2,799 


4,247 


7,046 


10,199 


July 




2,176 


4,109 


6,285 


9,445 


August 




1,545 


3,381 


4,926 


9,985 


September 




1,033 


" 3,543 


4,576 


' 10,228-f 


October 




1,240 


3,701 


4,941 


7,385 






Average Case Load Turnover 


Cases 








New and Rec 


)pened Cases Added 


Closed 


November i. 


1934, throu 


jh April 30, 1935 


1 


4,220 


12,151 


May I, 1935, 


through October 31, 1935 




5,982 


8,895 


* The heavy closing of cases 


n January and February, 1935, was due to th( 


; turning back to the counties g,i8g unemployable 


cases which was 


accompUshed in 


these months. 




"I" Harvesting 


season. 



38 



Emergency Relief in Nokth Carolina 



Case Load and Obligations Incurred From Public Funds by Months 

April, 1933, to December, 1935 

BY N.C.ERA 



Tear and Months 

1933 April 

May 
June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1934 January 
February 
March 
April 
May 
June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 



1935 January 
February 
March 
April 
May 
June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 



Family Cases 


Single Persons 


Total Cases 


118,509 




118,509 


97>558 




97,558 


87,873 




87,873 


65,984 


6,904 


72,888 


56,680 


5,076 


61,756 


50,387 


4,667 


55,054 


52,296 


5,216 


57,512 


65,641 


6,180 


71,821 


56,992 


7,248 


64,240 


66,852 


8,484 


75,336 


72,847 


9,482 


82,329 


85,887 


10,343 


96,230 


66,520 


9,817 


76,337 


65,960 


7,104 


73,064 


66,047 


8,099 


74,146 


67,161 


7,949 


75,110 


72,187 


8,386 


80,573 


69,022 


8,083 


77,105 


54,481 


7,726 


62,207 


59,836 


8,017 


67,853 


65,621 


8,192 


73,813 


68,698 


5,457 


74,155 


65,640 


4,080 


69,720 


66,592 


3,957 


70,549 


66,988 


3,869 


70,857 


62,436 


3,713 


66,149 


58,463 


3,547 


62,010 


56,384 


3,230 


59,614 


51,132 


2,781 


53,913 


46,746 


2,611 


49,357 


45,004 


2,541 


47,545 


40,620 


2,299 


42,919 


14,122 


864 


14,986 



Obligations Incurred 

5 974,914-00 
927,356.00 
836,740.00 
592,913-00 
500,914.00 
570,006.00 
556,154-00 
623,796.00 
575,091.00 

605,321.00 
648,337-00 
943,553-00 
1,015,697-00 
1,050,408.00 
1,069,697.00 
1,386,302.00 
1,472,590-00 
1,141,163.00 
1,205,590.00 
1,692,809.00 
1,722,668.00 

1,762,291.00 

1,437,206.00 

1,677,191.00 

1,980,401.00 

2,153,128.00 

2,054,912.00 

1,326,315.00 

1,115,884.00 

985,374-00 

991,555-00 

635,372-00 

209,544.00 



Source: April, 1933, through March, 1934, taken from FERA. 
April, 1934, to date taken from N. C. ERA reports. 



Emekgency Relief in North Carolina 



39 



l^.C.ERA Statistical Division 



FAMILIES AND SINGLE PERSONS RECEIVING RELIEF BY MONTHS 
APRIL, 1933, THROUGH DECEMBER, 1935 



120 



W 
in 

< 

fa 

o 

Q 

< 

O 

H 



1 10 




\ 


































































100 




\ 


































































qo 






\ 


















1 


\ 












































Rn 






\ 


\ 














y 
















T 


3^ 


^A 


L 


cy 


.s; 


^s 




















70 
60 










\ 










/ 


/ 
1 


1 


\ 


\ 




- 


1 




\ 




/ 




\ 


































V 




i 


^ 




1 






— 




- 


/ 






/ 


f 

/ 


/ 


\ 




— 


^ 


^ 


s, 














•io 










\ 


^ 




1 


\ 


/ 


^A 


M 


IL 


Y 


Ci 


lS: 


iS 




\ 


/ 














A 


\ 


^ 


N 










40 




























































N 




^ 






SO 


































































1 




90 






































































10 


























c 

k 


iir 


rc 


LI 


, I 


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AMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASOND 

1933 1934 1935 



40 



Emekgency Relief in North Caeolina 



N.C.ERA Statistical Divison 



OBLIGATIONS INCURRED FROM PUBLIC FUNDS BY QUARTERSt 

APRIL, 1933, THROUGH DECEMBER, 1935 

K.C.ERA 



Millions of Dollars 
3 4 



1933 
2nd Quarter 

$2,739,010 

3rd Quarter 

$1,663,833 

4th Quarter 

1934 
1st Qiiarter 

$2,197,211 

2nd Quarter 

$3>i35>8o2 

3rd Quarter 

$4,000,055 

4th Quarter 

$4,621,067 

1935 
1st Quarter 
$4,876,688 

2nd Quarter 

$6,188,441* 

3rd Quarter 

$3=427,573 

4th Quarter 

$1,836,471 




* The increase in obligations incurred during the second quarter of 1935 was due to the rapid expansion of the Rural Reha- 
bilitation Program in North Carolina. That expansion included purchases for fertUizers, seed, farm equipment and stock in 
addition to subsistence grants to Rural Rehabilitation clients all over and above the regular functions of the Emergency Relief 
Program. Seasonal farm activities made necessary this enlarged expenditure. 



t Exclusive of Surplus Commodities, funds for other Federal Agencies, Self-help Cooperatives, etc. 



Emeeoency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 41 

The figures given on page 37 do not include students aided firom Federal funds, Emergency Relief 
teachers, nor transients. Homeless families and transient individuals aided from June, 1933, to 
December, 1935, totaled 122,144. 

The case load in rural areas (5,000 population and under, and in open country), for June, 1935, 
as shown on chart "Residence of Relief Cases," page 36, was 62.2 per cent of the total relief 
population. 

Cost of Relief 

The total grants for relief from October i, 1932, through May 31, 1933, from Federal funds 
(RFC) were $5,950,000.00 ; from local public funds and private funds, $2,384,963.00. Total funds 
were $8,334,963.00. As stated in previous section, prior to June i, contributions from private 
sources to relief were reported as local contributions. Subsequent to June i, 1933, although con- 
tributions were made from private agencies and disbursed by ERA, Federal regulations permitted 
only appropriations from public funds that were disbursed by ERA to be reported and considered 
as state and local aid. 

The total grants for relief purposes from FERA funds from June i, 1933, through December 5, 
1935, were $39,898,184.00, and $12,155,000.00 from CWA, making a total of $52,053,184.00 from 
Federal funds. Of this amount, $225,000.00 was transferred to the State Public Welfare Depart- 
ment, and $300,000.00 set aside for liquidation of the relief administration, including adjustment 
of all outstanding obligations, final auditing of all expenditures, disposition of equipment, etc. 
Federal grants were supplemented with local government expenditures of $679,310.46 ; total funds 
for all purposes, $52,732,494.46. 

The expenditures, by quarters, dating from April, 1933, are shown on the Chart on page 40. 
This does not include funds transferred to the State Public Welfare Department, surplus commod- 
ities, self-help cooperatives, pay roll for white collar workers on WPA projects, purchases of ma- 
terials and equipment for WPA, nor research and vocational projects after December i. 

The "Average Relief Benefits per Capita," page 42, differs widely in the various counties, due 
to the local conditions and to the size of the relief population. The highest per capita cost is usually 
found in counties having the highest percentage of the population on relief, which usually indicates 
low number of work opportunities, or low sources of income from lands, crop production, and 
market values. 

"The A\'erage Benefits per Person," as shown on page 43, was generally low in mountain and 
coastal counties, and was influenced by standards of living, health conditions, and type of subsistence 
found in the counties. In mountain counties, families more frequently had chickens, milk products, 
eggs, and small subsistence gardens. Their greatest need was clothes, while in coastal counties 
the people subsisted largely offish, oysters, etc. There winters are mild, and hea\y clothing is not 
so necessary. 

The average benefit per relief person for 1933 was $19.53; ^o^" ^934' $27.11 ; for 1935, $32.98. ^' 
The average for the entire period was $26.54. 

The cost of relief for single persons is higher proportionately than for family groups as shown by 
the Chart on page 134, "Average Relief Benefits per Person by Size of Family — February, 1935." 
Contrary to the general impression that the families on relief are usually larger families, it was also 
found that the moderate sized family composed the largest number on relief (See Charts, on 
pages 136 and 138, "Size of Family-Relief and General Population.") 



■-■■ )i::jO'> \d n^'.Mui. .loii : 



42 



Emeeqbncy Eelief in North Carolina 



AVERAGE RELIEF BENEFITS, PER CAPITA— FOR 12 MONTHS 
APRIL, 1934 THROUGH MARCH, 1935 



Ron 


k Countv 


Capita 


1 


Tyrrell 


7.98 


2 


New Hanover 


7,31 


3 


Hoke 


6,65 


4 


Ouilford 


6 60 


5 


Hyde 


6,38 


n 


Buncombe 


6,35 


7 


Dare 


6.21 


8 


Craven 


6,17 


fl 


Carteret 


5,58 


10 


Orange 


5,07 


11 


Forsyth 


4-60 


12 


Durham 


4,57 


l.T 


Scotland 


4,54 


14 


Washington 


4,34 


15 


Jones 


4,30 


16 


Transylvania 


4.25 


17 


Brunswick 


4,23 


18 


Richmond 


4.23 


19 


Montgomery 


4.22 


zn 


Gaston 


4,20 


21 


Pamlico 


4,16 


22 


Chowan 


4.08 


23 


Clay 


3.91 


24 


Mecklenburg 


3,88 


25 


Wilson 


3.79 


26 


Avery 


3.79 


27 


Ashe 


3.71 


28 


Haywood 


3.47 


29 


Currituck 


3.42 


30 


Perquimans 


3.37 


31 


Cherokee 


3.29 


32 


Camden 


3.23 


33 


Wavne 


3 23 


34 


Moore 


3.00 


35 


Watauga 


2.94 


36 


Y'ancey 


2.92 


37 


Alleghany 


2.87 


38 


Lee 


2.83 


39 


Cabarrus 


2.73 


40 


Graham 


2.72 


41 


Yadkin 


2.70 


42 


Wilkes 


2.68 


43 


Robeson 


2.62 


44 


Surry 


2. ,'5 


45 


McDowell 


2.54 


46 


Pender 


2.49 


47 


Duplin 


2.49 


48 


Alexander 


2.47 


49 


Rowan 


2-45 


60 


Edgecombe 


2.43 


51 


Union 


2.42 


52 


Henderson 


2.41 


53 


Lenoir 


2 41 


54 


Hoke 


2.40 


55 


Halifan 


2.39 


56 


Iredell 


2.38 


57 


Macon 


2.33 


58 


Madison 


2 38 


59 


Mitchell 


2 34 


60 


Vance 


2.30 


61 


Pasquotank 


2.24 


62 


Anson 


2.22 


63 


Caswell 


2.22 


64 


Cumberland 


2.20 


65 


Gates 


2 16 


66 


Rutherford 


2 13 


67 


Bladen 


2.08 


68 


Chatham 


2.09 


69 


Randolph 


2.05 


70 


Onslow 


2 02 


71 


Catawba 


2.01 


72 


Stanly 


1.98 


73 


Caldwell 


1-93 


74 


Lincoln 


1.87 


75 


Person 


1.85 


76 


Warren 


1.85 


77 


Jackson 


1.83 


78 


Davidson 


1.81 


79 


Sampson 


1.77 


80 


Hertford 


1 73 


81 


Burke 


1.71 


82 


Franklin 


1 71 


83 


Johnston 


1. 61 


84 


Columbus 


1.59 


85 


Davie 


1.57 


86 


Swain 


1.54 


87 


Stokes 


1.51 


83 


Pitt 


1.50 


89 


Martin 


1.45 


90 


Alamance 


1.43 


91 


Northampton 


1 42 


92 


Polk 


1.35 


93 


Bertie 


1.27 


94 


Granville 


1.25 


95 


Rockingham 


1.19 


96 


Cleveland 


1.17 


97 


Greene 


1.16 


98 


Beaufort 


1,16 


99 


Nash 


1.14 


00 


Harnett 


1.13 


STATE AVERAGE 3 13 




The wide variation of average relief benefits per capita (Jepended greatly upon the intensity* of relief. This chart should 
be compared to the census figures of population and tabulation of relief population by counties found on page 54. 
*Percentage of population on rehef. 



Emeehency Relief in North Carolina 



43 



AVERAGE RELIEF BENEFITS PER RELIEF PERSON— BY COUNTIES 

JUNE, 1935 



Counli/ AvcraOc 



I 


Wako 


5.06 


2 


Guilford 


4 69 


3 


ALraer-i 


4 51 


4 


Forayt't 


4 .S 


5 


Orfinpe 


4.46 


6 


''urham 


4.31 


7 


Pitt 


4.15 


S 


Bertie 


4.14 


g 


Granville 


3 SS 


10 


Craven 


3 87 


n 


Rowan 


3 S4 


12 


Inion 


3 ,.'■3 


n 


Buncombe 


3.80 


14 


Cabarrua 


3.63 


15 


New Hanover 


3 63 


16 


Lcc 


3 60 


17 


AnsoD 


3.59 


1« 


Onslow 


3 49 


19 


Beaufort 


3 47 


20 


Mecklenburg 


3 46 


21 


McDowell 


3 40 


22 


Catawba 


3 37 


23 


Wayne 


3 35 


24 


Washington 


3 34 


25 


Hyde 


3.30 


26 


Lincoln 


3.24 


27 


Gaaton 


3 23 


2« 


Warren 


3 23 


29 


Stanly 


3 16 


30 


Jones 


3.11 


31 


Davidson 


3 09 


32 


Lenoir 


3 05 


33 


Hertford 


3 04 


34 


Camden 


3 02 


35 


Vance 


3 02 


36 


Iredell 


3 00 


37 


Macon 


3 00 


38 


Cumberland 


2 99 


39 


Carteret 


2 97 


40 


Chatham 


2 96 


41 


Rockingham 


2 96 


42 


Pasquotank 


2 91 


43 


Johnston 


2.89 


44 


Edgecombe 


2.88 


45 


Pender 


2 86 


46 


Wilson 


2.86 


47 


Hahfai 


2 ,«4 


43 


Sampson 


2 SO 


49 


Franklin 


2.79 


50 


Montgonvery 


2.79 


51 


Person 


2 7S 


52 


Perquimans 


2-74 


S3 


Moore 


2 71 


54 


Cleveland 


2.70 


55 


Caldwell 


2.69 


56 


Jackson 


2.65 


57 


Tyrrell 


2 65 


58 


Robeson 


2 64 


59 


Martin 


2.63 


60 


Hoke 


2.62 


61 


Rutherford 


2 5) 


63 


Scotlmd 


2.58 


63 


Chowan 


2,57 


64 


Dare 


2 57 


65 


Alleghany 


2 56 


66 


Duplin 


2 54 


67 


Greene 


2 54 


6S 


Richmond 


2 51 


69 


Swain 


2 51 


70 


Gates 


2 48 


71 


Randolph 


2.44 


72 


Columbus 


2.31 


73 


Davie 


2 31 


74 


Harnett 


2.31 


75 


Surry 


2.27 


76 


Northampton 


2.23 


77 


Stokes 


2.21 


78 


Nash 


2.19 


79 


Haywood 


2.14 


SO 


Madison 


2 13 


81 


Ashe 


2 11 


82 


Alexander 


2 03 


S3 


Henderson 


2 02 


84 


Burke 


1 96 


85 


Currituck 


1.93 


86 


Pamlico 


1 S9 


87 


Clay 


1.84 


88 


Avery 


1.83 


89 


Bladen 


1.83 


90 


Transylvania 


1.83 


91 


Wilkes 


1.76 


92 


Yadkin 


1.76 


93 


Yancey 


1 75 


94 


Mitchell 


1 73 


95 


Cherokee 


1.06 


96 


Polk 


1 52 


97 


Graham 


1.51 


98 


Brunswick 


1.47 


99 
100 


C«=»ell 
Watauga 


1.44 
1.42 




THE STATE 3 10 



44 



Emebgenct Relief in !N^orth Caeolina 



WHAT THE STATES HAVE RECEI\'ED TO DATE IN EMERGENCY AID 
FEBRUARY 19, 1934 




WHAT THE STATES PAID TO THE FEDERAL TREASURY IN TAXES IN 1933 



W.D.-O.05 fc 
WASH 0.43^ MINN. -1.41^ 



ORE 


IDAHO' 
S.D.- 

JrAH-0.09 
AR 1 2-0.05 
NEU-0.09 
MONT-0.1 



WINE 
0.26 % 




tates . 
February ig, T934 



Emekoency Relief in North Carolina 45 

Source of Funds 

Unemployment relief in North Carolina was financed primarily from Federal funds. No funds 
were appropriated by the General Assembly, and the only state aid was in the form of an allocation 
of $1,500,000.00 from the highway fund for employment of persons on relief by the state on highway 
construction and maintenance, and since June, 1933, $679,3 10.46 from local public funds. 

State Aid 

The Federal Emergency Relief Act pro\'ided that funds should be granted to states on a two- 
thirds matching basis, or on an unmatched basis to states demonstrating that available funds from 
all sources were inadequate to meet the requirements. After a complete investigation of the state's 
resources and bonded indebtedness by Federal Emergency Relief Agents, grants were made to 
North Carolina on the unmatched basis. It was on the basis of information secured from this 
investigation that in the fall of 1934, the Federal Emergency Relief Administrator in conference 
with the Governor agreed on a plan whereby $1,500,000 might be allocated from the state highway 
funds to employ workers from relief rolls on construction and maintenance of highways. Pursuant 
to this agreement, the Governor recommended, and the General Assembly of 1935 allocated 
$1,500,000 for this purpose effective July i, 1935. 

In considering state aid, the bonded indebtedness and constitutional limitation for borrowing, 
as well as the sacrifice the state had made to preserve its school system and entire economic structure, 
should be kept clearly in mind. The bonded indebtedness of the state as of December 31, 1934, 
totaled $174,156,000, and as of December 31, 1935, it was $170,644,000. The constitution of the 
state limits the net debt of the state to 7.5 per cent of the assessed valuation, subject to deduction 
of sinking funds and certain state investments. The assessed valuation in 1933 was $2,089,209,000 
which was 75 per cent of the true valuation. Seven and one-half per cent of the assessed value was 
$156,690,000, the diflference in this sum and the total indebtedness being due to refunding, etc. 
It is noted, therefore, that North Carolina had reached its constitutional limitation for borrowing. 

The bonded indebtedness of the 100 counties as of December 31, 1935, amounted to $158,927,000, 
with defaults as of same date amounting to $13,074,000. 

For cities and towns, the bonded indebtedness as of December 31, 1935, amounted to $152,316,- 
000, with defaults as of same date of $10,400,000. 

The total bonded indebtedness for state, counties, cities and towns as of December 31, 1935, 
was $481,887,000. 

Although not contributing directly to relief. North Carolina prevented an increase in relief rolls 
in 1933 by adopting the "state-wide" school system, supported entirely from state funds. In taking 
over the schools, supported in part by 3 per cent sales tax, the state lifted a great tax burden from 
the home owner and saved thousands of persons the loss of their homes and farms from failure to 
pay taxes. By thus reducing the burden of local governments, they were aided in meeting their 
own fiscal problems and enabled to contribute to relief 

In 1933, in the majority of states, the public schools which had been closed on account of the 
depletion of funds were reopened and maintained through special grants from the FERA to the 
states for that purpose. North Carolina, by assuming this burden of school maintenance, not only 
prevented large numbers from going on relief, but by frugality saved the structure of its school 
system and made it unnecessary for the FERA to grant additional funds to North Carolina to reopen 
and maintain closed schools as it had done in other states. When it was found, however, that the 
revenue from the sales tax would be insufficient to pay teachers their full eighth month's salary, a 
special grant of $500,000 was made by FERA to complete the salaries of those teachers who were 
shown to be potential relief persons. 



46 



Emergency Relief in ISTorth" Carolina 



INTENSITY OF GENERAL RELIEF * 

JULY 1933 -JUNE 1935 




FEDERAL EMERGCNCY RELIEF ADMINISTRATION 
DIVI5I0M or RESEARCH, STATISTICS AND FINANCE 

40 



30 



z 
u 

o 20 
a. 
tij 

Q. 



PERCENT 
V'-yA UNDER 10 

W^ 10-149 

15-19.9 

20 AND OVER 













































UNITED STATES 




^ 












■-^.n^ 


,.'"0-ci 


r .^^ V 




"V 


NORTH CAROLINA 




*--.^ 





10^ 



JUL 
1933 



OCT 



JAN 
1934 



APR 



JUL 



OCT 



JAN 
1935 



APR 



JUN 



INTENSITY*OF GENERAL RELIEF IN THE UNITED STATES 
JULY 1933-JUNE 1935 

♦ PERCENTAGE OF ESTIMATED POPULATION ON RELIEF 



Emergency Relief in North Cakolina 47 

County Aid 

In 1933, sixty-one of the 100 counties in North Carolina and 100 towns and cities were in default 
on bonds, bond interest, or both. Notwithstanding this financial condition, the counties maintained 
very nearly their normal aid for public welfare and relief purposes, and supplemented Federal funds 
with local appropriations for relief. 

In 1933, the counties appropriated $1,943,587.58 (including American Red Cross funds and 
private contributions during the period January-May, 1933) to unemployment relief In 1934, 
the expenditure through ERA was $189,191.01. In 1935, the expenditure was reduced to S48,- 
557.87. The reduction was due to the counties having the care of the unemployables turned back 
to them by ERA in January, 1935, and the responsibility becoming that of the local governments. 

For the fiscal year July i, 1933-June 30, 1934, the counties spent $1,226,341.00 for dependents 
and indigents in outside aid, boarding children, and mothers' aid, hospitalization, and medical 
care. For the year 1935-36, the budget for these purposes is $1,241,218.00. The administrative 
budget for the Welfare Departments is $194,726.40, making a total of $1,440,944.40. 

During the period of October, 1932, through May, 1933, when Federal aid was granted to the 
states from RFC funds, local funds, whether appropriations from local governmental units or 
private contributions, were received and disbursed by the local Relief Administration and credited 
to the state as local contributions to relief Under the provisions of the Emergency Relief Act of 
May, 1933, although private contributions were made to the local Emergency Relief Administra- 
tions, only appropriations made from public funds were credited as local contributions, and funds 
used by the state or local governments for maintaining their normal responsibility, such as hospital- 
ization, relief of outside poor, mothers aid, etc., could not be reported as appropriations to relief 

Grants by the State Administration to the Counties 

Grants were made by the State Emergency Relief Administration to the counties on the basis of 
number of families on relief, their needs, and conditions in the counties influencing relief needs. 

Each month the district administrator was required to send in a report form showing the number 
of persons on relief and expenditures for the current month, and the estimated number and needs 
for the ensuing month, probable available work opportunities, opening or closing of industrial 
plants, seasonal employment, and unusual conditions affecting relief, such as droughts, heavy rains, 
strikes, epidemics, business trends, etc. Also a form showing the cost of administration was required. 
These budgets were carefully studied and compared with the previous month's application and 
expenditures, and with the Field Auditor's report on the previous month's expenditures of the local 
administration. 

A budget was then fixed for the administration of each district, and a budget for relief in each 
county, according to the indicated needs of the county and the limitations of funds granted to the 
state by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. Allocations were then earmarked for 
administration and relief 

The downward change in relief loads and allotments to certain rural counties was due to 
improvements in agricultural conditions through the AAA. In other rural counties, a heavy 
rainy season or drought causing crop failure increased the load. Seasonal industrial employment, 
such as tobacco factories employing large numbers of persons, reduced the load. 



48 



Emergency Relief ix ISTorth Carolina 



N C ERA SIQIistica) Div 



TOTAL FERA GRANT TO STATES 
MAY 23, 1933 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 1935 



Millions of Dollar; 

100 



300 



400 



New, York 

Pcnnsyhania 

Illinois 

Ohio 

California 

Michigan 

Massachusetts 

Texas 

New Jersey 

W^isconsin 

Minnesota 

Missouri 

Indiana 

Georgia 

Alabama 

Louisiana 

Florida 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 

West Virginia 

South Dakotq 

Kansas 

Colorado 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Washington 

Tennessee 

South Carolina 

Mar\-land 

Kentucky 

North Dakota 

Mississippi 

Nebraska 

Io\va 

Connecticut 

\'irginia 

Montana 

Oregon 

Utah 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Idaho 

Maine 

Wyoming 

Rhode Island 

Ne\v Hampshire 

Ne\ada 

Vermont 

Delaware 




Emergency Relief in Nokth Carolina 



49 



N.C.ERA Stiilislical Div 



PER CAPITA FERA GRANTS TO STATES 
MAY 23. 1933 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30. 1935 



South Dakota 

Ncxada 

North Dakota 

New Mexico 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Arizona 

Utah 

Colorado 

Idaho 

Florida 

New York 

Pennsylvania 

Minnesota 

California 

Massachusetts 

\Visconsin 

West Virginia 

Illinois 

Ohio 

Arkansas 

Washington 

Michigan 

Louisiana 

Kansas 

New Jersey 

Oregon 

Maryland 

South Carolina 

Nebraska 

Alabama 

Oklahoma 

Missouri 

Georgia 

Mississippi 

Texas 

Maine 

Indiana 

Connecticut 

New Hampshire 

Tennessee 

Kentucky 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Vermont 

Iowa 

Rhode Island 

\'irginia 

Delaware 




50 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



EXPENDITURE OF THE ERA DOLLAR 




BASED ON OBLIGATIONS INCrRRED FOR THE TWFLTE MONTHS ENDING MARCH 31. 1935 

N.C.ERA Statistical Division 



Rentals, Other Services and Charges 

Non-relief Salaries 

Materials 

Administrative Salaries 

General Relief 

Amount 
Direct S4, 222. 270 

Work .5,703,425 

Special Programs (Education, Student Aid, Transients, Rural Rehabilitation) 





Amount 


Per Cent 




5 1,281,148 


7.7 




1,121,288 


6.7 




1,333,396 


8.0 




1,850,039 


11.1 




9,925,695 


59.7 


Per Cert I 






25.4 






34,3 








1,122,046 


6.8 




$16,633,612 


100.0 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 51 

Relief Standards 

Relief investigations are at best humiliating experiences to the persons applying for aid. 
Because, however, there were always persons who made no effort to earn a living, those who through 
ignorance thought "help from the government was for everybody" and those who felt they were 
entitled to more than necessities, it was necessary to conduct rigid investigations of all apphcants. 
The regulations of FERA required that the minimum investigations include home visits by the 
social worker and a check of all resources of the family, probable aid from relatives and friends, 
work habits, etc. 

The relief standards were determined by the grants to the states and were never at any time 
sufficient to provide adequate aid. The grants to the state were not increased proportionately to 
the increase in cost of food, clothing, fuel, rents, etc. Although the average benefits per family 
increased in 1934 and the first six months of 1935, the cost of living had increased to the extent that 
the value of the dollar was from one-third to one-half less than in 1933, therefore, even with the 
increased grants to the family, relief was not so adequate. 

Direct and Work Relief 

It was the policy of the N. C. ERA to provide work rehef, as far as possible, instead of direct 
relief, which consisted of cash grants to the family or orders for subsistence. Work relief was dis- 
continued altogether, except in a few cities, in July, 1933, when a minimum wage of 30 cents an 
hour was fixed by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, as this wage was much above the 
level of wages in practically all sections of the state, due to the extremely depressed condition on 
industry, business, and the value of farm produce. At that time, farmers could not sell their farm 
products for enough to pay even low wages to laborers. 

CWA definitely established a work program of heavier construction projects at higher wages. 
Approximately 4,000 to 5,000 persons were employed on work projects when CWA was established 
on November 15, 1933. As only 50 per cent of the original CWA quota of workers for the state was 
drawn from relief rolls, the number of relief clients on CWA projects never exceeded 34,000, and a 
large relief load remained to be aided by direct relief from ERA funds. When the quota was 
increased by approximately 1 1,000 workers, with the exception of employable women who were not 
fitted for CWA projects, these workers were drawn from the unemployed rather than from relief 
rolls. ^r^^q. 

With the close of CWA on March 3i,-£§g^the works program was transferred to ERA with the 
following definite changes : 

(i) CWA was designed to furnish work to the unemployed and to create purchasing power 
rather than provide a subsistence income. Fifty per cent of the persons employed were not neces- 
sarily eligible for rehef. Under the new Emergency Relief Program, the work program was reestab- 
lished as work relief, restricting employment to those persons eligible for relief, with the exception of 
the necessary amount of non-relief skilled labor required to give the maximum amount of employ- 
ment to those eligible for relief The number of hours of work was determined by relief needs. 

(2) Work projects started under CWA were completed by the Emergency Relief Administration 
as far as possible ; new work projects, however, were developed on the basis of the type of relief labor 
available in the community. 

(3) Under the new ERA program, employment was largely restricted to urban and industrial 
areas. In rural areas, emphasis was placed on rehabilitation through the usual occupation of 
farming, and on especially designed programs for stranded populations. 



52 



Emehgency Relief in JSTorth Carolina 



OBLIGATIONS INCURRED FOR WORK AND DIRECT RELIEF. NUMBER ON 
WORK RELIEF AND PER CENT OF TOTAL OBLIGATIONS FOR WORK 
RELIEF BY MONTHS— JANUARY 1933 THROUGH DECEMBER 1935 



Month and Year 


Obligations Incurred 




Per Cent 

Obligations 


Number 
Persons on 










Work Relief 


Direct Relief 


Total 


for Work Relief 


Work Relief 


1933 












Januaryt 


$746,679 


$491,466 


$1,238,145 


60.3 


97,257 


Februaryf 


650,721 


475,869 


1,126,590 


57-8 


98,484 


Marchf 


729.972 


537,916 


1,267,888 


57-6 


90,929 


Aprilf 


504,612 


545,600 


1,050,212 


48.0 


61,286 


Mayt 


461,519 


500,118 


961,637 


48.0 


46,823 


Junet 


411,313 


445,199 


856,512 


48.0 


40,667 


July 


298,018 


233,416 


531,434 


56.1 


34,588 


August 


213,631 


223,100 


436,731 


48.9 


22,717 


September 


178,670 


216,314 


394,984 


45-2 


15,375 


October 


198,927 


285,009 


483,936 


41. 1 


14,784 


No\'ember 


179,843 


363,516 


543,359 


33-1 


18,476 


December 


10,808 


464,619 


475,427 


2-3 


1,154 


1934 












January 


* 


502,857 


502,857 






February 


* 


531,229 


531,229 






March 


* 


746,492 


746,492 






April 


102,083 


486,504 


588,587 


17-3 


6,486 


May 


228,775 


443,967 


672,742 


34-0 


17,465 


June 


325,414 


375,928 


701,342 


46.4 


24,840 


July 


419,522 


332,315 


751,837 


55-8 


28,684 


August 


623,491 


302,346 


925,837 


67-3 


36,896 


September 


469,486 


260,922 


730,408 


64-3 


35,015 


October 


405,842 


298,224 


704,066 


57-6 


25,138 


November 


612,457 


366,260 


978,717 


62.6 


29,569 


December 


624,514 


385,375 


1,009,889 


61.8 


33,650 


1935 












January 


746,875 


332,112 


1,078,987 


69.2 


41,784 


February 


538,186 


290,137 


828,323 


65.0 


40,167 


March 


606,780 


348,180 


954,960 


63-5 


41,218 


April 


653,968 


310,920 


964,888 


67.8 


42,901 


May 


771,762 


285,345 


1,057,107 


73-0 


44,291 


June 


645,667 


235,552 


881,219 


73-3 


42,507 


July 


613,489 


229,248 


842,737 


72.7 


42,224 


August 


447,739 


198,446 


646,185 


69-3 


35,724 


September 


392,655 


233,603 


626,258 


62.7 


29,781 


October 


365,513 


314,058 


679,571 


53-8 


26,389 


November 


107,156 


337,159 


444,315 


24.1 


9,217 


December 


15,312 


56,306 


71,618 


21.4 


1,203 



* Period of Civil Works Administration. Program of Civil Works Service not indicated. 

t Includes private contributions, cases receiving .American Red Cross funds and Commodities, etc. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



53 



OBLIGATIONS INCURRED FOR WORK AND DIRECT RELIEF IN 

NORTH CAROLINA 

JANUARY, 1933, THROUGH DECEMBER, 1935 



THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS 
1,300 

1,200 
1,100 
1,000 



N. C. ERA STATISTICAL DIVISION 



900 



800 



700 



600 



500 



400 



300 



200 



100 




JFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASOND 

1933 1934 1935 



54 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 




H-T"" 






"""7 






^v>- 



V V 1 /POLI.^ 



"'— i~^- 



.J--/:c./ 






J ■' VT..,„.j^,...,^;| 



--Y"-=- 



c:::! 







POPULATION— GENERAL AND RELIEF 
CLASSIFIED AS TO PERSONS AND FAMILIES 





PERSONS 


FAMILIES 


COUNTIES 


PERSONS 


FAMILIES 


COUNTIES 




















General 


Relief 


General 


Relief 




General 


Relief 


General 


Relief 




Population* 


Populationf 


Population* 


Populationf 




Population* 


Populationf 


Population* 


Populationf 


Alamance 


42,140 


1.529 


8.644 


307 


Jones 


10,428 


1,334 


1,919 


251 


Alexander 


12.922 


1,351 


2,513 


250 


Lee 


16,996 


1,078 


3,437 


218 


Alleghany 


7.1S6 


703 


1,600 


136 


Lenoir 


35,716 


1,894 


7,260 


396 


Anson 


29,349 


2,491 


5,711 


461 


Lincoln 


22,872 


1,080 


4.471 


209 


Ashe 


21,019 


2,941 


4.236 


540 


Macon 


13,672 


2,677 


2.763 


530 


Avery 


11,803 


2,529 


2.237 


489 


Madison 


20.306 


2,490 


4,090 


450 


Beaufort 


35,026 


1,163 


7.430 


245 


Martin 


23.400 


1,174 


4.484 


195 


Bertie 


25,844 


610 


4.944 


126 


McDowell 


20.336 


2,424 


3,984 


488 


Bladen 


22,389 


1,667 


4.415 


316 


Mecklenburg 


127,971 


11,509 


28,274 


2,574 


Brunswick 


15,818 


2,572 


3,331 


559 


Mitchell 


13,962 


1,219 


2,766 


223 


Buncombe 


97,937 


14,886 


21,563 


3,223 


Montgomery 


16,218 


1.922 


3,273 


382 


Burke 


29,410 


2,837 


5,315 


515 


Moore 


28,215 


1.9S0 


6,758 


371 


Cabarrus 


44,331 


2,786 


8,617 


578 


Nash 


41,392 


730 


8,108 


139 


Caldwell 


28,016 


1,806 


5,391 


364 


New Hanover 


43.010 


8,545 


10,074 


1.915 


Camden 


5,461 


301 


1.170 


61 


Northampton 


27,161 


1,179 


5,232 


220 


Carteret 


16,900 


2,880 


3,675 


604 


Onslow 


15,289 


1,036 


3,045 


208 


Caswell 


18,214 


1,136 


3,343 


195 


Orange 


21,171 


1,923 


4,352 


373 


Catawba 


43,991 


2,133 


8,840 


428 


Pamlico 


9,299 


1,443 


2,013 


273 


Chatham 


24,177 


1,423 


4,870 


258 


Pasquotank 


19,143 


1.320 


4,196 


264 


Cherokee 


16,151 


4,022 


3,134 


791 


Pender 


15,686 


1,073 


3.180 


208 


Chowan 


11,282 


1,620 


2,348 


311 


Perquimans 


10,668 


1,073 


2.245 


217 


Clay 


5,434 


1,681 


1,083 


345 


Person 


22,039 


974 


4.068 


180 


Cleveland 


61,914 


2,143 


10,201 


413 


Pitt 


64,466 


1,827 


10,880 


363 


Columbus 


37,720 


2,045 


7,549 


382 


Polk 


10,216 


680 


2,196 


119 


Craven 


30,665 


2,887 


6,619 


633 


Randolph 


36.259 


1,660 


7,646 


336 


Cumberland 


45,219 


4,124 


8,849 


897 


Richmond 


34,016 


3,074 


6,831 


627 


Currituck 


6,710 


972 


1,613 


200 


Robeson 


66,512 


4,436 


13,091 


967 


Dare 


5,202 


1,336 


1,162 


300 


Rockingham 


61,083 


1,732 


10,208 


339 


Davidson 


47,865 


2,654 


9,6f8 


555 


Rowan 


56,665 


3,568 


12,093 


761 


Davie 


14.386 


775 


2,980 


135 


Rutherfold 


40.452 


3.412 


8,025 


662 


Duplin 


35,103 


1,949 


7,142 


393 


Sampson 


40.082 


1.706 


7,971 


336 


Durham 


67,196 


7.028 


14,534 


1,576 


Scotland 


20.174 


3,161 


4,039 


671 


Edgecombe 


59,284 


4,157 


11,981 


789 


Stanley 


30.216 


1,861 


6,117 


393 


Forsyth 


111,681 


9,261 


24.504 


2.054 


Stokes 


22,290 


1.469 


4,418 


271 


Franklin 


29,4S6 


1,237 


5,831 


240 


Surry 


39,749 


3.113 


7,973 


580 


Gaston 


78,093 


6,389 


15,663 


1.326 


Swain 


11,568 


1,869 


2,270 


343 


Gates 


10,551 


673 


2.062 


129 


Transylvania 


9,589 


1,557 


2,098 


288 


Graham 


5,841 


1,590 


1,095 


294 


Tyrrell 


6,164 


850 


1,054 


168 


Granville 


28,723 


809 


5.570 


163 


Union 


40.979 


1,995 


8,209 


434 


Greene 


18,656 


718 


3.445 


133 


A'ante 


27.294 


1,642 


5,318 


345 


Guilford 


133,010 


12,865 


27.280 


2,869 


Wake 


94,757 


8,198 


19,393 


1,787 


Halifax 


53,246 


4,472 


10,205 


854 


Warren 


23,364 


1,071 


4,297 


201 


Harnett 


37,911 


1,994 


7,304 


381 


Washingto 


11,603 


1,124 


2,294 


208 


Haywood 


28,273 


3,439 


5,825 


651 


Watauga 


15,166 


2,436 


3,042 


435 


Henderson 


23,404 


3,415 


5,084 


698 


Wayne 


53,013 


3,291 


10,616 


695 


Hertford 


17,542 


903 


3,348 


187 


Wilkes 


36,162 


4,875 


6.912 


890 


Hoke 


14,244 


1,364 


2,645 


266 


Wilson 


44,914 


3,236 


9.050 


632 


Hyde 


8,580 


1,655 


1,733 


315 


Yadkin 


18,010 


1,706 


3.695 


330 


Iredell 


46,693 


3,394 


9,592 


679 


Yancey 


14,486 


1,615 


2,851 


297 


Jackson 
Johnston 


17,619 
57,621 


2,913 
3,050 


3,438 
11,334 


545 
639 












Total 


3,170,276 


262,517 


644,033 


53,550 



• 1930 Census figures. 



t Average 12 month?, January-December, 1935. 



Emergenct Relief in North Carolina 55 

Reorganization of ERA 

Immediately following the close of CWA, the entire program of ERA was reorganized with three 
major divisions, Social Service, Works, and Rehabilitation. 

The Social Service Division 

Under the new program, the Social Service Division became the foundation of all other divisions. 
It was the "hub of the wheel" ; it had the full responsibility for determining who was eligible for 
direct relief, work relief, and rehabilitation, the extent of need, the budgetary deficiency (the number 
of work hours per week depended upon this budgetary deficiency), of assisting the individual and the 
family with its varied problems, including fitness and adaptability to work, and of encouraging and 
assisting the family in securing private employment. Through the efforts of the case workers, 
hundreds of clients secured private employment each month. An example, in one county, the case 
worker, by personally securing jobs for the clients, in one month reduced the case load in her territory 
by half 

Greater emphasis was placed on improved standards of social work. Following the consolidation 
of counties into districts, and during this period from December, 1934, until the close of relief, 
December 5, 1935, the ERA made rapid strides in the social work field. In addition to the available 
trained social workers for supervision, workers were recruited from the ranks of those qualified by 
experience and adaptability. Training courses were given the social workers to increase their skill 
in dealing with human problems. 

Rural Rehabilitation 

North Carolina has long been interested in a sound program to enable rural families to become 
self-supporting and independent on "owned" farms. The extensive tenant system has been a 
millstone around the necks of both the tenant and the landlord, a condition aggravated by the 
depression, and which threw the tenant on relief and made borderline cases of formerly successful 
farmers who were unable to carry their tenants. The past Governor initiated the "Live at Home" 
program to induce farmers to produce their own foods and feed crops and a surplus to yield an income 
through sales to inhabitants in towns. Both the past and present Governor emphasized newer 
methods of farming, conservation of soil, and gave their full support for the enrichment of rural life. 
In 1933, N. C. ERA authorized a survey of farm tenant families in eleven counties, which was used 
as a basis in a rural rehabilitation plan proposed by the Emergency Relief Director of Social Work 
to FERA preceding the inauguration of the Rural Rehabilitation program in 1934. 

Approximately 65 per cent of the families on relief live in towns under 5,000 and in open country. 
N. C. ERA laid the foundation for a Rural Rehabilitation program in 1933 when aid was extended 
to about 30,000 families through small loans for subsistence farming and livestock. A large number 
of them paid back their loans in full. In 1934, a permanent fund was set up through organization 
of the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation, for the purpose of financing these families over a period of 
years, advancing to them funds for lease and purchase of land, subsistence, purchase of work stock, 
farm implements, fertilizer, etc., to enable them to earn a living through farming. Families to the 
number of 7,800 were taken off relief and placed on a self-sustaining basis through this program. 
Careful supervision of farming and conservation of food was provided. The clients were in the midst 
of their harvesting of crops when the management of the Rural Rehabilitation program was trans- 
ferred, in August, to the Rural Resettlement Administration. A complete audit of the Rural 
Rehabilitation Corporation as of June 30, 1935, shows a net worth at that time of $3,081,01 1.23. 



56 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



ORGA> I 
NORTH CAROLINA EI 1 



EMERGENCY RELIEl 
COMMISSION 



FEDERAL AND 
STATE AGENCIES 



STATE RELIEF 
ADMINISTRATOR 



\VORKS 
DIVISION 



ENGINEERING AND 
PROJECT CONTROL 



PURCHASING 
DEPARTMENT 



SAFETY 
DIVISION 



WOMEN'S 
DIVISION 



TRANSIENT 



SOCIAL 
SERVICE 
DIVISION 



ADJUSTMENTS 
COMPLAINTS 



DIRECTOR 

OF 
TRAINING 



SURPLUS 
COMMODITIES 



1 

L - I. 



GENERAL FIELD 
REPRESENTATIVES 




DISTRICT 
ADMINISTRATOR 



DISTRICT 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

DIVISION 



DISTRICT 
FINANCE 
DIVISION 



T 



STATISTICIAN 



ACCOUNTING 



DISBURSEMENTS 



COUNTY UNIT 



ASSIGNMENT 
CLERK 



H 



SOCIAL 
DIVISION 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



57 



ON CHART 

:ncy relief administration 



N. C. SELF-HELP 
CORPORATION 



RURAL 

REHABILITATION 

CORPORATION 



I 



PUBLIC 
RELATIONS 



LEGAL 
DEPARTMENT 



EDUCATION 



SELF-HELP 



, ^^ 

I COOPERATR'ES I 
I I 



FINANCE 
DIVISION 



AUDITING AND 
DISBURSEMENTS 



STATISTICAL 



RURAL 

REHABILITATION 

DIVISION 



ACCOUNTING 



FIELD 
AUDITORS 




REHABILITATION 
OF FARM FAMILIES 



\VORK CENTERS AND 

SELF-LIQ.UIDATING 

WORK PROJECTS 



RELOCATIOiN OF 

STRANDED 

POPULATION 



FIELD FARM 
SUPERVISORS 



DISTRICT 

WORKS 
DIVISION 



T 



DIRECTOR 

SURPLUS 

COMMODITIES 











FARM 
FOREMAN 



DISTRICT RURAL 

REHABILITATION 

DIVISION 



HOME 
ECONOMICS 



58 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



WORK RELIEF EARNINGS AS A PER CENT OF TOTAL RELIEF 
GRANTED FOR TWELVE MONTHS ENDING MARCH 31, 1935 

Per Cent 



Rant 


Cuuntij 


Percnl 


1 


STANLY 


84.7 


2 


RICHMOND 


84.5 


3 


CRAVEN 


82.6 


4 


ALAMANCE 


80.3 


S 


MACON 


79.3 


e 


MONTGOMERY 


7S.2 


7 


WAKE 


75.5 


8 


HYDE 


73.5 


9 


CASWELL 


72.4 


10 


VANCE 


72.0 


11 


WILSON 


71.2 


12 


ASHE 


70.1 


13 


CHATHAM 


68.9 


14 


EDGECOMBE 


68.9 


15 


GRAHAM 


68.5 


le 


LEE 


68.1 


17 


MECKLENBIRG 


67.7 


IS 


WARREN 


67.6 


ig 


TRANSYLVANIA 


66.8 


20 


UNION 


66.5 


21 


BURKE 


66.0 


22 


CALDWELL 


65.3 


23 


ORANGE 


63.9 


24 


CATAWBA 


63.7 


25 


SURRY 


63.2 


26 


HARNETT 


62.9 


27 


CARTERET 


62.9 


28 


TYRRELL 


62.8 


29 


WAYNE 


61.7 


30 


GUILFORD 


61.2 


31 


MADISON 


61.2 


32 


ANSON 


61.0 


33 


GRANVILLE 


60.4 


34 


PITT 


60.2 


35 


FORSYTH 


68.6 


36 


HEAUFOUT 


58.5 


37 


DAVIDSON 


67.7 


38 


PERQUIMANS 


67.5 


39 


ROBESON 


66.8 


40 


DARE 


55.9 


41 


BRUNSWICK 


55.3 


42 


LINCOLN 


55.2 


43 


NEW HANOVER 


55.2 


44 


ROCKINGHAM 


55.1 


45 


YANCEY 


54.9 


46 


GASTON 


64.5 


47 


MITCHELL 


63.5 


48 


STOKES 


52.0 


49 


WASHINGTON 


52.0 


60 


HENDERSON 


51.6 


61 


ALLEGHANY 


51.6 


52 


McDOW1;LL 


61.5 


63 


IREDELL 


51.4 


64 


BUNCOMBE 


51.2 


55 


HAYWOOD 


51.2 


69 


WILKES 


61.2 


57 


DURHAM 


50.7 


68 


JONES 


50.4 


69 


LENOIR 


50.4 


60 


CHOWAN 


49.9 


61 


SWAIN 


49.6 


62 


CABARRUS 


48.7 


63 


BLADEN 


48.5 


64 


MOORE 


48.5 


65 


DUPLIN 


47.9 


66 


MARTIN 


47.1 


67 


COLUMBUS 


46.2 


68 


NASH 


46.1 


69 


RANDOLPH 


46.1 


70 


CHEROKEE 


46.6 


71 


CLEVELAND 


43.7 


72 


NORTHAMPTON 


43.6 


73 


ROWA N 


43.6 


74 


CUMBERLAND 


42.9 


75 


FRANKLIN 


42.9 


76 


PASQUOTANK 


42.6 


77 


RUTHERFORD 


42.5 


78 


SAMPSON 


40.1 


79 


PERSON 


39.9 


80 


PENDER 


39.2 


81 


HALIFAX 


38.2 


82 


GREENE 


37.2 


83 


HERTFORD 


36.8 


84 


DAVIE 


36.6 


85 


HOKE 


36.0 


86 


SCOTLAND 


35.8 


87 


CLAY 


35.6 


88 


PAMLICO 


34.8 


89 


CURRITyCK 


34.3 


90 


ALEXANDER 


34.2 


91 


WATAUGA 


34.2 


92 


ONSLOW 


33.9 


93 


BERTIE 


31.3 


94 


AVERY 


31.2 


95 


GATES 


31.2 


96 


CAMDEN 


28.1 


97 


JOHNSTON 


23.3 


98 


POLK 


18.7 


99 


JACKSON 


17.1 


100 


YADKIN 


14.3 




THE STATE 


67.4 



40 



Go 



80 



N. C. ERA— Statistical Division. 



Emergency Relief in !N"oeth Carolina 59 

Works Division 

The gradual replacement of work relief for direct relief was one of the most significant develop- 
ments of the ERA. The purpose of the works program was three-fold. 

( 1 ) To maintain the morale and self-respect of persons receiving relief, by giving them an 
opportunity to earn their own living at fair wages ; 

(2) To preserve self-reliance and independence ; 

(3) To provide in each community, in return for money expended, projects which were of a 
definite social and economic value. 

The progress of the works program was impeded both by regulations and by local conditions, 
such as : 

(i) Lack of funds for materials and the inability of local communities to furnish them ; 

(2) The fact that only one member of a family was allowed to work at a time ; 

(3) Hours of work were limited — and no person could exceed in work hours his relief budget, 
which was limited by the amount of funds granted to the state, preventing continuity of work on 
a project ; 

(4) The small percentage of skilled and semi-skilled workers on relief created a difficult problem 
in completing these projects requiring skilled workmanship which were started under CWA. With 
increased private building, there was an upswing of demand for skilled laborers in private work, 
with a consequent decrease of the comparatively small percentage of such eligible workers on 
projects ; 

(5) Due to the scattered relief population, it was difficult to initiate projects in many sections. 

Notwithstanding these limitations, there were 44,291 relief persons at work in May, 1935 
(exclusive of Emergency Relief teachers and students). 

Benefits 

The Emergency Relief Program has not only provided the bare necessities and health protection 
to thousands of families, allayed the unrest and strengthened the morale of persons in desperate need, 
but the millions of dollars spent in purchasing food, clothing, household supplies, fertilizer, farm 
implements, tools and materials for work projects, have stimulated business and industry throughout 
the state. Under competent supervision of the work program, results of permanent value to the 
whole state have been realized in the construction of public buildings, highways, bridges, drainage 
and sanitation, conservation of natural resources, recreational facilities, etc. The services to the 
general public can best be interpreted through the achievements of the Emergency Relief Adminis- 
tration in North Carolina. 

The earnings on the work relief program varied greatly in the state, as shown by the chart on 
page 58, "Work Rehef Earnings as a Per Cent of Total Rehef Granted." The variations were due : 
(i) to the density and location of the relief population making projects possible ; (2) the employability 
of persons on relief; (3) the occupational type of persons on relief in a community — fitting the project 
to the worker; and (4) the ability and willingness of local governmental agencies to cooperate by 
furnishing materials, equipment, and the use of existing facilities. 

The work program under both CWA and ERA has included every type of work from making gar- 
ments in sewing rooms, and mattress making, to heavy construction, such as airports, reservoirs, 
schools, county homes, community houses, sewerage disposal systems, parks, graveled and hard- 
surfaced roads, in addition to research and survey projects. 



60 Emergency Relief in North Carolina 

Under CWA alone, over $6,500,000 was spent in building and repairing schools and gymnasiums 
and in building and improving roads in every county of the state. Under CWA and ERA, eighty- 
four school gymnasiums and six school auditoriums were built. Twenty-one concrete swimming 
pools, equipped with filtering systems (not including the pool at Asheville which was almost com- 
pleted when transferred to WPA), and twenty-two community houses were constructed, in addition 
to numerous parks and playgrounds, which have enhanced the recreational facilities in these com- 
munities. The North Carolina State College concrete stadium, seating 8,000 persons, was con- 
structed by ERA in a little more than six weeks. 

The intra-mural athletic field of the University of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill, is considered 
one of the finest in the South. Complete sewerage or water work systems have been constructed in 
many towns that would not have had them otherwise. In Asheville, Biltmore Street, Merrimon 
Avenue, and Broadway were widened by taking off fronts of all stores, setting them back, and 
rebuilding, work requiring expert skill. Se\en airports were built, the Raleigh airport being con- 
sidered one of the finest in the eastern United States. To increase resources of eastern Carolina, 
over one million bushels of oysters were planted and propagated in North Carolina waters under the 
supervision of the State Department of Conser\'ation and Development at an average cost of 
$0,079 P^'^ bushel. 

Drainage for Malaria Control 

Prior to the Ci\'il Works Administration, the ERA had undertaken a major work program, 
which was continued throughout the Civil Works Administration and into the reorganized Emergency 
Relief Administration, for the control of malaria by drainage, as malaria, prevalent in eastern North 
Carolina, influences both the health and economic status of the community. In malarious sections, 
a large number of relief clients were victims of malaria, and much of the indolence of people may be 
traced to malaria as it so depreciates strength and vitality as to seriously impair both the earning 
capacity and the power of thought. It has been shown that persons so infected are only two-thirds 
efficient. Experience in factories located in swamp or low areas has been that following malaria 
control the efficiency of workers increased from 30 per cent to 45 per cent. 

With the objective of reducing relief rolls by increasing the employability of relief clients, in 
October, 1933, the N. C. ERA and the State Board of Health, conforming to plans worked out 
jointly by the United States Public Health Ser\ice and the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, 
agreed upon a cooperative plan of drainage for malaria control which has resulted in one of the most 
beneficial and constructive projects of the administration. No drainage project was approved unless 
first approved by the State Board of Health. All drainage projects were supervised by the State 
Board of Health through the cooperation of the United States Public Health Service, the CWA and 
ERA employing a complete staff" of trained engineers working under the direction of the Special 
Drainage Engineer of the State Board of Health. The figures gi\en in the drainage section of the 
Works Division report show the extent and value of this program. 

The Sanitation Program, operated on a similar plan and under the supervision of the State 
Board of Health, has improved the sanitation conditions in every county in the state. Particular 
emphasis was given to improving sanitation facilities of public schools. 

Safety 

The North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration has had a remarkably low accident record 
under the direction of the Safety Division. The accident frequency was eleven hours out of every 
million hours of work under ERA, while the record of CWA was higher, being thirty-one hours. 
It must be taken into consideration, however, that under CWA the workers were untrained and were 
not always placed on jobs according to their skill, and also that the Safety Division was newly organ- 



Emeegenoy Relief in North Carolina 61 

ized. As the program de\'eloped, classes were initiated to give instruction in first aid, in cooperation 
with the American Red Cross, and a system for strict safety control was observed. 

Education 

Under the Educational Program, supcr\ised jointly by the State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion and the ERA, 2,200 unemployed teachers were given work. Thousands of people were taught 
to read and write and as many more received instruction in vocational educational classes. In the 
year 1934-35, 2,949 students were enabled to attend college through Student Aid. 

Vocational rehabilitation formed an important phase of this program. 

Civilian Conservation Corps 

The ERA was the selecting and enrollment agency for the Civilian Conservation Corps. Each 
quota of CCC enrollees was filled on time by ERA. The basic quota for North Carolina was 1 1,080. 
From June 15 to October, 1935, a total of 8,670 boys was enrolled. North Carolina received an 
additional quota on account of the failure of other states to fill their quotas, so that in one month 
2,000 additional boys were enrolled. Of the 8,670 boys enrolled, 69.2 per cent was boys under 
twenty-one years of age. This group just entering young manhood was eager and anxious when 
given the opportunity to do something for themselves, their parents, and their state. 

The Self -Help Fishing Cooperative 

The organization of the Self-Help Fishing Cooperative, the North Carolina Fisheries, Incorpo- 
rated, is one of the outstanding work relief and rehabilitation projects, designed to permanently 
rehabilitate and remove approximately 3,500 fishermen on the coast from relief rolls. A State 
Self-Help Corporation was organized and a grant of $29,000 was made by FERA to be loaned to 
the Co6perati\'e as an operating fund for three months. The Fisheries began operations October 
7, 1935. From present indications, this Cooperative is practically self-supporting and will probably 
not require further loans. 

The freezing and processing plants at Morehead, Southport, Swansboro, and Manteo were built 
by ERA. Substantial contributions of materials were made by the towns, and building sites were 
donated. The loans to the Fisheries on the buildings and operations, secured by notes and mortgages 
on property, are to be repaid to the Corporation for the establishment of other cooperatives. 

As a result, the fishermen who have been producing members of the Cooperative have been self- 
sustaining since the plants ha\e been in operation. One fishing community of thirty families which 
had been on relief since Federal funds were granted in 1932 averaged in October and November 
$37.00 per family per week. 

Drought Cattle 

In July, 1 934, the Federal Government requested the state to pasture and care for cattle purchased 
by FERA in the drought area of the middle west. Through this program, not only were millions of 
cattle saved from starvation, but the livestock owners were prevented from becoming recipients of 
relief through complete loss of all resources, and work as well as food was provided for relief clients 
in the states to which the cattle were shipped for pasture and slaughter. By the end of October, 
101,000 cows were received in North Carolina by ERA, tested, x-accinated, and reshipped to pastures. 
Over 26,000 of these cows were later shipped out of the state by order of the FERA. The remaining 
were slaughtered and distributed as fresh or canned meat. The total cost of this program, including 
construction of testing pens, stockyards, canneries, and abattoirs, pasture rentals, fencing, herding, 
etc., was approximately $3,350,000. The average cost per pound can for all canned meat, including 
cost of entire program, was 17 cents. 



62 Emergency Relief in North Carolina 

Transients 

The transient centers and work camps cared for 122,144 homeless individuals and families. 
The transients worked for their maintenance in the centers. 

Survey and Research Projects 

Research and Survey projects to secure information and compile data have been invaluable in 
furnishing a factual basis for relief and other emergency programs and Federal agencies. The 
Rural Rehabilitation program was largely based on the surveys on "Rural Relief Families in North 
Carolina," "The Problem of the Displaced Farm Tenant," "Rural Problem Localities," "Current 
Changes in Rural Relief Populations," "The Status of Rehef Famihes After ERA," "Study of 1,000 
Rural Relief and Non-Relief Households," conditions in cotton-growing counties. The surveys 
on industrial tobacco centers and the occupational surveys in the larger cities revealed valuable 
information for urban relief 

The bill for Unemployment Insurance introduced in the 1935 General Assembly was based on 
the information secured from the Surxey for Unemployment Insurance. 

Rural Electrification 

The Rural Electrification Sur\ey in North Carolina was the first to be completed in the United 
States and is now being used by the North Carolina Rural Electrification Authority as a basis for its 
program. Three rural lines were completed in Orange, Hoke, and Wilson counties, totaling twenty- 
two miles. 

Social Security 

In view of the Social Security Program, and in order to furnish the state with facts concerning 
persons on relief rolls who will be eligible to share in the benefits of the Social Security Program, the 
ERA Social Service Division, under the direction of Mr. J. S. Kirk, completed a survey of relief 
families who were on relief during 1934 and 1935. This survey reveals approximately 29,372 
families in which there are single or multiple problems invoking over 65,206 persons eligible to 
participate in the benefits of the Social Security Program. There are approximately 16,313 per- 
sons 65 years of age or over eligible for old age assistance, including the aged unemployables turned 
back to the counties in January, 1935. 

The Dole? 

This program which has been commonly referred to as the "dole" has been a real work program 
as shown by the photographs of work projects which are included in this report. It was designed 
to give employment to persons from every strata of society who were found eligible for relief. In 
spite of the fact that the case load included thousands of persons who can never work on account of 
physical and mental handicaps, 67 per cent of the entire case load was on the works program in one 
month during 1935. The average for the entire year of 1935 was 62 per cent. It was not unusual 
to find 90 per cent at work in certain counties. The peak of employment was reached under CWA. 
In a single week, 72,533 were at work. The maximum payroll for any one week was $931,709,28. 

Cooperation With Other Agencies 

Throughout the duration of the Unemployment Relief Program, the state and local relief adminis- 
trations have gi\en full cooperation to other permanent and emergency agencies, both state and 
Federal, to insure the maximum benefits of public funds through coordinated programs. 

With the establishment of the new work program in July, 1935, the services of ERA personnel 



Emeeoency Relief in North Carolina 63 

were freely gi\en in assisting the new WPA to get underway. Social records were transferred to the 
State Public Welfare Department and office furniture was made available. Materials, equipment, 
tools, and trucks were transferred with projects to WPA and office space made available. While 
priority consideration was given to the needs of WPA, the same services were made available to the 
Resettlement Administration and other emergency agencies. 

As this report goes to press, the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration is nearing the 
liquidation of a program of thirty months' duration. The objectives of this program, its methods, 
and its effects in general social and economical evolution, are not as yet far enough removed from the 
present problems relative to unemployment, and present methods of alleviating its ills, which are 
still in an experimental stage, for an e\aluation of the program to be made. A true evaluation can ^ 
be made only in future years. 

Observations and Recommendations 

Based on two and a half years of experience in the administration of relief, the following observa- 
tions and recommendations are made. With general improvement in business, there has been a v/ 
noticeable gain in employment, but there is little hope that the thousands of unemployed persons 
soon will be absorbed in gainful occupations. For the few thousands whose conditions have 
impro\ed, there is corresponding suffering for many thousands in the state who have not found 
pri\ate employment and who, because of limitations of the program, could not be certified for relief. 
With the discontinuance of relief in December, more than 30,000 employable persons left on relief 
rolls became local charges. These employables have added to a burden which local communities 
have been unable to meet, that of caring for the unemployables turned back to them by ERA in 
January, 1935. The reduction of workers on WPA, increasing still further the burden, has created 
a situation with which the local governments are utterly unable to cope. Any permanent solution 
of these problems demands thoughtful and coordinated local, state, and Federal effort, and must 
be the outgrowth of careful study, social planning, and sound legislation. 

It is hoped that the state will as soon as possible enact further appropriate legislation in order 
that participation in all the benefits of the Federal Social Security Act will provide necessary assist- 
ance to all unemployable persons in distress. 

(i) It is recommended that pending further state legislation to provide participation in all the 
benefits of the Social Security Act, that the Federal Government renew the grants to the state for 
direct relief to assist the local governments in more adequate care of unemployables, and to meet 
the needs of those employables not pro\ided with work on WPA and other emergency work programs. 

Work opportunities provided from public funds should be on the basis of need and not limited by 
mandatory regulations that recipients of relief benefits should have been on relief within a specified 
period. The limitations of the work program have resulted in hardship and suffering for those who 
had the initiati\e and ambition to seek and secure seasonal employment, or have precluded employ- 
ment on public works for those whose resources were subsequently depleted, resulting in the dis- 
couragement of those who make every effort toward self-support or even temporary independence. 

(2) It is recommended that the regulations of the present Federal works program be made 
sufficiently flexible to provide that the certification of workers on emergency works programs be 
made on the basis of their current need of relief without fixed limitations as to time of having been 
in need and on relief rolls. It is further recommended that direct relief be granted or other provisions 
made for those persons who are unable to work on projects because of inaccessibility or other reasons. 

Through a sur\ey in thirteen counties representing a cross-section of North Carolina, of all rural 
families on relief, it was found that 5 1 per cent appeared capable of gainful farming. It was demon- 



64 Emeegency Relief in North Cabolina 

strated by the ERA that with financial aid and proper supervision the majority of these rural families 
made substantial progress toward becoming self-supporting and that several years would be the 
minimum time in which these families would be able to become independent. "To aid these 
prospects to become farm owners would be both financial and human economy."* 

(3) It is recommended that greater emphasis be placed on the restoration of destitute rural 
families, with a pro\ision for adequate social work superxision to aid in adjusting family problems 
and farm super\ision for successful farm operations, and that any program of rural rehabilitation 
should include state super\ision and should be made sufficiently flexible to meet local conditions. 

Thousands of persons have been dislodged from their normal occupations and homes by con- 
ditions created by the economic depression. These people have drifted into communities where 
they ha\e no legal settlement, and therefore no legal right to local relief, since under the law of this 
and many other states neither the state nor local political sub-di\'isions may use public funds to 
relieve non-resident persons. The effort of a family or indi\idual to seek opportunities for self- 
betterment is a commendable objective. Owing to the di\ersity of legal settlement laws in the states, 
homeless transients are often inhumanly passed back and forth by local and state agencies until all 
legal settlement is lost. Of the 122,144 transients assisted in transient centers and work camps in 
North Carolina from June, 1934, through December, 1935, more than 78 per cent was interstate 
transients, the remaining number was intrastate. A substantial number was seeking health or 
economic betterment in other sections of the state or in other states. It is evident that the transient 
problem is both permanent and interstate in its scope. The past two years of Federal aid to the 
homeless transient have demonstrated that on a national plan these conditions can be alleviated. 

(4) It is recommended that the states liberalize their legal settlement laws so as to attain uni- 
formity throughout the nation, and that pending such action, legal settlement of non-residents be 
determined or \'erified on a social work principle of the welfare of the family or person and that 
emergency relief on a case work basis be pro\"ided for non-residents, if needed, in the form of relief 
or care. It is also recommended that the states make possible their full cooperation to the Federal 
government in a permanent Federal-state transient program to be administered and financed ac- 
cording to the principles of grants-in-aid laid down in the Social Security Act. Pending the attain- 
ment of these objectives, it is recommended that the Federal government renew its program of direct 
and work relief to transients. 

Understanding and skill are essential in dealing with human problems. The experience of the 
Emergency Relief Administration has demonstrated that training and efficiency are necessary for 
all welfare workers to successfully assist in the adjustment of family problems. 

(5) It is therefore recommended that a Civil Service plan be established for the selection of all 
social ser\ice and welfare workers, and pending the establishment of Ci\il Ser\ice requirements that 
the selection of welfare and social service workers be on the merit system. 



* Rural Relief Families in North Carolina, by Gordon Blackwell. 



CIVIL WORKS ADMINISTRATION 

The Specific Set-up and Procedure of CWA as Outlined by Mr. Hopkins in His Speech 

OF November 15, 1933 

"The purpose of the Federal Civil Works Administration is to provide regular work on public 
works at regular wages for unemployed persons able and willing to work. 

"The Board of the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works has allocated to the 
Federal Emergency Relief Administration $400,000,000 for this purpose. 

"The Federal Emergency Relief Administrator is the Administrator of the Federal Civil Works 
Administration. 

"The Federal Civil Works Administrator will appoint the state and local Civil Works Ad- 
ministrations. 

"It is the intention of the Federal Civil Works Administrator to use, in so far as practicable, exist- 
ing work divisions of the federal, state, and local Emergency Relief Administrations. Additional 
technical personnel, if found necessary, will be appointed by the Federal Civil Works Administrator. 

"It is contemplated that all persons on work-relief and all work-relief projects under way as of 
November 16, 1933, in order to share in the funds available for Civil Works projects, are to be 
transferred between November 16 and ig to the Civil Works Administration. 

"The objective of the Civil Works Administration is the employment of 4,000,000 persons by 
December 15, 1933. Two million of these persons receiving relief on November 16, 1933, either 
as work-relief or direct relief, are to be employed on Civil Works projects by direct transference 
from the relief office to Civil Works projects on or before December i, 1933. 

"On or after December i, or prior to this date, if the relief quota has been transferred and em- 
ployed by the Civil Works Administration, all applications for employment will be made through 
the local employment agencies designated by the U. S. Employment Service and placements will be 
made in accordance with preference as set forth in Title II of the National Industrial Recovery Act. 

"Federal Emergency Relief funds may be used to pay wages to persons transferred from relief 
rolls to Civil Works projects. Wherever state and local laws permit, it is urged that state and local 
relief funds be similarly used. If this is not possible, it is suggested that the funds received from the 
Federal Emergency Relief Administration be allocated entirely to Civil Works projects and state 
and local relief funds be used for direct relief 

"It is not contemplated, unless persons now on work-relief or other employable persons on 
relief are transferred to Civil Works projects in accordance with the rules and regulations of the 
Civil Works Administration, that funds will be made available to provided work and wages on Civil 
Works projects. 

"All public works projects of the character heretofore constructed or carried on either by the 
public authority or with public aid to serve the interest of the general public are eligible, provided 
that: (i) they are socially and economically desirable, and (2) they may be undertaken quickly. 
All Civil Works projects must be carried on by force account (day labor), and not by contract. 

"No project for which application has been made to the Emergency Administration of Public 
Works and which has not been referred by it to the Civil Works Administration is acceptable as a 
Civil Works project. 



66 Emebgency Relief in Nokth Carolina 

"No project which a public body is able to finance under the terms of Title II, of the National 
Industrial Recovery Act, and the Rules and Regulations thereunder, is acceptable as a Civil Works 
project. 

"Funds at the disposal of the Federal Civil Works Administrator will be expended upon projects 
conforming to specifications as set fisrth above. All Civil Works projects shall he SHbmittcd to the 
local Civil Works Administration on forms to be furnished by the Federal Civil Works Administration. 
The local Civil Works Administrations shall submit such applications to the State Civil Works Ad- 
ministration, with recommendations for approval or disapproval. State Civil Works projects shall 
be submitted direct to the State Civil Works Administration. The State Civil Works Administration 
shall approve these projects with such limitations as the Federal Civil Works Administrator may from 
time to time prescribe or establish. 

"Civil Works project applications shall contain such data as are required by the Federal Civil 
Works Administration, and shall be submitted in triplicate to the local Civil Works Administration. 
Two copies are to be sent by the local Civil Works Administration to the State Civil Works Admin- 
istration. One copy shall be immediately forwarded by the State Civil Works Administration to 
the Federal Civil Works Administration. 

"In carrying out Civil Works projects, the Civil Works Administration will use the operating 
departments of public bodies, except where the Civil Works Administration directly carries out 
Civil Works projects. 

"Necessary funds will be allocated to State Civil Works Administrations by the Federal Civil 
Works Administration on a just and equitable basis. 

"The hours of labor, wage rates, etc., on Civil Works projects shall be fixed in accordance with the 
rules and regulations established by the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works, as 
follows : 

"i. 30-hour week. Except in Executive, Administrative, or Supervisory positions, so far as 
practicable and feasible, no individual indirectly employed on a Civil Works project shall be 
permitted to work more than 30 hours in any one week ; provided that the clause shall be construed, 
(a) To permit working time lost because of inclement weather, or unavoidable delays in any one 
week to be made up in the succeeding 20 days ; (b) To permit the limitation of not more than 130 
hours work in any one calendar month, to be substituted for the requirement of not more than 30 
hours work in any one week on projects in localities where a sufficient amount of labor is not available 
in the immediate vicinity of the work ; and (c) To permit work up to 8 hours a day, or up to 40 hours 
a week on projects located at points so remote and inaccessible that camps or floating plants are 
necessary for the housing and boarding of all the labor employed. 

"2. No person under 16 years of age shall be employed on Civil Works projects. 

"3. The maximum of human labor shall be used in lieu of machinery wherever practicable 
and consistent with sound economic and public advantage. 

"4. All employees employed in Civil Works projects shall be paid just and reasonable wages, 
which shall be compensation sufficient to provide, for the hours of labor as limited, a standard of 
living in decency and comfort. The Civil Works Administration shall pay not less than the mini- 
mum hourly wages for skilled and unskilled labor prescribed by the Federal Administrator of Public 
Works viz. : 

"That for the purpose of determining wage rates on all construction financed from funds appro- 
priated by the Administrator of Public Works under the authority of the National jindustrial Re- 
covery Act, the United States shall be divided into three zones as follows : 'Southern zone : — South 
Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Arkansas, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arizona, Oklahoma, 



Emeroency Relief in Noeth Cabolina 67 

Texas and New Mexico. Central zone : — Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee, Colorado, 
Utah, California, North Carolina, West Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri, Kansas, Nevada, and 
District of Columbia. Northern zone : — Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Indiana, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Nebraska, Wyoming, 
Oregon, South Dakota, Idaho, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Iowa, North Dakota, Mon- 
tana and Washington.' 

"The hourly wage rates to be paid on construction projects in these zones shall be not less than 
the following : 



ithern zone : 


"Central zone : 


"Northern zone : 


Skilled labor $i.oo 


Skilled labor $1.10 


Skilled labor $1.20 


Unskilled labor .40 


Unskilled labor .45 


Unskilled labor .50 



"On road projects the wage rates shall be those which have been fixed by the State Highway 
Departments, in accordance with Sec. 204c of the National Industrial Recovery Act. 

"So far as articles, materials, and supplies produced in the United States are concerned, only 
articles, materials, and supplies produced under codes of fair competition under Title I of the Nation- 
al Industrial Recovery Act or under the President's Reemployment Agreement, shall be used in the 
performance of this work, except when the Federal Civil Works Administration certifies that this 
requirement is not in the public interest or that the consequent cost is unreasonable. 

"So far as is practicable, and subject to the provisions of the above paragraph, preference shall 
also be given to the use of locally produced materials if such does not involve higher cost, inferior 
quality or insufficient quantity. 

"The methods of disbursing Civil Works Administration funds, the accounting system to be 
established, and the financial reports which will be required on Civil Works projects will be outlined 
in a subsequent order." 

Civil Works Administration 

The first step under the Civil Works Administration in getting projects under way, after the 
necessary forms had been printed, was the transfer of approved work relief projects from the Fed- 
eral Emergency Relief Administration to the Civil Works Administration. The actual transfer of 
Work Relief projects to Form L-3 was done in the state office on Friday, Saturday and Sunday, 
November 17, 18 and 19. 

All Local Administrators were given authority to immediately transfer all Work Relief projects 
to Civil Works projects. 

Except in the cities and larger towns, all Work Relief projects had been stopped in July, 1933, 
thus only a small number of Work Relief projects were under way in the state at the time the Civil 
Works Administration was formed so, although several thousand men were immediately put to 
work on the projects transferred from Work Relief, only a small percentage of North Carolina's 
quota could be thus employed. 

On Saturday, November 18, all Local Emergency Relief Administrators were called to Raleigh 
for a meeting. At this meeting the purpose of the Civil Works Administration was explained, 
and as much of the details of the organization as was known were outlined. The administrators 
were instructed to send in projects immediately for approval. This they did, some projects being 
received on Monday, November 20. 

At the close of the Civil Works Administration program, the two largest problems confronting 
the Works Division of the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration were carrying to com- 



68 



EiiEEGENCY Relief in North Cabolina 




■ f;'-^: 



(i) Quarrying stone in Caldwell County. (2) Quarrying and crushing stone for street improvements in Monroe, Union County. 
(3) Crushing stone, Alamance County. - 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



69 




■."^ "- ~ <• 



(i) Sidewalk built at Hamlet, ''Richmond County. (2) Sidewalk built at Wadesboro, Anson County. (3) Sidewalks and curb built 
at Rockingham, Richmond County. (4) Sewer construction at Elizabethtown, Bladen County. 



70 Emebgency Relief in North Carolina 

pletion those projects begun under the Civil Works Administration, and providing projects on which 
employable persons on the relief rolls could be employed. 

The first step to completion of Civil Works Administration projects was the transfer of these 
projects to the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration. This transfer of projects was 
well under way by April i, 1934, and transferred CWA projects were being pushed to completion. 
The completion of some of the Civil Works projects was made very difficult, first, because no emer- 
gency relief funds were at that time available for the purchase of materials, and second, because 
certain classes of skilled labor were not on relief rolls. The allotment of special funds for the com- 
pletion of CWA projects, which began in September, 1934, did much to help overcome this diffi- 
culty, but the fact that such funds were not made available until five months after the Civil Works 
program closed delayed the completion of many CWA projects. 

As of July I, 1935, all CWA projects are completed or were over ninety per cent complete. The 
list of completed projects at the end of this report indicates those CWA projects which were com- 
pleted as of June i, 1935. 

Despite the urgency of completing CWA projects so that there would be no loss of material or 
abandonment of worthwhile projects, the primary function of the Works Division was to provide 
projects that would employ relief cases at the type of work they were best qualified to do. This was by 
no means a simple job, but required the exercise of considerable ingenuity and close supervision. 
Among the obstacles to be overcome were the difficulty of getting adequate and competent super- 
vision for the wages which the Emergency Relief Administration was able to pay, the necessity 
of getting materials from sources outside the Emergency Relief Administration and the difficulty 
of locating worthwhile projects so that they would be accessible to the relief clients. These obsta- 
cles were largely overcome by the cooperation of local governmental units such as the counties, 
municipalities, school boards, etc. Many municipalities and counties had come to the wise con- 
clusion that every advantage should be taken of the opportunity to use labor provided by the Emer- 
gency Relief Administration, and those counties and municipalities that came to this conclusion 
and cooperated with the Administration were able to carry on and complete many worthwhile and 
beneficial projects of every description. 

Relation of Projects to New Program 

It was extremely difficult to carry on efficiently and in the best method most of the construction 
projects started as Civil Works Administration projects due to the lack of funds for skilled labor 
and material. Projects such as parks, airports, schools, and highways, unless they were too large, 
were carried on very well with hand labor. 

A good deal of the drainage work, and most of the rural sanitation work was carried on effi- 
ciently. The extensions of water and sewer systems, where all of the materials had been purchased, 
were carried on efficiently with ERA funds. 

The fact that much smaller funds were available for work projects under the ERA program made 
it difficult to carry on continuously projects that required skilled labor. 

Beginning with Tuesday, November 21, projects were received in the State Civil Works Office 
at the rate of from two to five hundred per day. Approvals for projects went out at the rate of 
about two hundred and fifty per day for about three weeks, and then gradually decreased. 

For the first few weeks of the program great stress was laid on the necessity of getting men to 
work immediately. Under these conditions it was impossible to build up immediately an organi- 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 71 

zation adequate for properly handling in full detail project applications ; however, every project 
was checked for errors in figures, materials, lists, etc. As far as was possible from the meager plans 
and information that were gotten up hurriedly, the cost of the project as estimated locally, was 
checked with the cost as estimated by the State Civil Works Administration. Every project was 
carefully considered for its eligibility as a Civil Works project, and the ratio of labor and materials, 
as set by the State Civil Works Administration, was strictly enforced. 

During the first weeks, a great number of the projects were poorly prepared, but at the time 
they were received and checked, neither adequate information nor sufficient time was available 
for an accurate estimate. 

After sufficient force and space had been secured by the Engineering Department projects were 
much more carefully checked and reports from District Engineers aided materially in thoroughly 
scrutinizing projects. 

The routine followed in approving projects was as follows : 

Immediately upon reaching the state office, each project was registered and given a registra- 
tion number and date. Projects were then sorted, by counties, stamped, and face-sheeted. They 
were then sent to the checking room where engineers and architects checked projects for accuracy 
in figures, for deficiency or excess of labor and materials, and for correctness of form. Projects 
were then checked by the State Work Project Supervisor, or the Chief Office Engineer, who sent 
them to the Administrator with their comments and recommendations for final approval. After 
final approval or disapproval, the local units were notified and the copies of the project were for- 
warded to their final destination. 

The above procedure was followed with Form L-3A which reached this state in sufficient quan- 
tities for use about the first of February. 

Upon receiving sufficient Forms L-3A, orders were sent to each local unit to transfer all approved 
projects to this form. Every one of the transferred projects was carefully checked against the orig- 
inal project as approved on Form L-3. Great difficulty was experienced in getting Form L-3A 
properly filled out, and a great deal of the time of this office was taken up for two months in check- 
ing transfers. 

In summary it can be said that actual work on projects was very little delayed because of lack 
of approved projects, and that on the whole projects approved were consistently of a type involving 
permanent improvements and benefits to the public. 

Quota 

The original quota of 68,000 persons allotted to North Carolina on the basis of one-fourth popu- 
lation and three-fourths case load was distributed proportionately among the counties and city 
units on the same basis. 

Since women were not qualified for construction work as required for the CWA program, an 
additional quota of 4,702 was allotted the State for women on CWS projects. This was distributed 
to local units according to the number of women eligible for relief 

A further additional quota was allotted in two installments to be used for State and special 
projects. A Federal quota of approximately 1 1 ,000 was reserved in Washington — this was allo- 
cated directly from Washington to Federal projects within the state. An unused Federal quota 
of 1,500 was given to the State a few days before curtailment of the program on January 18. 

Due to the failure of some of the counties to get the full quota on, and the fact that the second 



72 



Emergency Relief in ^North Carolina 




(i) BroadwT) Avenue before widening, Ashetille, Buncombe County. (a) Biltmore Avenue before widening, Asheville, Buncombe County. 
(3) Widening of Biltmore Avenue, Asheville, nearing completion. (4) Broadway Avenue, Asheville, after being widened. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 73 

installment of the additional 5,000 and 1,500 was received just prior to instruction from Washing- 
ton on January 18 that no new workers could be added to the payroll, North Carolina did not 
reach the maximum quota. The maximum number reached was 78,360. 

The first half of the original 68,000 was placed from November 15 to December i, by the admin- 
istrators from persons on relief rolls prior to November 15. All the quota after December i was 
placed through the Reemployment Service. 

Transfers From Relief Rolls and Employment Placements 

During the period from November 15 to December i, 1933, a total of 19,941 were transferred 
from the relief rolls to CWAjobs. Of this number 19,379 were classified as heads of families, the 
remaining 562 being classified as individuals who had been drawing direct relief 

Still further transfers were made after December i until the CWA quota from relief rolls, which 
was one-half the total CWA quota for North Carolina, was taken off direct relief and assigned jobs. 

During the period from December i, 1933, to June i, 1934, the National Reemployment Serv- 
ice placed 106,827 people on jobs. The reemployment service reported that the majority of these 
were placed on CWA and PWA jobs. 

The same service reports that few placements were made through union locals because of the 
fact that there are only a few such organizations in North Carolina outside of the specialized manu- 
facturing trades. About thirty men were employed through contracting trade unions at Fayette- 
ville and about the same number at Wilmington. There is no agency from which to secure accu- 
rate figures concerning these placements but it is well known, as stated, that such unions are so few 
as to be negligible. 

Labor Distribution 



Registrations to 


CWA 


Percentage of Total 


April 28 


Placements 


Registrations 


56,079 


9,452 


16.8 


29491 


5,802 


19.6 


20,032 


3,470 


17-3 


24,562 


5,828 


23-7 


25>i4i 


3,886 


154 


32,802 


5,743 


17-5 


53,630 


9,853 


18.3 


35,538 


5,276 


14.8 


49,267 


9,812 


19-9 



*326,542 +59,122 18.1 

Labor Relations 

Wage Scales 

The PWA wage scale of 45c per hour, the minimum for unskilled labor, and Si. 10 for skilled 
labor was paid on all CWA projects. In North Carolina an intermediate scale for semi-skilled 
was paid. These semi-skilled rates were based on intermediate rates proposed but not adopted 
by PWA. 

* Total registration figures as furnished by Reemployment Service. 

+ Number placed at work from registration list furnished by Reemployment Service. 



74 



Emergency Relief in I^orth Carolina 




(i) Workers receiving pay checks in Durham. (2) Paying o;ff workers in Raleigh. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 75 

As the CWA rate was much higher than rates paid in the cities and rural communities by pri- 
vate industry, there was Uttle opportunity to absorb workers into private woric. There was a tend- 
ency of workers to give up jobs and register with the Reemployment Service. Numerous com- 
plaints were recei\ed concerning the difficulty of securing workers, because of the number of per- 
sons holding CWA jobs, or who had left private employment to accept CWA jobs. 

Clerical Wage Scale 

The Clerical Wage Scale was as follows : 

1 . The Base Rate, that paid for work of a routine nature requiring little prior training and 
experience, was $12.00 per week. 

2. The Intermediate Rate, that paid for work which required specific training, was $15.00 
per week. 

3. The Operating-Supervisory Rate, that paid persons directing the work of others, was $18.00 
per week. 

4. The Technical-Supervisory Rate, that paid persons having professional or technical train- 
ing, was $35.00 per week. 

The State CWA and the State Reemployment office appointed local Clearance Committees, 
composed of the local CWA administrator, the chairman of the Advisory Committee, the local 
reemployment manager and the chairman of Reemployment Committee. The duty of the Clear- 
ance Committee was to handle complaints and to determine if the adjustment was the responsi- 
bility of the CWA or of the Reemployment Service. The report was made to the proper state 
agency for adjustment. 

The North Carolina Department of Labor loaned the Senior Labor Inspector, Mr. Jack 
Lang, to the CWA to make adjustments. 

After December i, placements were made through Reemployment — the statutory preferences 
as to ex-service men with families and residence in locality were followed. The trade unions were 
called upon to furnish men sometimes but as the unemployed union workers were registered with 
the Reemployment Service, practically all requisitions were cleared through the Reemployment 
office. 

Working Hours 

The 30-hour week and 6-hour day, except in rural areas where the maximum 8-hour day was 
used, for manual labor and the 39-hour week and 8-hour day for clerical, professional supervisors, 
etc., as established by the Federal CWA, was strictly followed in North Carolina. 

Beginning January 18 the working hours were reduced to 24 per week in cities and towns over 
2,500 ; to 15 hours in towns less than 2,500 and in open country. 

Purchasing Department 

The department through which material, supplies, equipment and tools were purchased or 
rented for the various projects authorized by the Ci\il Works Administration, was organized im- 
mediately upon receipt of the necessary authority and instruction. All efforts were made to or- 
ganize the department that it might function in a manner consistent with the needs as rapidly as 
such needs were established. 

This report covers the general procedure followed in making purchases and such data are gi\'en 
as will allow a somewhat broad interpretation of the department's activities. (While the purchasing 
department became encumbered at times with duties outside of its immediate jurisdiction and in 
the interests of the general organization, no reference is made to them in this report.) 



76 Emergency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 

All decisions and policies were governed by such instructions as were made available by the 
"Manual of Financial Procedure, Accounting, and Reporting for the State and Local Ci\'il Works 
Administrations," and subsequent ad\ice of miscellaneous nature as was received from time to time 
from higher authority. 

The Purchasing Department gave and received full cooperation in regard to inter-departmental 
activities, and it was due to this that the detail resulting from the emergency was considerably 
lessened. 

The authority \'ested in the Purchasing Department allowed the purchases and rentals of all 
materials, supplies and equipment. 

The central purchasing department office was located in Raleigh. Se\'eral of the local ad- 
ministration offices retained purchasing officers, but in general, the local routine of securing bids, 
etc., was carried on by officers retained for other duties. 

When the amount of purchase exceeded S 1,000.00, in\itations to bid were issued and awards 
made directly from the Raleigh office. When the amounts inxolved were less than $1,000.00, 
invitations to bid were issued directly to the \endors by the local administration office and the 
awards were then made by the Raleigh office. 

When the Local Administrator secured bids under the above procedure, the purchases were 
usually made from local \-endors. If the material to be purchased was not a\'ailable locally or 
there was not a sufficient number of bidders a\ailable, requisition was forwarded to Raleigh and 
purchases made from the latter office. 

A list of prospective bidders was maintained in the Raleigh office. The names of all vendors 
who made known their desire to bid upon material to be purchased by the Civil Works Adminis- 
tration were placed upon this list, and in\itations were mailed to them at such time as purchases 
were to be made. 

The Purchase Requisition from the Local Administration office formed the basis for purchase 
or rental. The requirements, as stated by the Purchase Requisition, were accepted in so far as the 
type and quantity were concerned. The specifications go\erning quality were added to the bid 
form by the Raleigh office. 

Invitations to bid (Form 33) were issued immediately upon receipt of the Purchase Requisition 
from the local administration office. Bids were received in sealed envelopes and dated to be 
opened at Raleigh one week after the inxitations had been issued. Bids were opened and read 
publicly at 4 : 00 p.m. each afternoon except Saturday, Sunday, and holidays, and awards made 
immediately upon proper determination of the low bidder. 

In all cases, except actual emergency, no bids were opened unless at least three sealed bids were 
submitted. 

Performance bond, to the amount of fifty per cent of the bid, was required to be filed with all 
bids o\'er Si, 000. 00. This requirement was established on account of early experience indicating 
irresponsibility of certain bidders which resulted in loss of time in securing materials. As there 
was also a delay in securing the performance bond after the award was made, considerable valuable 
time was sa\ed by requiring the performance bond to be furnished by all bidders and filed with 
their bid, rather than the usual bid bond. 

Attempt was made to use the Emergency Purchase Statement (Form L-22) as little as possible. 
The emergency feature was regarded as applying to the entire CWA program rather than to any 
particular project at any particular time, and the routine of purchasing any given material was 
scheduled to be accomplished in the shortest possible time consistent with organized procedure. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 77 

In cases where it would be necessary to discontinue work on a particular project and leave the labor 
idle until material was received, suitable additional emergency means were adopted to care for 
such situations as they developed. 

All purchasing was stopped on March 30, 1934. Upon this last day it was necessary to make 
a small amount of special emergency purchases to pro\ide material for such projects as were to be 
completed, and information regarding them was not available until this time. 

The amount of purchase recorded amounted to $2,490,124.17. 

Nine full time purchasing agents were employed by local administration offices. In general, 
local details incidental to purchasing were carried on by the general administration office personnel. 



Analysis of Purchase and Contribution of Materials, Supplies and Equipment 
November 17, 1933 to March 31, 1934 



2. 
3- 

4- 
5- 



Item 

Aggregate Material and 

Stone 
Cement 
Bituminous Materials 

Petroleum Products 
Iron and Steel 



6. Clay Products 

7. Lumber 

8. Plumbing and Heating 

Supplies 

9. Hardware 

10. Explosives 

1 1 . Paint and Paint Materials 

12. Equipment Parts and 

Supplies 

13. Office Materials and 

Equipment 

14. Tools 

15. Miscellaneous 



16. Grand Total 



Typical Materials 

Sand, Gravel, Stone, Slag, Cinders, Riprap, 
Granite, Cut Stone, etc. 

Cement, Lime and Plaster 

Road oil. Primer asphalt, Asphaltic concrete. 
Sheet asphalt. Roofing tar, etc. 

Gasoline, Oil, Grease, Fuel oil, Kerosene 

Steel (Structural and Reinforced), Metal Doors, 
Windows, Wire Lath, Cast and Galvanized 
Iron Pipe, Cable, Fencing, etc. 

Brick (common, face, fire, paving). Pipes : Drain, 
Tile, Vitrified, Sewer, etc. 

Rough and Finished Lumber, Laths, Shingles, 
Shakes, Mill work. Wood Piling, Timber, etc. 

Plumbing, Gas Fitting, Heating and Ventilating 
equipment, Septic tanks, etc. 

Rough and Finished, Nails, Bolts, Nuts, etc. 

Dynamite, Black powder, Caps, Fuses 

Paints, Varnishes, Linseed oil. Putty, White lead 

Tires, Tubes, Truck parts. Other mechanical 
Equipment parts 

General office supplies. Furniture and Equipment 
(when purchased). Forms and Stationery (in- 
cluding printing cost) 

Shovels, Picks, Hammers, Saws, Brushes, Han- 
dles, Wheelbarrows, etc. 

Enter items not properly classifiable in any of 
abo\e groups 



CWA-FERA 

Funds 

5 268,793.21 
272,165.74 

133,307-68 
39,271-64 



322,273.63 
235,181.96 
279,283.08 

59,371-15 
57,549-18 
31,111.96 

145,283.91 
36,021.23 

24,596-93 

102,686.49 

34,294.65 

12,041,192.44 



^ Tlie words "and Contributions" and "FERA" should have heen omitted. 



78 



Emekgency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 







(i) Cemetery wall built in Johnston County. (2) Stream gaging station built in Davie County. (3) Stone office building at public 
cemetery in Salisbury, Rowan County. (4) Wall around cemetery in Mecklenburg County. (5) Wall built at Old Soldiers' Cemetery at 
Stalesuille, Iredell County. (6) Wall built at cemetery in Jackson County. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



79 







*^ 



(i) Concrete culvert built in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County. (2) Bridge built in Lincoln County in cooperation with State Highway 
Commission. (3) Underpass under highway at the Jackson Training School, Cabarrus County. (4) Queen River Bridge, Onslow County. 



80 Emebgekcy Relief in j^oeth Cakolina 

Final in\entory was left entirely to the local administrators who were required to keep the rec- 
ords and store all unused materials. Such tools and equipment as were transferred from a com- 
pleted or discontinued CWA project to an active ERA project were transferred within the unit so 
that the original administrator was responsible at all times. The administrators were instructed 
to stencil or stamp the proper marking on all equipment purchased. 

The total operating cost of the Purchasing Department for salaries and traveling expenses, 
including the local and state offices, is approximately one third of one per cent of the amount 
purchased. 

Projects — Types and Procedure 

Projects \aried in type from simple earth-mo\ing operations, such as minor grading on school 
grounds to de\'elopment of large recreational facilities in\ol\ing the construction of bathhouses, 
boathouses, swimming pools, amphitheaters, tennis courts, lakes, and play areas. 

In the field of building construction, projects ranged from minor repairs to the construction 
of school buildings. The following types of projects were de\eloped : 

L Streets, Roads and Highways. 
A. Streets : 

1. Grading, Filling, Leveling, Widening, Straightening, Shouldering: 

Under this classification the work \aried from grading work, such as simple repairs invol- 
\ing filling in and surface grading and drainage, to cutting through new streets which were 
opened for relie\ing traffic congestion. Projects of this sort were carried on in e\ery town 
and city in the state, and in most of the \illages. They \-aried in cost from a few hundred 
dollars to o\'er $100,000.00. 

Street widening projects ranged from widening dirt streets to street projects that involved the 
tearing down, cutting back, and rebuilding of store fronts. Most of the projects of this sort 
were located in the larger towns and cities, and \'aried in cost from a few hundred dollars to 
$50,000.00. 

All of the abo\e types were sponsored by the various city officials of the localities in which 
the projects were located. 

2. Pa\ing and Resurfacing of Streets : 

Projects of this type in\-ol\'ed mostly surface treatment of existing pa\ed streets. These 
projects were located in a few of the larger cities, and \aried in cost from $5,000 to $100,000. 
These paving and resurfacing projects were sponsored by the municipal officials in the cities 
in which the projects were carried on and were prosecuted under the super\ision of city 
engineering departments. 

3. Retaining Walls, Curbs, Gutters, and Culverts : 

Several curb and gutter projects were carried on in the cities. In some cases old stone 
gutters and curbs were torn out and replaced with concrete curbs and gutters. In other 
cases entirely new curbs and gutters were built. A few stone retaining walls were built, 
especially in the mountainous sections. These projects were sponsored by city and county 
officials. 

4. Landscaping, Streets : 

A. Planting, Tree and Shrubbery Pruning, and Tree Surgery : 

About a dozen worthwhile projects for the repairing and pruning of trees were carried 
on. These projects were done by trained tree surgeons under expert supervision, and in 
most cases were badly needed. 



Emeegency Relief in Worth Carolina 81 

There were about fifty projects in\ol\ing street tree planting, none of which were ex- 
tensi\e. All projects of this type were sponsored by municipal officials. 
5. Production of Materials for Streets : 
A. Sand, Gravel and Rock : 

In some cases rock was quarried by CWA labor for use on street surfacing projects. Sand 
and gra\el were also gotten for these projects. 

B. Sidewalks and Pathways : 

1. Grading and Filling : 

A number of sand-clay sidewalks were graded and repaired. Work of this type was done 
mostly in small towns. 

2. Building, Repairing and Re-laying : 

Se\eral very worthwhile sidewalk projects were built. These projects inxohed grading 
and other necessary preparation and the laying of concrete sidewalks. Projects of this type 
varied in cost from a few hundred dollars to over $50,000.00. 

The larger projects covered the building of several miles of sidewalks. All projects under 
this classification were sponsored by the municipal officials of the \'arious towns and cities. 
Many gra\el sidewalks were built in rural areas, especially in thickly populated sections 
along highways carrying hea\y traffic. In projects of this type particular attention was given 
to locating the sidewalks where they would serve school children and keep them from walk- 
ing on the highways. 

These rural sidewalks \aried in size from a few blocks to about fi\e miles, and in cost from 
$500.00 to $40,000.00. 

C. Roads and Highways : 

1 . Grading, Widening, Leveling, Straightening and Shouldering : 

Under this classification, work done included surfacing, grading, filling in and Ie\eling of 
sand-clay, secondary and market roads. Many roads impassable in wet weather were put 
into good condition by this type of work. A number of narrow roads in the remote rural 
sections were widened and straightened, making more accessible the areas they served. 

Projects of this type varied in size from less than a mile to as much as twenty miles, and 
\aried in cost from a few hundred dollars to over $50,000.00. 

2. Pa\ing and Resurfacing of Highways : 

No concrete surfacing was carried on as a CWA project since this was considered in the field 
of Public Works and a type of work more properly done by the Highway Commission. Most 
of the resurfacing was in the nature of topsoiling and sand graveling, although about one 
hundred projects in\olved the surfacing of roads with stone. Only a few roads were 
surfaced with the penetration type of treatment. 

Paving and surfacing projects covered about the same range in cost and size as grading, 
filling, leveling, etc., projects. 

3. Impro\ing Intersections and Eliminating Dangerous Curves : 

Dangerous intersections at cross roads and railroad crossings were improxed by cutting 
back high banks. Dangerous cur\es were eliminated mostly in the process of widening and 
straightening roads. 

4. Bridges, Underpasses, Cuherts, etc. : 

Not more than fifteen or twenty bridges were built, most of which were small and built on 
the mountain roads where it had been necessary pre\iously to ford small streams ; however, 
work on one large bridge was begun on the seacoast. During a storm an inlet had been 



82 



EMEEfjENCY Relief in North Caeolin-a 










(i) Eliminating dangerous curve on highway in Stokes County. (2) Relocation of Salisbury Road to eliminate curve, Forsyth County. 
{3) Construction of a new road in Durham County. (4) Extension of Qjieen Street in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County. (5) Relocation 
of Highway 6, Catawba County. 



Emerokncy Relief in North Carolina 83 

cut in the sand banks, cutting off the people in that section from the main land. This 
bridge will make this area accessible. A number of concrete culverts were constructed in 
places where drainage difficulties had occurred. 

An underpass was built for the Jackson Training School, a boys' training school. 

D. Landscaping : 

I. Roadside Improvement and Planting : 

Se\eral roadside improvement projects were undertaken. Work on these projects involved 
cutting back all steep banks, le\'eling out of fills, straightening shoulders, providing permanent 
drainage ditches, and the planting of native trees and shrubbery. 

In certain sections of the state, much interest was manifested in projects of this type. Road- 
side improvement projects, if properly planned and supervised, afford one of the most worth- 
while and constructive fields of relief work. 

E. Materials for Roadways : 

1. Sand, Gravel and Stone : 

Projects of this type were generally carried on as part of the projects listed above. Field 
stone was gathered from adjacent fields ; topsoil and gra\el were dug from areas purchased 
for this purpose by the State Highway Commission. 

All projects on the highways and roads were sponsored and supervised by the State High- 
way Commission. 

II. Schools and Universities. 

A. New Construction : 

Construction projects for schools and universities were mostly additions of one or more 
rooms to the existing school buildings. One ten-room Negro school and several three- and 
four-room schools were built. Projects of this type varied in cost from under Si,ooo to $20,- 

000. and o\er three hundred new school rooms were added. The most important item in 
new buildings was school gymnasiums. 0\er one hundred were approved, and work was 
started on eighty-eight. Gymnasiums \aried in cost from $2,000 to $20,000. All projects 
pertaining to the public schools were sponsored by the local Boards of Education. 

2. Repairing, Painting, and Renovating : 

Repair jobs involved mainly repairs, painting,' repairs to roofs, re-roofing, repairs to inter- 
iors, plastering, lighting, repairs to furniture and equipment, including repairs to school 
busses. New floors were laid, partitions added or taken out, and in some cases general reno- 
vation was carried on. Work of this type was done on public schools and on State Univer- 
sities and colleges, both white and Negro, and varied in cost from a few hundred dollars to 
Si 00,000. All public school work was sponsored by the directors of these institutions, and 
by the State Budget Bureau. 

B. Grounds and Athletic Areas : 

1 . Building and Improving Athletic Fields and Grandstands ; Building and Resurfacing 
Tennis Courts : 

Projects of this sort involved the repair of existing athletic fields and tennis courts, and the 
construction of new tennis courts and athletic fields. These projects varied in cost from a few 
hundred dollars to $50,000.00. 

2. Grading and Beautifying School Grounds ; Construction of Playgrounds, Lanes, Walks 
and Paths : 

Projects under this classification involved mainly minor grading and planting, the con- 



84 Emergekcy Relief in N^orth Carolina 

struction of new walks and paths, and varied in cost from under $1,000.00 to $50,000.00. 
The sponsorship of these projects was the same as that for other school and college work. 

III. Parks, Playgrounds and Other Recreational Facilities. 

A. Impro\ement of Grounds : 

Improvement of parks and playgrounds co\'ered all types of work, from simple clearing and 
brush remo\al, to surface grading and extensive landscaping, and the construction of walks, 
bridle paths, gutters and proper drainage facilities. 

B. Construction of New Recreational Facilities : 

Construction of new recreational facilities included the construction of large parks and play- 
grounds, and small parks, small playgrounds, small city parks, golf courses, summer camps, 
bathing beaches, skating rinks and gymnasiums for indoor athletics. Several large parks 
were constructed. In these large projects were included swimming pools, bath houses, boat 
houses, tennis courts, play areas, barbecue pits, amphitheaters, lakes and extensive land- 
scaping and planting. Work was started on twenty swimming pools, most of which were part 
of larger park developments. One large municipal stadium was built. 

Projects of the above type \'aried from about $2,000.00 to Sioo,ooo.oo and were sponsored 
by county and city officials. 

IV. Rural Community Centers and Fair Grounds. 

Rural community centers and fair grounds are separately classified because both affect 
mainly the rural population and pro\ide recreation for them. Much interest was shown in 
rural community centers, but projects for these centers were planned and submitted too late 
for much work to be done on them under the CWA program ; howe\'er, it was urged that all 
structures at these centers be built from nati\'e materials, such as logs or native stone, and that 
the people interested furnish the necessary manufactured material so that it may be possible 
to do work on rural community centers under the ERA program. 

Work on about twenty fair grounds was carried on and varied in type from minor repairs 
to making streets, sidewalks and landscape improvements. 

These projects were sponsored by county and state officials. 

V. Public Buildings. 

A. Construction and Additions : 

Several projects in\'olving construction of additions to city halls, fire stations, courthouses, 
city garages, county homes, libraries, orphanages, etc., were carried on. One art museum 
was built. The art museum was a reconstruction project, being reconstructed from the ma- 
terials of a historic building that had been demolished. 

Projects of this type ^•aried from $5,000.00 to $75,000.00 in size, ranging from one-room 
additions to the construction of the abo\e mentioned museum. 

B. Repairs to Public Buildings : 

Repairs to public buildings in\ol\-ed types of repair work including plastering, plumbing, 
painting, erection of and demolition of partitions, and \aried in cost from $1,000.00 to 
$5,000.00. 

These projects were sponsored by county and municipal authorities. 

VI. Airports. 

Work was done on twelve airports in the state. Some of these airports involved grading and 
le\eling sufficient for an emergency landing. Work on three of the airports in\olved drainage 
and hardsurfacing of runways, and these airports, since completion, are of the highest type. 



EMEROENrY Relief in North Carolina. 85 

These airports \-aried in size from fifteen to o\-er two hundred acres, and in cost from 
$1,000.00 to $250,000.00. 

All airport projects were sponsored by the officials of the cities when they were built and 
were appro\ed by the State Aeronautical Ad\isers. 

\'II. Cemetery Improvements and Repairs. 

Impro\cments and repairs were made to about forty cemeteries, involving grading, 
building walks and driveways, landscaping and planting. They varied in cost from less 
than $1,000.00 to over $50,000.00. 

VIII. Improvements to State and Public Lands. 

A. Improxements to State Game Farms, Game Reserves and Fish Hatcheries : 

Work involving the repairing, painting, grading and other such minor rehabilitation re- 
pairs was done on all State-owned game reserves, fish hatcheries and most of the state test 
farms. New breeding pens, spawning pools, bird pens, bird runs, etc., were also built. 

Projects of this type cost from under $1,000.00 to over $20,000.00 and were sponsored by 
the State Department of Conser\ation and Dc\elopment. 

B. Oyster Planting : 

In eight counties oyster planting projects were carried on. From the standpoint of the im- 
pro\ement of the economic life of the people, oyster planting was one of our most important 
projects. Oyster planting was sponsored by the State Department of Conservation and De- 
velopment. 

Oyster Planting 



Carteret County 




Brunswick County 




Payroll 


$ 3i>2o8.85 


Payroll 


$ 2,540.25 


Bushels planted 


388,889.00 


Bushels planted 


37,720 


Cost per bushel 


.08 


Cost per bushel 


.07 


Dare County 




Pender County 




Payroll 


$ 9,702.24 


Payroll 


$ 2,377.50 


Bushels planted 


92,810.00 


Bushels planted 


26,319 


Cost per bushel 


.104 


Cost per bushel 


.09 


Onslow County 




New Hano\er County 


Payroll 


$ 2,947.20 


Payroll 


$ 1,146.40 


Bushels planted 


31=934 


Bushels planted 


16,128 


Cost per bushel 


.104 


Cost per bushel 


.071 


Hyde County 




Pamlico County 




Payroll 


$ 4,389.20 


Payroll 


$ 2,056.45 


Bushels planted 


39>058 


Bushels planted 


78,567 


Cost per bushel 


.112 


Cost per bushel 


.026 




Summary 




Total 


Payroll 


$ 58,368.09 




Total bushels planted 


7">425 




A\'eraj 


ye cost per bushel 


■079 





C. A few projects for forest improvement, such as building look-out towers and cutting fire 
lanes were carried on. 



86 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 




(i) Boals used in planting oysters, Brunswick County. (2) Oyster planting, Carteret County. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



87 




(i) School addition built for primary grades at mill village near Concotd, Cabarrus County. (2) Addition to Massey Hill school, Cumber- 
land County. (3) Addition oj wings to Pitt County school. (4) Auditorium built at Mecklenburg County school. 



Emergency Relief in North Caeolina 




(i) Rock retaining walls built at school in Durham County. (2) Road imjirovement and stone retaining wall built at Cullowhee school, 
Jackson County. (3) Entrance posts in cemetery wall, Burlington, .Alamance County. (4) Wall constructed around Old Soldiers' cemetery. 
Statesville, Iredell County. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 




(i) Hams Park in Winston-Salem after grading and landscaping, Forsyth County. (3) Rhododendron Gardens Park built in Asheville, 
Buncombe County. (3) Picnic tables and benches and outdoor fireplace in Winston-Salem Park, Forsyth County. (4) Iris in Runnymead 
Park, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County. (5) Iris in Runnymead Park, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County. (6) Overlook, City Park, Winston- 
Salem, Forsyth County. 



90 Emergency Relief in N"oeth Carolina 

IX. Pest Control. 

A. Pestiferous Malaria Mosquitoes : 

Projects for mosquito control were mainly those for the eradication of malaria mosquitoes. 
Most of the work done for this purpose was drainage and stream clearing. The largest por- 
tion of the work was done in the eastern section of the state. 

Drainage consisted of straightening, widening, and deepening existing streams, cutting of 
new drainage ditches and the cutting of lateral drainage ditches. Some of this work was done 
with draglines and dredges, but all lateral and smaller streams were improved by hand labor. 

The control of pestiferous mosquitoes was confined largely to the salt marshes, and was 
accomplished by hand ditching and straightening of streams. 

The cost of malaria control projects varied from under $1,000.00 to o\'er $75,000.00. The 
length of ditches and streams cut and improxed \'aried from a few hundred feet to forty-two 
miles. 

All malaria control projects were sponsored by city and county officials, and the North Caro- 
lina State Board of Health, acting as agent for the United States Public Health Service. The 
engineering supervision of these projects was vested in the State Board of Health. 

B. Control of Other Pests : 

The only other pest control projects of any importance were the destruction of yellow flies. 

X. Sanitation. 

A. Construction : 

Projects for the impro\'ement of sanitary conditions included the building of sanitary sewers 
and the extension of sanitary sewers and the construction of small disposal plants. 

Projects of this type varied in cost from $2,000.00 to over $50,000.00, and included projects 
for from a few blocks to several miles of sewers. 

Projects of this type were sponsored by the city and county officials and approved, as re- 
quired under the state law, by the State Board of Health. 

Many important and necessary improvements were made in rural sections by the construc- 
tion of sanitary privies, both for private homes and at rural schools. 

Septic tanks were built at schools and in congested areas, under the sanitary privy projects. 

Projects of this type were carried on in every county in the state and ranged in cost from a 
few hundred dollars, for the construction of school privies, to almost $100,000.00 for the con- 
struction of thousands of indi\idual pri\ies in the larger counties. 

Sanitary privy projects were sponsored by city and county officials, and by the State Board 
of Health. 

B. Other Projects for the Improvement of Public Health : 

Other projects for the improvement of public health included projects for cleaning creeks 
and streams, filling in marshy places, filling in dumping grounds, etc., and were sponsored by 
the officials of the communities affected. 

XI. Water Works and Water Supply. 

A. Water Sheds, Reservoirs and Grounds : 

Work under this heading consisted of clearing and cleaning water sheds by thinning woods 
and removing brush and debris, clearing, grading and cleaning around reservoirs, and grading 
and landscaping around water works plants. Projects under this classification varied in cost 
from less than $1,000.00 to over $10,000.00 and were sponsored by city officials. 



Emeegency Relief in North Carolina 91 

B. Water Works and Distributing Systems : 

The main work done under this classification was the laying and repairing of water mains. 
Extensions were made to existing water works systems, and new systems were built in towns 
which previously had no systems. Existing water mains were repaired in many cases. 

Projects of this sort varied from under Si,ooo.oo for repairs, to over $100,000.00 for new 
systems, and in size varied from the extension of a few blocks to an auxiliary line over fifteen 
miles in length. 

School water supply systems were also constructed and repaired. In a few of the smaller 
towns, wells and aeration plants were built. 

All this work was sponsored by city and county officials. 

XII. Utilities. 

The only work of this type done was the building of two rural power lines and repair work 
on a few municipally owned electric line and power systems. Very few utilities are publicly 
owned in this state. 

XIII. Administrative, Professional and Clerical. 

Under this classification was personnel of the State and Local Civil Works Administration 
Offices, and such miscellaneous work as indexing county records, filing and bringing up to 
date of records in county courthouses, the making of traffic surveys, traffic maps, clerical, 
stenographic and filing projects in various public offices. 

Federal Projects 

1 . Tennessee Valley Authority : Various improvement projects including : Forestry and 
Soil Erosion, River Gaging, Building Feeder Roads, Rural Sanitation, General Sanitary Survey, 
Compilation of Basic Data, Reconnaissance Survey. These projects operated in approximately 12 
western counties including : Cherokee, Clay, Macon, Graham, Swain, Jackson, Transylvania, 
Henderson, Buncombe, Haywood, Madison, Yancey, Avery, Mitchell, Watauga. Original set-up : 
up to 2,268 men; $44,619 for other than labor expenses. 

2. Archeological Excavations : Sponsored and directed by the Smithsonian Institute, Bu- 
reau of American Ethnology. Project consisted of excavation of Indian mound on Hiwassee River, 
Cherokee County. Original set-up : 104 men; $806.25 ^o^' other than labor expenses. 

3. Cotton Statistics : Sponsored and directed by the Agricultural Department, Bureau of 
Agricultural Economics. Operated in 5 counties : Mecklenburg, Guilford, Cabarrus, Gaston, New 
Hano\er. Original set-up : 18 men; $528.00 for other than labor expenses. 

4. Census of American Business : Sponsored and directed by the Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of Census. Operated in every county. Original set-up : 319 men ; $2,250.00 for other than 
labor expenses. 

5. Maintenance Work at Experiment Stations : Sponsored and directed by Department 
of Agriculture, Bureau Chemistry and Soils. Operated in 6 counties : Columbus, Carteret, Pamlico, 
Jones, Duplin, Iredell. Consisted of various repairs to houses and laboratories, painting, rebuild- 
ing, road improvements, etc., at experiment stations. Original set-up : 83 men ; $7,443.00 for other 
than labor expenses. 

6. Improvement Coast Guard Property Along Coast : Sponsored and directed by Depart- 
ment of Treasury, Coast Guard Bureau. Operated in 2 counties : Dare and Currituck. Original 
set-up : 56 men ; $4,415.00 for other than labor expenses. 

7. Local Control Surveys : Sponsored and directed by Department of Commerce, Bureau 



92 



Emergency Relief in ISTokth Carolina 














(24) ERA labor clearing large swamp in Harnett County. (25) Municipal drainage system in Siler City. Chatham County. 
(26) Draining large swamps in vicinity 0/ Hertford, Perquimans County. (27) Completing large drainage system near Wilmington, New 
Hanover County. (28) Completing large project in Hemp, Moore County. (29) Starting important malaria control project at Warren 
Plains, Warren County . (30) Draining large swamp which surrounds Jacksonville, Onslow Coun'y. (31) Tapping large mosquito breeding 
pond within city limits of Durham, Durham County. 



Emergency Eelief in North Carolina 



93 



■^^^^^^^^■::- 





(i) Dam, constructed under CWA and ERA, twelve miles above cily for Asheville water supply. Buncombe County. (2) Twelve miles 
of sixteen-inch pipe laid under CWA and ERA for City of Asheville water supply, Buncombe County. (3) Chlorinator house constructed under 
CWA and ERA for City of Asheville water supply. 



94 Emergency Relief in Worth Carolina 

Coast and Geodetic Suney. Consisted of triangulation, traverse, and leveling. Operated in 24 
counties, the original authorization calling for 575 men. 

8. Employment Record Studies : Sponsored and directed by the Department of Labor, 
Bureau of United States Employment Ser\ice. Comprised compilation and analysis of employ- 
ment statistics to serve reemployment and recovery program. Original set-up : 30 persons. 

9. Farm Housing Survey : Sponsored and directed by Department of Agriculture, Bureau 
Agricultural Economics. Operated in 12 counties ; namely : A\'ery, Iredell, Moore, Duplin, Cleve- 
land, Henderson, Alamance, Robeson, Edgecombe, Currituck, Camden, and Pasquotank. Orig- 
inal authorization: 164 men; $4,750.00 for other than labor expenses. 

10. Farm Mortgage and Land Values : Sponsored and directed by Department of Agri- 
culture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics. Comprised tax delinquency and land transfers (in- 
cluding mortgage foreclosures). Operated in 80 counties, approximately state-wide. Original 
set-up : 386 men ; $1,445.00 for other than labor expenses. 

11. Construction, Repairing, and Installing Gaging Station E(^uipment at 22 Stations 
ON Streams in North Carolina : Sponsored and directed by the Department of Interior, Bureau 
of Geological Sur\ey. Operated in 21 counties. Original set-up: 141 men; $7,000.00 for other 
than labor expenses. 

12. Historic American Buildings Survey: Sponsored and directed by the Department of 
the Interior, Bureau of National Parks, Buildings, and Reservations. Consisted of a survey of old 
courthouses, churches, bridges, dwellings, schools, etc., having historic value and interest, local and 
national. Operated in 7 counties : Mecklenburg, Forsyth, Buncombe, New Hano\er, Craven, 
Wake, Chowan. Original set-up : 28 men ; $175.00 for other than labor expenses. 

13. Indian Reservations Construction: Sponsored and directed by Department of Inter- 
ior, Bureau of Indian Affairs. Construction and repairing on Indian reservation in Cherokee 
County. Original set-up : 18 men ; $800.00 for other than labor expenses. 

14. Improving Lighthouse Property : Sponsored and directed by Department of Commerce 
— Bureau of Lighthouses. Operated at Hobucken Lighthouse Reservation, Pamlico County, clear- 
ing off reservation, building about 700 feet of road, etc. Original set-up : 12 laborers ; $3,240.00 
for labor. No materials required, tools furnished by Lighthouse Service. 

15. Malaria Control : Sponsored and directed by Bureau of Public Health Service, Depart- 
ment of Treasury. Drainage for malaria control and mosquito eradication, operated in 54 coun- 
ties. Original set-up called for 440 men. 

16. Census Record Preservation, Tabulating, Checking and Map Drafting: Sponsored 
and directed by Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census. Original set-up : 7 men ; $2,200.00 
for expenses other than labor. 

17. National Parks and Monuments: Sponsored and directed by Department of Interior, 
Bureau National Parks, Buildings and Monuments. Work on Great Smoky Mountains National 
Park, operated in Haywood and Macon counties. Original set-up : 109 men ; $6,660.00 for other 
than labor expenses. 

18. Work on National Forest and Forest Experiment Station Units Within State: 
Sponsored and directed by Department of Agriculture, Bureau Forest Service. Operated in 2 
counties, at Bent Creek Experimental Forest and Appalachian Forest Experimental Station in 
Buncombe, and at Coweeta Experimental Station in Macon. Original set-up : 182 men ; $6,916.00 
for other than labor expenses. 

19. Posts, Camps, Stations of the Army and at National Cemeteries: Sponsored and 



Emergency Relief in JSTorth Carolina 95 

directed by Department of War, Bureau of Quartermaster Corps. Work at Fort Macon in Car- 
teret County ; likewise at : 





Men 


Funds required in 
original set-up 


Camp Glenn 


7,600 




Fort Bragg 


1,360 


$ 692,754.00 


Raleigh Cemetery 


18 


3,600.00 


New Bern Cemetery 


17 


3,800.00 


Salisbury Cemetery 


43 


11,500.00 



Wilmington Cemetery 30 3,400.00 

20. Prices Farmers Pay : Sponsored and directed by Department of Agriculture, Bureau of 
Agricultural Economics. Operated in about 98 counties, approximately state-wide. Original 
set-up : 103 men ; $868.00 for other than labor expenses. 

2 1 . Work on Experimental Stations and Related Activities : Sponsored and directed by 
Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Operated at Willard Test Farm in Pender 
County, where the work consisted of making culture media and culturing pine canker fungus, a 
growth particularly disastrous to the turpentine industry, and at Asheville, where the project in- 
volved the preparation of a field for cooperative pasture experiment, painting government-owned 
laboratories, etc. Original set-up : 82 men ; $250.00 for other than labor expenses. 

22. Pest Mosquito Control : Sponsored and directed by Department of Agriculture, Bureau 
of Entomology, consisting of salt marsh drainage. This operated in Brunswick, New Hanover, 
Pasquotank, Craven and Carteret counties, the original set-up calling for 1,024 "i^n and $10,- 
000.00 for other than labor expenses. 

23. Reemployment Offices : Sponsored and directed by Bureau of National Reemployment 
Ser\'ice. This project consisted of the maintenance of reemployment offices in every county in the 
state. It is still in operation, being paid from a special fund. Original set-up : 350 workers and 
$86,400.00 for other than labor expenses. 

24. Real Property Inventory : Sponsored and directed by Department of Commerce, 
Bureau Foreign and Domestic Census. This consisted of ascertaining the amount of construction 
and repair needed on dwellings, etc. Operated in Buncombe, Guilford and Mecklenburg counties. 
Original set-up : 90 men ; $1,675.00 for other than labor expenses. 

25. Survey of Employment Histories of Railroad Employees : Sponsored and directed by 
Department Federal Coordinator of Transportation. Operated at Wilmington, consisting of the 
survey of employees of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. Original set-up : no people; $1,000.00 
for other than labor expenses. 

26. National Relief Census and Supporting Local Studies : Sponsored and directed by 
Department of Federal Emergency Relief Administration, Bureau of Research and Statistics. This 
project is still operating with headquarters in Mecklenburg County. Original set-up : 85 men and 
$850.00 for other than labor expenses. 

27. Community Sanitation on a Nation-wide Scale : Sponsored and directed by Depart- 
ment of Treasury, Bureau of Public Health Service. Original authorization in this state called for 
1,358 men. 

28. Subsistence Homesteads Records : Sponsored and directed by Department of Interior, 
Bureau Subsistence Homesteads Division. Part-time farming studies included. Originally called 
for 66 persons, $50.00 for expenditures. Operated in 14 counties : Wake, Robeson, Forsyth, Bun- 



96 



Emergency Relief in ISTokth Carolina 






(i) Atkinson Gymnasium built in Pender County. is) Gymnasium built in Northampton County. (3) Gymnasium built at Goldsboro 
in Wayne County. (4) Gymnasium built at Woodland, Northampton County. (5) Gymnasium built at Richlannds in Onslow County. 
(6) Gymnasium built at New London in Stanly County. 



Emergency Eelief in North Carolina 97 

combe, Jackson, Wilkes, McDowell, Caldwell, Randolph, Guilford, Davidson, Brunswick, Carteret, 
Burke. 

29. Development and Construction of Subsistence Homesteads : Sponsored and directed 
by Department of Interior, Subsistence Homesteads Division. This project operated through 
Penderlea Homesteads, Inc., in Pender County, also in DupHn, Sampson and New Hanover 
(Headquarters in Wilmington). First authorization called for 78 persons and $1,545.00 for other 
than labor expenses. 

30. Analysis of Tax Delinquency and Overlapping Governments : Sponsored and di- 
rected by Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census. Original set-up: 16 men; $100.00 for 
other than labor expenses. 

31. Building, Repairing, Renovating and Otherwise Preparing Buildings to be Occu- 
pied BY Transients Under Federal Care : Sponsored and directed by FERA Department, 
Transient Department. Original set-up : 100 men ; $3,870.00 for other than labor expenses. 

32. Buildings and Grounds Maintenance : Sponsored and directed by Bureau Veterans 
Administration, Bureau of Construction Service. Consisted of painting Dodge Facility Ward at 
Oteen Hospital, Buncombe County. Original set-up : 23 men ; and $1,500.00 for other than labor 
expenses. 

33. Compilation of Meteorological Data : Sponsored and directed by the Department of 
Agriculture Weather Bureau. Operated in Raleigh. Original set-up: 5 men; $100.00 for other 
than labor expenses. 

34. Employment and Payrolls : Sponsored and directed by Department of Labor, Bureau 
of Labor Statistics. Original set-up: 12 men; $750.00. Operated in conjunction with F-76, 
Reemployment Offices, in Wake, Chowan, Craven, Robeson, Guilford, Mecklenburg, Wilkes, 
Clexeland, Buncombe and Franklin counties. 

Total projects operated during CWA numbered 34, comprising surveys, impro\ements, con- 
struction, compilation of data for future use, etc. 

Summary 

CWA Expenditures (Round Numbers) $1,293,000.00 
Local Contributions (Round Numbers) 305,000.00 
Number New Schoolrooms 294 

Number New Gymnasiums 87 

Number Repaired Gymnasiums 34 

Number Playgrounds Graded 338 

Public School Improvements in North Carolina Under CWA to March 15, 1934 

CWA Contribution 
The School Plant 

New Schoolrooms 
Reno\'ated Rooms 
Miscellaneous 

Total $ 37i>o68 $ 192,091 $ 563,159 $ 167,798 $ 730,957 



No. Labor Material 


Total 


Local 
Material 


Total 


292 $ 109,945 $ 58,744 $ 


168,689 ^ 


75,245 S 


243,934 


2-,792 86,917 64,898 


151,815 


49,314 


192., 129 


174,206 68,449 


242,655 


52,239 


294,894 



98 



The School Plant 



Embhgency Relief in North Carolina 

No. Labor Material Total 



Local 
Material 



Total 



Recreational Facilities : 
New Gymnasiums 
Repaired Gymnasiums 
Playgrounds 



88 $ 128,702 $ 84,100 $ 212,802 $ 99,082 $ 307,858 

31 25,958 10,363 36,321 7,530 43>85i 

348 345,356 42,436 387,782 34,449 422,231 



Total 


S 500, 


016 $ 


136,899 $ 636,905 $ 141,061 $ 773,937 


Special Units (Cities) 


97. 


,961 


20,306 118,267 


State Educational Institutions 


189. 


,034 


72,251 261,285 


Grand Total 


$1,158: 


,079 $ 


421,547 $1,579,626 $ 308,859 $1,888,515 




Approximate 




— Approximate 




Percent of 




Percent of 




Total Amount 




Type of Project Total Amount 


Type of Project 


Approved for 




Approved for 




All Projects 




All Projects 


I . Street Repair and Paving 


7-9 


18. 


Golf Course Construction 


2. Road Repair and Surfacing 


23.1 




and Park Improxements 3.6 


3. Sidewalk Construction and 




19- 


Municipal Buildings, Con- 



Repair 2.3 

Tree Planting and Beautifi- 

cation 0.8 



20. 



5- 


Rock (Quarry and Crushing 




21. 




Stone 


0.2 


22. 


6. 


School Repairs and Painting 


8.5 




7- 


School Construction and 




23- 




Additions 


1.2 




8. 


School Gymnasiums Con- 








structed 


1.8 


24. 


9- 


School Water Supply, Con- 








struction and Repair 


0.4 


25- 


10. 


Construction and Repair 




26. 




School Athletic Field 


0-5 




II. 


Construction School Walks 




27. 




and Playgrounds 


2.1 


28. 


12. 


School Sanitation 


0.7 




13- 


School Bus Repairs 


0.2 


29- 


14. 


Nursery Schools 


0.06 




15- 


Construction and Repair 




30. 




Municipal Sewer System 


5-0 


31- 


16. 


Construction and Repair 




32- 




Sanitary Privies 


15-7 


33- 


17- 


Cemetery Improvements 








and Repairs 


0.3 





struction and Repair 4.3 

School Heating Plants, 

Construction and Repair 0.2 

Malaria Drainage 1 1 .0 

Municipal Water Supply, 

Construction and Repair 4.2 

Swimming Pools and Com- 
munity Buildings, Con- 
struction and Repair 0.5 

Fish Hatchery and Oyster 

Planting 0.6 

Fire Lanes, Cutting Timber 0.4 

Airport Construction and 

Repair 3.2 

Bridges, Canals, Dykes, etc. 0.5 

State Farms and Game Re- 
serves 0.258 

Rural Power Lines Con- 
structed 0.15 

Tools and Supplies 0.45 

Signs for Projects 0.017 

Surveying for Projects 0.005 

Blacksmiths Work 0.02 



Total Percent 100. 



EsrERGENCY EeLIEF IN NoRTH CaEOLINA 



Cost 
Up to $1,000 

$1,000-2,000 

$2,000-3,000 

$3,000-4,000 

$4,000-5,000 

$5,000-6,000 

$6,000-7,000 

$7,000-8,000 

$8,000-9,000 

$9,000-10,000 

$10,000-15,000 

$15,000-20,000 

$20,000-25,000 

$25,000-50,000 

$50,000-100,000 

Over $100,000 

Total 



Classification of Civil Works Administration Projects 

Fire Lanes Airport Construe- Bridges, Canals, State Farms and 

Game Reserves 
(No. of Projects) 

5 
I 
o 
I 
I 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
I 
o 
o 
I 
o 
o 



Cutting Timber 


tion 


and Repair 


Dykes, Etc. 


(No. of Projects) 


(No. 


of Projects) 


(No. of Projects 


3 




I 


3 


I 




2 


3 


2 







5 


3 




I 


2 


I 










2 










2 










I 










I 


















I 


I 







2 


I 


















I 







2 





















4 






18 



10 



17 



10 





Crushing 




Stone 


Cost 


(No. of 




Projects) 


Up to $1,000 





$1,000-2,000 





$2,000-3,000 


I 


$3,000-4,000 





$4,000-5,000 


I 


$5,000-6,000 


I 


$6,000-7,000 


I 


$7,000-8,000 





$8,000-9,000 


I 


$9,000-10,000 





$10,000-15,000 





$15,000-20,000 





$20,000-25,000 





$25,000-50,000 





$50,000-100,000 





Over $100,000 






Nursery 

Schools 

(No. of 

Projects) 



I 


o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



College 
Repair 

(No. of 
Projects) 



School Bus Rural Power 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

o 
o 
I 
o 
o 
o 
o 



Repairs 




Lines 


(No. of 


Constructed 


Projects) 


(No. 


of Projects 


4 




I 


2 







I 




















I 


I 
























































































Total 



100 



EjrERGEXCY Relief ix Nokth Cakoltxa 




(i) Farmington School Gymnasium built at Farmingion, Davie County. (2) Gymnasium built at Morehead City, Carteret County. 
(3) Gymnasium built at State College for Negroes, Durham, Durham County. (4) Gymnasium built at Healing Springs, Ashe County. 
(5) Interior of Troy Gymnasium, Montgomery County. 



Emergency Relief in Korth Carolina 



101 




(i) Addition to Hiddenite School in Alexander County. (2) Green Valley School built in Watauga County. (3) Landis Colored 
School built in Rowan County, reconstructed after fire. (4) Nathans Creek High School, Ashe County, completed under CWA and ERA. 
(5) Taylorsville Colored School built in Alexander County. (6) .iddition to New River High School in Ashe County constructed. 



102 



Emergency Relief in JSTorth Carolina 






(i) Laying storm culvetts, Reynolda Park, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County. (2) Water line extension being built in Albemarle, Stanly 
County. (3) Filter plant. Silo City water works, Chatham County. 



Emergency Relief in JSTorth Gaeolina 



103 



Classification of Civil Works Administration Projects 





School 


Malaria 


Municipal 


School 


Tree 


Swimming 


Fish 




Water 


Drainage 


Water 


Sanitation 


Planting 


Pools and 


Hatchery 




Supply 




Supply 




and 


Commun- 


and 




Construc- 




Construc- 




Beautifi- 


ity Build- 


Oyster 




tion 




tion 




cation 


ings, Con- 


Planting 




and 




and 






struction 






Repair 




Repair 






and Repair 




Cost 


(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 




Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Up to Si, 000 


13 


88 


20 


27 


21 


4 


I 


$1,000-2,000 


7 


61 


13 


10 


II 


4 


3 


$2,000-3,000 


4 


53 


10 


7 


4 


2 


3 


$3,000-4,000 


3 


40 


8 


8 


3 


3 


I 


$4,000-5,000 





23 


7 


5 


2 


4 


I 


$5,000-6,000 


3 


19 


6 


I 


6 


2 





$6,000-7,000 


I 


19 


5 


I 


2 


4 


I 


$7,000-8,000 





II 








I 


I 





$8,000-9,000 





5 


2 


I 


3 


4 





$9,000-10,000 


I 


II 


I 








2 





$10,000-15,000 





27 


5 


I 





3 


3 


$15,000-20,000 





14 


3 





4 


5 





$20,000-25,000 





7 


3 





I 


I 





$25,000-50,000 





14 


3 


I 


2 


I 


3 


$50,000-100,000 





6 


3 








I 





Over $100,000 





I 

















Total 


31 


399 


89 


62 


60 


41 


16 




Cemetery 


Golf Course 


Municipal 


Sidewalk 


School 


School 


School 




Improve- 


Construc- 


Buildings, 


Construc- 


Heating 


Construc- 


Gymna- 




ments and 


tion and 


Construc- 


tion and 


Plants, 


tion and slums Con^ 




Repairs 


Park Im- 
provements 


tion and 
Repair 


Repair 


Construc- 
tion and 
Repair 


Additions 


structed 


Cost 


(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 




Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Up to $1,000 


II 


12 


62 


22 


2 


23 


15 


$1,000-2,000 


3 


10 


38 


23 


2 


II 


18 


$2,000-3,000 


7 


7 


21 


17 





7 


20 


$3,000-4,000 


I 


8 


9 


12 





7 


7 


$4,000-5,000 


4 


I 


12 


6 





4 


17 


$5,000-6,000 





5 


11 


5 





2 


9 


$6,000-7,000 


4 


3 


5 


4 





3 


6 


$7,000-8,000 


I 


2 


4 


4 





I 


I 


$8,000-9,000 


I 


3 


5 


I 





I 


3 



104 




Emergency 


Relief in 


J^ORTH Carolina 








Cemetery 


Golf Course 


Municipal 


Sidewalk 


School 


School 


School 




Improve- 


Construc- 


Buildings, 


Construc- 


Heating 


Construc- 


Gymna- 




ments and 


tion and 


Construc- 


tion and 


Plants, 


tion and 


siums Cor 




Repairs 


Park Im- 
provements 


tion and 
Repair 


Repair 


Construc- 
tion and 
Repair 


Additions 


structed 


Cost 


No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 




Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


$9,000-10,000 


I 


2 


I 


2 





6 


5 


$10,000-15,000 


3 


10 


12 


5 





3 


2 


$15,000-20,000 





4 


5 


I 





3 


4 


$20,000-25,000 





I 


2 


I 











$25,000-50,000 





4 


4 . 


6 


I 








$50,000-100,000 


I 


2 


I 


3 











Cost over $100,000 





















Total 



37 



74 



192 



1 12 



71 



107 





Street 


Road 


Construc- 


Construc- 


Construc- 


School 


Construc- 




Repair 


Repair 


tion and 


tion and 


tion School 


Repairs 


tion and 




and 


and 


Repair 


Repair 


Walks and 


and 


Repair 




Paving 


Surfacing 


Municipal 


Sanitary 


Play- 


Painting 


School 








Sewer 


Pri\ies 


grounds 




Athletic 








Systems 








Fields 




(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 


(No. of 


Cost 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Projects) 


Up to $1,000 


49 


77 


1 1 


13 


73 


81 


5 


$1,000-2,000 


53 


108 


5 


9 


53 


114 


4 


$2,000-3,000 


40 


25 


9 


7 


26 


58 


I 


$3,000-4,000 


29 


III 


3 


5 


16 


42 


5 


$4,000-5,000 


27 


123 


3 


I 


8 


25 


I 


$5,000-6,000 


17 


125 


4 


3 


6 


17 


I 


$6,000-7,000 


20 


80 





I 


4 


23 





$7,000-8,000 


II 


80 


4 


8 


5 


12 





$8,000-9,000 


10 


60 


5 


4 


2 


7 





$9,000-10,000 


I 


24 


I 


2 


I 


3 





$10,000-15,000 


18 


74 


8 


4 


6 


16 


5 


$15,000-20,000 


14 


26 


7 


9 


I 


9 


2 


$20,000-25,000 


4 


25 


8 


19 


I 


4 





$25,000-50,000 


8 


8 


7 


21 


I 


9 


I 


$50,000-100,000 


3 


2 


5 


28 





3 





Over $100,000 


I 








8 












Total 



305 



948 



80 



142 



203 



324 



26 



EiiEKGENcy Relief in North Carolina 105 

Necessary Public Works 

The work accomplished on Ci\il Works projects filled to a very remarkable degree the needs 
of the state and communities. The state go\'ernment, and almost all municipal and county gov- 
ernments were operating on greatly curtailed budgets. In many instances municipal and county 
governments were in default. These conditions prohibited extensive new construction. 

Lack of funds restricted the state, city and county governments to the ordinary functions of 
repair and maintenance. State institutions, such as colleges, hospitals and orphanages, were 
operating on \ery small budgets. Work of maintaining school plants became a state function 
and, owing to the limited state budget, many much needed repairs could not be carried on. 

County homes and other institutions of a similar nature were forced to forego making improve- 
ments to their properties. Since so many of the governmental units were in default, it was impos- 
sible for them to recei\'e PWA grants no matter how badly the improvements contemplated were 
needed. 

Many cities and towns sadly lacked outdoor recreational facilities both for white people and for 
Negroes. E\'ery swimming pool, park and playground that was built will provide recreational 
facilities for people who otherwise would have had no, or at least limited, opportunity for outdoor 
recreation. 

Many municipalities badly needed extensions and additions to their water and sewerage sys- 
tems, road improvements and other work that they were unable to pay for. 

The school gymnasiums that were constructed, being mostly in the rural areas, provided year- 
round facilities in games or sports where such facilities did not previously exist. 

The athletic fields and other recreational facilities built at the universities and state colleges 
pro\'ided a means of outdoor sports for the student bodies as a whole. Prior to the construction 
of these projects by the Ci\'il Works Administration, most of the recreational facilities provided by 
the colleges and universities were for the use of school teams, a state of affairs which provided very 
little outdoor recreation for the general student body. 

In the field of drainage for malaria control the various drainage districts and counties were badly 
in need of impro\ements to existing drainage systems and the construction of new drainage systems. 

On the whole, the results of the Civil Works program were constructive and permanent improve- 
ments. 

Road Projects Predominant 

At the beginning of the Civil Works Administration, projects involving various sorts of work on 
roads and highways were predominant. This was due to the fact that the well-organized State 
Highway Commission, with district and division engineers over the entire state, was in a position 
to carry on immediately constructive projects of this type. In view of the fact that it was necessary 
to put men to work at once, a large number of road projects was approved since it was possible, 
under the super\'ision of the engineers of the Highway Commission, to do constructive and neces- 
sary work on the highway system. 

By way of explanation it should be stated that all public roads in the State of North Carolina 
are part of the State Highway System. There are no roads built or maintained by the counties or 
any subdi\ision other than the state. 

Road work also presented an excellent opportunity for putting men in the rural sections to work 
since they were mostly unskilled laborers. In a good many instances no other type of project was 
feasible in the remote rural areas. 



106 



Emergency Relief in 3^orth Carolina 




^•^^ 



e 



M 



n 



(i) Qjtarrying stone fo} the construction of cemetery drive in Rowan County. (2) Streets surfaced in Hertford County. {3) iellow 
Creek Road constructed in Graham County. (4) Airport built at Salisbury, Rowan County. (5) Airport Jill and runways built at Winston- 
Salem, Forsyth County. 



Emergency Eelief in North Carolina 107 

As the program developed and other projects were initiated, the road forces were rapidly 
curtailed so that, although a greater number of projects for road repair and improvement was ap- 
proved than any other type, the actual work done on road and highway projects was not over eight- 
een per cent of the total of CWA work accomplished. 

The next largest and most predominant type of projects was projects for the control of malaria 
by drainage. Under the Federal Emergency Relief Administration preliminary steps had been 
taken towards the organization of the necessary field superxision of drainage projects. This, 
and the fact that drainage projects provided an immediate opportunity to put large numbers of 
common laborers to work immediately, influenced the approving of a great many drainage proj- 
ects. About ten per cent of Civil Works Administration funds was spent for malaria control, which 
is a major health problem in this state. 

The next largest field of actixity was repairs, reno\ations, painting, etc., of schools. Lack of 
funds in almost e\ery locality had resulted in curtailment of this type of work by the governmental 
units. E\en more work of this type would ha\e been done except for the fact that much material 
was needed to carry on these projects. 

Next in predominance was the construction of sanitary privies. Since all materials were fur- 
nished by private individuals and much common labor could be used, these projects were started. 
The benefits to public health, and the fact that preliminary arrangements for organization had been 
made, were influential factors in the wide-spread activity in this field. 

Other types of projects \aried in size and importance in different localities. This variation was 
due mainly to the needs and desires of the communities. 

Safety Program 

The Safety Department of the North Carolina Civil Works Administration was organized on 
January i, 1934, with ofl[ices at 314 Reynolds Building, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. The per- 
sonnel of the state office consisted of one stenographer, three field representatives, and the State 
Director. 

In addition to the three Field Representatives mentioned above, each of the 107 units had its 
own Safety Director, working indirectly under the State Safety Director and directly under the 
local administrator. In the majority of cases, these Safety Directors had additional duties either 
as Work Project Supervisor or Injury Clerk. It is estimated that only 10 men devoted their entire 
time as County or City Safety Director. 

Each Project had a Job Safety Inspector, who inspected his project each day, generally in the 
mornings before the crew started to work. He gave close attention to such matters as condition of 
hand tools, wheelbarrows, ladders, etc., and particular attention to the physical hazards of the 
project. From reports received in the State Safety Director's office, it would seem that only 215 
job safety inspectors de\oted their full time to this important work, the others doing this in addi- 
tion to their other duties. 

In setting up the Safety Department, the State Safety Director estimated that the program to 
be carried on from this office would cost $10,441.00, based on a period of twelve weeks. However, 
the total cost of the state office for the thirteen-week period has been only $8,709.77, or a reduc- 
tion of $1,731.23 from the original estimate, which at that time was considered very conservative. 
The following expenditures were made : 

Salaries $ 1,436.24 

Travel 1,747.10 

Office Expense 250.18 

Safety Equipment 5,276.25 



108 



Emergency Relief in" Koeth Cakolina 




(i) Alocksville Gymnasium in Davie County. (2) School Gymnasium built in Kannapolis, Cabarrus County. (3) Gymnasium built 
at Berry Hill School in JVash County. 



Emeroency Eelief in North Carolina 



109 



r 



f^^m 



•^"•▼.TKS*" 



.•▼,1tf^ 



""nifciiKtiifcniTir'' 



iii£i£iiiiif 




o 



(i) Tennis courts built at Blair Park in High Point, Guilford County. (2) Track built at high school in Durham, Durham County. 
(3) Plaving_lield built at high school in Durham, Durham County. (4) Baseball field and grandstand at Bailey, Nash County. 



110 



Emergency Relief in ISToeth Carolina 






(i) Xathaniel Macon Home, Warren County, before restoration. (2) Nathaniel Macon Home, Warren County, before restoration. 
(3) Public library built in Rutherford County. (4) Nathaniel Macon Home, Warren County, after restoration. (5) Library at Roland, 
Robeson County. (6) Library built at Warrenton, Warren County. (7) Steele Memorial Library built at Mount Olive, Wayne County. 
(8) Interior of Steele Memolial Library, Mount Olive, Wayne County. 



Emergency Eelief in Nokth Carolina 111 

While all of the above was charged against Civil Works, quite a large amount will be used 
under Emergency Relief. For instance, the Safety Equipment, which includes first aid equip- 
ment and goggles, will be used in the Works Division of Emergency Relief without additional 
cost, with the exception of refills for the First Aid Kits from time to time. 

It was seen in the beginning of safety work that a program of first aid training would be 
of real \alue. That this program was successful can be seen from the fact that only 24 cases of 
infection were reported under Civil Works. It was agreed that each job, as far as possible, should 
ha\e a trained first aid man with proper equipment. With this in view, the assistance of the First 
Aid and Life Sa\-ing Service of the American National Red Cross was requested. A conference 
was called in the State Safety Director's office attended by Mrs. Thomas Sprinkle, of High Point, 
North Carolina, and Mr. Berres, of Washington, D. C, North Carolina Field Representatives of 
the American National Red Cross. With their cooperation, it was possible to conduct sixty-three 
complete fifteen-hour Standard First Aid Courses, with an enrollment of approximately 2,500 CWA 
employees. This was in addition to the several smaller classes held in some of the smaller cities 
or counties. The training of these men meant much to the safety program of the Civil Works 
Administration, but will mean even more to the state at large. These twenty-five hundred trained 
"First Aiders," spread from the mountains to the coast, are prepared to render valuable assis- 
tance in future accidents on our highways, in our homes, and in our industrial plants. A number 
of these men will, of course, be employed by industry in the near future where they will find that 
the training received under the Civil Works Administration will be of real help to them in their 
indi\idual plant safety and first aid programs. 

The State Safety Department issued approximately fifty bulletins dealing with problems of a 
general nature, as well as covering in detail the following specific subjects : 

General Rules for Safety Carbon Monoxide 

, Excavations Transportation of Workers 

Handhng Explosives Demolition 

Scaffolds First Aid 

Physical Condition Goggles 

Exposure Cave-ins 

Railroad Crossings Health Program 

Hand Tools Poison Ivy 

These bulletins were sent out to each unit, and in a majority of cases were reproduced by the 
unit and placed on each project or in the hands of the Job Safety Inspector. 

A total of 693 lost-time accidents were reported to the State Safety Director's office during the 
life of Civil Works. For the sake of standard reporting, a lost-time accident was termed one 
that caused the injured employee to lose more than the remainder of the shift. For instance, if 
the shift's starting time was 7 a.m., and the employee was injured at 1 1 a.m., if he was not able 
to report for work the next morning at 7 a.m., his accident was termed "lost-time," even though 
he might come in to work during the morning. These injuries, generally, caused the loss of only 
one or two days. The total number of cases drawing compensation can be secured from the 
report of the Director of Compensation. 

Of the 693 lost-time accidents reported, 113 occurred prior to the beginning of the Safety pro- 
gram, or prior to January i, 1934. During Civil Works a total of 22,257,263 man-hours was 
worked. The frequency rate for North Carolina for the entire period of Civil Works was 31.1, an 
unusually low frequency considering the type of work and the fact that the majority of our employ- 



112 Emeegbncy Eelief in Nokth Carolina 

ees were not used to out-of-doors labor. Our frequency compares with a confidential reporting 
from Washington of a frequency average over the entire country of 47.1. The same confidential 
report showed an average of 91 1 lost-time accidents as against our record of 693. 

Only three fatalities were reported to this department during Civil Works, one prior to the 
Safety program, and two during March, when the morale of employees was at its lowest. Two 
of these fatalities were caused by falling trees and the third by the fall from a lo-foot scaffold. 

The three District Safety Supervisors and the State Safety Director visited as many of the more 
hazardous projects as possible. In several instances these inspections disclosed \'ery hazardous 
conditions which were immediately corrected thus, pre\enting a large number of serious injuries. 

The Safety Department enjoyed the fullest cooperation from the State Administration down to 
the individual worker on the project, without which the Safety Program could not have been suc- 
cessful. This cooperation was greatly appreciated by the Department. Especial mention should 
be made of the County and City Safety Directors^ who, working under great strain, were able to 
keep their record down to the minimum. 

Compensation Department 

The office of the State Director of Compensation was established as a part of the state adminis- 
trative staff for the purpose of supervision, in collaboration with the U. S. Employees' Compensa- 
tion Commission, of all injuries sustained by employees on Civil Works projects. 

There was added, under the instruction of the State Administrator, to each local staff a suitable 
person to administer all matters in connection with employees injured in the performance of duty 
on CWA projects. Within ten days compensation organization throughout the state was completed, 
the local staff fully instructed in the rules and regulations governing compensatory injuries, and all 
compensation bulletins distributed. 

As of the date of submitting this report there has been reported and filed a history of 1,435 in- 
juries sustained on Ci\il Works projects in North Carolina. 

During the period in which persons were employed on CWA projects, there were reported only 
three fatalities. There were not more than twenty injuries which could be classed as permanent, 
and in all of these there is a probability of only partial permanent disability. 

A great majority of the injuries reported were of a minor character. There were not more than 
265 injuries which necessitated the payment of compensation locally. The curtailment of injuries 
in the State of North Carolina was due to the efficient safety organization which was established 
under the direction of the State Administrator. 

Status of Projects at the Close of CWA Operation 

Many projects were left in an unfinished state at the close of the Civil Works program. This 
was due to a large extent to the drastic curtailment of CWA funds and the demobilization of the 
Civil Works Administration. 

When the closing out of the CWA began, every effort was made by the state office to discon- 
tinue projects which could be left in their existing state with little or no damage, and with little 
or no loss of materials. 

About 25 per cent of the projects approved was completely finished at the end of the Civil 
Works Administration. About 30 per cent of the projects was about 80 per cent completed, and 
about 45 per cent was 50 per cent complete, or less. Of those incomplete, it was possible to drop 
a good many. Every effort was made to bring the others to completion under the ERA program. 



CIVIL WORKS ADMINISTRATION, NORTH CAROLINA 

ANALYSIS OF PAYROLLS WITH RESPECT TO TYPE OF PROJECT 

PERIOD NOVEMBER 17, 1933 TO JULY 26, 1934 



CLASSIFICATIONS 



Man Hours 



1 Public Roads, Highways, Streets, Sidewalks, Gutters— New CoDBtruction J 201,630.39 475,983 

2 Public Roads, Highways, Streets, Sidewalks, Gutters— Repairs 3,408,034.30 8,625,074 

3 Public Buildings, Community Houses, Schools, Auditoriums, etc. — New Construction 369,929.23 676,856 

4 Public Buildings, Community Houses, Schools, Auditoriums, etc.— Repairs 994,840.25 1,695,332 

5 Bridges, Grade Crossings, and Trestles— New Construction 10,672.98 22,556 

6 Bridges, Grade Crossings, and Trestles— Repairs 672.00 2,029 

7 Sewers, Drainage and Sanitation — New Construction 421,468.33 851,892 

8 Sewers, Drainage and Sanitation— Repairs 383,569.76 847,435 

9 Public Utilities, Water Works, Gas, Electrical, etc.— New Construction 84,992.77 185,598 
10 Public Utilities, Water Works, Gas, Electrical, etc.— Repairs 253,443.90 546,337 
n Recreation Facilities, Swimming Pools, Playgrounds — New Construction 466,754.40 887,454 

12 Recreation Facilities, Shimming Pools, Playgrounds — Repairs 363,350.02 781.264 

13 Watenvays, Levees, Flood Control, etc. —New Construction 70,011.53 149,326 

14 Waterways, Levees, Flood Control, etc.— Repairs 27,668.01 59,878 

15 Landscaping, Grading, Erosion Control, Parks, etc. 137,054.71 292,874 

16 Conservation Hatcheries, Oyster Beds, Fish and Game 81,185.44 129,449 

17 Eradication and Control, Disease Bearers, Pests, Mosquitoes 359,187.83 781,549 
IS Airports 219,936.75 458,414 

19 Forestry 26,117.70 56,331 

20 Production and Distribution of Goods Needed by the Unemployed, Clothing, Food, Fuel, Household Goods 30,946.16 90,964 

21 Public Welfare, Health Recreation, Nurses, Nutrition, Investigation, Safety, etc. 93,222.69 251,668 

22 Public Education, Arts and Research 60,582.30 150,673 

23 Tool and Equipment Projects 2,163.50 3,610 

24 Sanitary Privy Construction 648,662.06 1,323,406 

25 Administrative 450,700.80 759,402 

TOTALS $9,166,697.81 20,105,362 



ANALYSIS OF PAYROLLS ON FEDERAL PROJECTS WITH RESPECT TO TYPE OF PROJECT 
PERIOD NOVEMBER 17, 1933 TO JULY' 26, 1934 



V. S. Department 



Bureau 



Project 



Man Hours 



Agriculture Agricultural Economics 

Agriculture Agricultural Economics 

.Agriculture Agricultural Economics 

Agriculture Agricultural Economics 

Agriculture Agricultural Engineering 

Agriculture Agricultural Experiment Station 

Agriculture Animal Industry 

.\griculture Biological Survey 

-\griculture Entomology 

Agriculture Entomology 

Agriculture Entomology 

.Agriculture Forestry 

Agriculture Home Economics 

Agriculture Plant Industry 

Agriculture Weather Bureau 

Commerce Aeronautics 

Commerce Census 

Commerce Census 

Commerce Census 

Commerce Census 

Commerce Coast and Geodetic .Survey 

Commerce Lighthouses 

Commerce FERA 

Commerce Smithsonian Institute 

(American Ethnology) 

Commerce Tennessee \'alley Authority 

Commerce Veterans Administration 

Interior Geological Survey 

Interior Geological Survey 

Interior Geological Survey 

Interior Indian Affairs 

Interior National Buildings and Parks 

Interior National Buildings and Parks 

Interior Soil Erosion Service 

Interior Homesteads 

Labor Labor Statistics 

Labor Reemployment 

Labor Reemployment 

Treasury Coast Guard 

Treasury Public Health Service 

Treasury Public Health Service 

War Quartermasters Corps 

Interior Subsistence Homesteads 

Interior Clerical Enumerator 

Interior Work on Federal Cemeteries 

Commerce Semilogical .Survey 

Post Office Repairs on Post Office 

AAA AAA 

TOTALS 



Consumption Statistics 

Cotton Statistics Inde.\ 

Prices Farmers Pay 

Rural Ta-\ Delinquency 

Rainfall Runoff Studies 

Farm Land L^se 

Subsistence Homesteads 

Work on Biological Property 

Laboratories 

Spotted Fever Control 

Mosquito Pest Control 

Work on National Forest 

Farm Housing Survey 

Work on Experiment Station 

Meterological Data 

Municipal Airport Department Advisory 

Census of American Business 

Directory of American Business 

Real Property Inventory 

Urban Tax Delinquency 

Supplementing Survey Control 

Improving Lighthouse Property 

National Relief Census 

Archeological Excavations 

Various Improvements 

Buildings and Grounds 

Clearing Tar Creek 

Photo Mapping 

Stream Flow Records 

Con-struction 

Historic Buildings Survey 

Work on National Parks 

Water Sheds 

Homesteads Record 

Employment and Pay Roll 

Reemployment Office 

Reemployment Record Study 

Record Rehabilitation 

Malaria Control 

Rural Sanitation 

Work at Army Posts 

Development and Construction 

Clerical Enumerator 

Work on Federal Cemeteries 

Semilogical Survey 

Repairs on Post Office 

AAA 



69.24 

3,185.80 

4,843.74 

40,4/8.90 

3.00 

2,424.83 

911.91 

69.60 

6.00 

11.00 

51,470.63 

18,485.21 

27,706.90 

17,860.93 

384.00 

287.41 

31,312.45 

210.00 

1,463.91 

4,507.89 

32,959.30 

988.80 

6,208.37 

14,247.47 

51,015.67 

2,543.83 

54.50 

20,367.20 

12,260.18 

1,883.73 

5,716.68 

34,020.10 

7,775.07 

1,047.25 

1,606.60 

138,304.16 

2,471.81 

8,092.69 

4,627.61 

4,632.38 

84,438.48 

1,391.75 

200.00 

6,872.90 

1,102.86 

1,167.60 

270.00 



120 

4.636 

7,160 

61,950 

6 

4,660 

1,280 

72 

12 

14 

104,798 

41,299 

37,113 

33,818 

480 

650 

54,068 

361 

3,469 

6,173 

49,237 

2,048 

10,663 

24,244 

66,025 

2,917 

80 

33,868 

22,762 
3,537 
6,576 

70,964 
9,216 
1,176 
2,138 
243,713 
2,544 

17,168 
6,025 
7,278 
172,412 
2,244 
320 

13,972 
1.188 
2,148 



651,739.13 



1,135,225 



CWA PAYROLLS SHOWING TOTALS BY WEEKS' 
NOVEMBER 15, 1933, TO JULY 26, 1934 



Regular Program 
November 30, 1B33 
December 7, 1933 
December 14, 1933 
December 21, 1933 
December 28, 1933 
Janu.iry 4, 1934 
January 11, 1934 
January IS, 1934 
JJanuary 25, 1934 
February 1, 1934' 
February S, 1934 
February 15, 1934 
February 22, 1934 
March 1, 1934 
March S, 1934 
March 15, 1934 
March 22, 1934 
March 29, 1934 



Total Regular Program 



Men 


Amount 






Men 


Amount 






Federal Projects, 


State Adminis- 






16,064 


S 120,897.72 


TRATION AND LIQUIDATION 






33.163 


349,372.96 


April 5, 1934 




2,550 


S 31,367.96 


41,373 


476,716.79 


April 12, 1934 




1,474 


24,671.93 


65,006 


603,441.40 


April 19, 1934 




1,119 


17,242,42 


5S.721 


609,690.13 


April 26, 1934 




880 


15,273.90 


64, SOS 


801,491.76 


May 3, 1934 




576 


10,020.79 


69,230 


881,281.58 


May 10, 1934 




216 


4,304.28 


71,608 


931,642.64 


May 17, 1934 




164 


3,614.08 


♦72,533 


620,182.08 


May 24, 1934 




167 


3,780.82 


70.324 


576,604.69 


May 31, 1934 




150 


3,233.98 


72.000 


661,776.29 


June 7, 1934 




126 


2,795.02 


71,125 


644,716.19 


June 14, 1934 




126 


2,799.08 


71.352 


669,588.38 


June 21, 1934 




124 


2,751.10 


48,562 


466,966.06 


June 28, 1934 




107 


2,424.65 


43,969 


369,497.41 


July 6, 1934 




95 


2,060.48 


38,668 


338,191.66 


July 12, 1934 




86 


1,876,82 


34,111 


309,651.09 


July 19, 1934 




19 


317.15 


28,905 


268,194.03, 


July 26, 1934 

Total F 




1 


11.72 


I 961,522 


S 9,689,900.86 


ederal Projects, 










State 


Administration 
















AND Ll 

TOTAL 


[QUIDATION 


7,980 


S 128,536.08 




PAYROLLS 


969,502 


$ 9,818,436.94 



Payrolls State Projects 
Payrolls Federal Projects 

Total Payrolls 



S 9,166,697.81 
651.739.13 



S 9,818,436.94 



fMaterials Purchased 
Equipment Rentals 

TOTAL CWA EXPENDITURES 



2. 041. 192. 44 
295,370.62 2,336,563.06t 



S12.155.000.00 



* The peak of employment under CWA reached 78,360 workers, including; CWS projects, refer paye 263. In addition to workers paid from CWA 
funds, women employed on CWS and paid from ERA funds numbered; December 3,215; January 5,369; February 6,836; March 5,072. 
Payrolls on CWS are included in the report of ERA expenditures for work relief. 

t Working hours were reduced from 30 to 24 hours per week in cities and 15 hours per week in rural areas, 
t NOTE.— Re. Page 77. Purchase orders recorded $2,490,124.27 includes orders later canceled. 



Emergency Relief in Worth Carolina 



113 





(i) Gymnasium built in Yadkin County. (2) Schoolhouse built in Iredell County. Pump house and Gymnasium in background also 
built as ERA projects. (3) Tyriell County Home constructed under CWA and ERA. (4) School fa? m shop built in Iredell County. 
(5) County Home barn built in Union County. (6) County Home barn built in Haywood County. (7) Community House built in Madison 
County. (8) Community House built at Leaksville, Rockingham County. 



114 



Emeegenct Relief in !N"oeth Carolina 





(i) Green Creek gymnasium constructed in Polk County under CWA and ERA. (2) Gymnasium constructed at Rock Springs, Denier, 
Lincoln County. (3) School built at Hay esville, Clay County. (4) Waxhaw High School gymnasium constructed in Union County. (5) 
Stone gymnasium built at Andrews in Cherokee County. (6) Bald Creek School gymnasium and assembly hall constructed in Tancey County. 



STATE OFFICE CWA— ERA ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF 



Mrs. Thomas O'Berry, Administrator 
Mrs. Elisabeth Greer Seese, Secretary 



Assistant Administrator and 
Director Division of So- 
cial Service : 

Roy M. Brown 

Edith Williams, Assistant to 

Director Division of Social 

Service 
Cora Page Godfrey, Secretary 

Assistant Director of County 
Organization : 

Mrs. W. T. Bost, Public Wel- 
fare Commissioner 

Executive Assistant to Ad- 
ministrator : 

Ronald B. Wilson 

Field Representatives : 
W. T. Mattox 
Mary P. Ward 
Lois Dosher 
T. L. Grier 
May E. Campbell 
Nancy L. Austin 
Louise W. Frye 
Waller Wynne, Jr. 
Columbus Andrews 

Transient Division : 

M. Pearl Weaver, Director 

Women's Division : 

Alice Laidlaw, Director 

Supply Department : 

L. H. Williams, Supply Offi- 
cer 

Information Clerk : 



Engineering Department : 

Joseph Hyde Pratt, Consult- 
ing Engineer 

F. Q_. Boyer, Assistant State 
Engineer 

T. W. Morse, State Project 
Supervisor 

Philip Schwartz, Chief Office 
Engineer 

C. E. Mcintosh, Director 
Public School Projects 

Field Engineers : 

E. L. Curtis 
Gerald Cowan 
John P. Brady 
E. W. Cole 
Harold Macklin 
C. C. McGinnis 
R. W. McGeachy 
W. W. Baker 
J. B. Moore 
William Wyatt 
Luther T. Rogers 
H. C. Lawrence 

E. L. Winslow 
George J. Brooks 

Purchasing Department : 

J. M. Coleman, Purchasing 
Officer 

F. O. Arthur, Assistant Pur- 
chasing Officer 

G. M. Hutchinson, Specifica- 
tions Engineer 

Burton Sellars, Assistant Pur- 
chasing Officer 

Public Relations Depart- 
ment : 



Auditing Department : 

R. C. Carter, Chief Auditor 
J. C. Greene, Accountant 
Lena Simmons, Chief Payroll 
Clerk 



Field Auditors : 

J. E. White 
H. J. Johnson 
Minnie B. Morgan 
E. S. Pedigo 
W. L. Stancil 
W. L. Gilbert 
M. L. Cornwell 
G. W. Cobb 
W. E. Vernon 
G. A. Boatwright 
C. O. P. Hughey 
Alex H. Kizer 
Lewis H. Parham 
Fred Ferguson 

State Disbursing Officer : 
J. W. Reynar 

Statistical Department : 
H. P. Brinton, Statistician 

Statistical Auditor of 
County Reports : 

George W. Bradshaw 

Compensation Department : 
J. S. Massenburg, Director 

Safety Department : 



Mrs. Locke Craig 



John H. Sikes, Director 



E. G. Padgett, Director 



116 



Emergency Relief in N^oeth Carolina 



County 
Alamance 
Alexander 
Alleghany 
Anson 
Ashe 
Avery 
Beaufort 
Bertie 
Bladen 
Brunswick 
Buncombe 

Asheville 
Burke 
Cabarrus 
Caldwell 
Camden 
Carteret 
Caswell 
Catawba 
Chatham 
Cherokee 
Chowan 
Clay 

Cleveland 
Columbus 
Craven 
Cumberland 
Currituck 
Dare 
Davidson 
Davie 
Duplin 
Durham 
Edgecombe 

Rocky Mount 
Forsyth 

Winston-Salem 
Franklin 
Gaston 
Gates 
Graham 
Granville 
Greene 



Local CWA and ERA Administrators 

Name 
Mrs. Mabel K. Montgomery, Acting 
Mrs. M. L. Gwaltney 
C. A. Miles 
Miss Mary Robinson 
Bryan Oliver 
Mrs. R. W. Wall 
Mrs. I. P. Hodges 
Dr. T. A. White 
Chatham C. Clark 
Frank M. Sasser 
E. E. Connor 
Miss E. Grace Miller 
Mrs. Lou London Marsteller 
E. F. White 
Mrs. Cathleen Warren 
Mrs. O. N. Marshall 
Mrs. Malcolm Lewis 
Mrs. V. E. Swift 
Miss Victoria Bell 
Miss Mary Paschal, Acting 
R. W. Gray 

Mrs. Chas. P. Wales, Acting 
Mrs. W. T. Hunt 
H. S. Woodson 
Mrs. Agnes Barnhardt 
Mrs. John D. Whitford 
Mrs. Mamie Armfield 
Norman Hughes 
Theo. S. Meekins 
Curry F. Lopp 
J. S. Kirk 
Mrs. Harvey Boney 
A. E. Langston 
Mrs. Winnifred Y. Wiggins 
Mrs. R. D. BuUuck 
A. W. Chne 

Miss Helena E. Hermance 
C. W. E. Pittman 
Mrs. Gertrude K. Keller 
Mrs. C. H. Carter 
Miss Jane S. Sullivan 
Mrs. Lee C. Taylor 
Mrs. N. F. Palmer 



Address 
Graham 
Taylors vilje 
Sparta 
Wadesboro 
West Jefferson 
Newland 
Washington 
Windsor 
Elizabethtown 
Southport 
Asheville 
Asheville 
Morganton 
Concord 
Lenoir 
Belcross 
Beaufort 
Yanceyville 
Newton 
Pittsboro 
Murphy 
Edenton 
Hayes ville 
Shelby 
Whiteville 
New Bern 
Fayetteville 
Currituck 
Manteo 
Lexington 
Mocksville 
Kenans ville 
Durham 
Tarboro 
Rocky Mount 
Winston-Salem 
Winston-Salem 
Louisburg 
Gastonia 
Gates ville 
Robbins ville 
Oxford 
Snow Hill 



Emekgency Relief in North Carolina 



117 



Local CWA and ERA Administrators — Continued 



County 


Name 


Guilford 


Mrs. Blanche Carr Sterne 


Greensboro 


Miss Ethel Speas, City Hall 


High Point 


Miss EuzeHa Smart 


Halifax 


J. B. Hall 


Harnett 


Miss Lillie Davis 


Haywood 


Homer Henry 


Henderson 


Noah Hollowell 


Hertford 


Mrs. Hilda G. Kite 


Hoke 


L. A. Dalton 


Hyde 


Mrs. T. S. Payne 


Iredell 


Mrs. E. M. Land 


Jackson 


N. D. Davis 


Johnston 


Mrs. D. J. Thurston 


Jones 


Mrs. J. R. Burt, Acting 


Lee 


Miss Ruth Henry 


Lenoir 


Rev. G. B. Hanrahan 


Lincoln 


Miss Helen Reinhardt 


Macon 


Miss Rachel Davis 


Madison 


Mrs. Warren T. Davis 


Martin 


J. Raleigh Manning 


McDowell 


Mrs. G. W. Kirkpatrick 


Mecklenburg 


Charles F. Gilmore 


Mitchell 


Raymond F. Ashley 


Montgomery 


Charles J. McLeod 


Moore 


Miss Elizabeth Head 


Nash 


Mrs. J. K. Smith 


New Hanover 


J. Allan Taylor 




Miss Elma Ashton, Assistant 


Northampton 


Mrs. J. A. Fly the 


Orange 


Geo. H. Lawrence 


Onslow 


M. A. Cowell 


PamHco 


Mrs. G. T. Farnell 


Pasquotank 


A. H. Outlaw 


Pender 


H. M. Corbett 


Perquimans 


Charles E. Johnson, Jr. 


Person 


Miss Eglantine Merritt 


Pitt 


K. T. Futrell 


Polk 


Mrs. Evelyn Cole Bowers 


Randolph 


Robert T. Lloyd 


Richmond 


O. G. Reynolds 


Robeson 


Robert D. Caldwell 


Rockingham 


Miss Lona Glidewell 


Rowan 


Mrs. Mary O. Linton 


Rutherford 


Mrs. John R. Anderson, Jr. 


Sampson 


A. W. Daughtry _ 



Address 
Greensboro 
Greensboro 
High Point 
Halifax 
Lillington 
Waynes ville 
Hendersonville 
Winton 
Raeford 
Swan Quarter 
Statesville 
Sylva 
Smithfield 
Trenton 
Sanford 
Kinston 
Lincolnton 
Franklin 
Marshall 
Williamston 
Marion 
Charlotte 
Bakers ville 
Troy 
Carthage 
Nashville 
Wilmington 
Wilmington 
Jackson 
Chapel Hill 
Jacksonville 
Bayboro 
Elizabeth City 
Burgaw 
Hertford 
Roxboro 
Greenville 
Tryon 
Asheboro 
Rockingham 
Lumberton 
Reidsville 
Salisbury 
Rutherfordton 
Clinton 



118 



..Emergency Relief in N^oeth Carolina 



Local CWA and ERA Administrators — Continued 



County 


Name 


Address 


Scotland 


E. Fairly Murray 


Laurinburg 


Stanly 


Otto B. Mabry 


Albemarle 


Stokes 


Mrs. Minnie G. Doyle 


Danbury 


Surry 


Mrs. Emma Reece Mock 


Dobson 


Swain 


H. P. Browning 


Bryson City 


Transylvania 


Wilham Arthur Wilson 


Brevard 


Tyrrell 


Mrs. W. S. Carawan 


Columbia 


Union 


J. P. Marsh 


Monroe 


Vance 


Mrs. W. B. Waddill 


Henderson 


Wake 


Mrs. T. W. Bickett 


Raleigh 


Raleigh 


Miss Lola Wilson 


Raleigh 


Warren 


Jesse Gardner 


Warrenton 


Washington 


Mrs. W. C. Brewer (Resigned Jan. '34) 


Plymouth 




J. E. Gibbs 


Plymouth 


Watauga 


Mrs. Smith Hagaman 


Boone 


Wayne 


R. H. Edwards (Resigned Feb. i, '34) 


Goldsboro 


Goldsboro. 


Mrs. L. D. Giddens 


Goldsboro 


Wilkes 


Mrs. Valeria Belle Foster 


N. Wilkesboro 


Wilson 


James T. Barnes 


Wilson 


Yadkin 


W. S. Church 


Yadkinville 


Yancey 


C. L. Proffitt 


Burns ville 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



115 




(i) Community Home built at Roxboro, Person County. (2) Community House built al Belmont, Gaston County. (3) Community 
House built at .-iyden, Pitt County. (4) Community House built at Pittsbow, Chatham County. 



120 



Emeegejn'cy Relief in 1^3'orth Carolina 




,' -0 






\:.:z^--:^_ 


~~ — -z ■■•■:.■■■■ 


"",-—> 


"'l^X^'-^i '".'.ii:." 


" "^ - ' ,•;::: :: 


'^"'""■''"■'~s*' ■ . •■;_„', [^^ 



.^*»^B?^ 







(i) Waccamaw Community House and gymnasium, Brunswick County. 
County. (3) Red Oak Community House, J^ash County. 



(a) Field Museum at Municipal Park, Washington, Beaufort 



Ejiebgency Relief in North Carolina 



121 




(i) Negro school at Selma, Johnston County, built with ERA and State funds. (2) Comfort School, Jones County. (3) Addition to 
colored school in Wake County. (4) Addition to school in Stanly County. (5) Negro school built in Scotland County. (6) Training 
school built m Moore County. (7) School built in Moore County. (8) Laurinburg vocational school in Scotland County . 



122 



Emebgency Relief in North Carolina 




\,.7 "^t 



mw^UW^ i: 





(i) Community Building at Lenoir, Caldwell County. {2) Biological Laboratory at Beaufort, Carteret County. (3) Community 
House at Marion, AIcDowell County. (4) Pleasant Garden Community House, McDowell County. (5) Community House at Rutherford- 
ton, Rutlierford County. (6) Community House, Rutherfordlon, Rutherford County. 



THE SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION OF THE NORTH CAROLINA 
EMERGENCY RELIEF ADMINISTRATION 



The Objective of a Social Service Division 

"Essentially, social case work involves two things, the attempt to understand the needs and 
problems of a particular family, and the attempt to work out a plan of treatment adapted to the 
needs of that particular family."^ 

The objective of a Social Service Division is service to the family. In meeting this objective, this 
dixision made use of the resources of other divisions, such as the Works Division and the Rural 
Rehabilitation Division which also had specified responsibilities to families. The Social Service 
Division was called upon to handle any problems to which a family falls heir, from giving direct 
relief, to finding a way for the burial of a family member, although ERA could not pay for this 
latter service. If domestic difficulties threatened the harmonious unity of a family, the social 
worker tried to serve as an outlet for overwrought emotions, and in so doing helped to stabilize 
the situation. 

In discussing the responsibility of the Social Service Division for service to families, it is necessary 
to consider the individual in relation to his environment. The social worker sees a person and his 
environment as a whole : (a) his attitudes toward work, toward his family or his fellowmen which 
grow out of the opportunities which life brings him, plus his natural endowments, and the series of 
experiences which weave themselves somehow into the fabric of his existence ; (b) his setting, the 
home in which he was born and reared, its culture, its harmony, its discipline, its ideals, its strength, 
and its handicaps ; (c) his initiative and creative powers as revealed by his progress in home building, 
his success in earning a livelihood and in personal accomplishments. 

The Normal Family Is Self-Supporting 

The normal family is an independent and self-sufficient unit. It gives those services of which it 
is capable and receives in return that income which means shelter, food, clothing, medical attention, 
education and recreation. When the income is sufficient, there can be more investment in what 
are usually termed luxuries. But the law of cause and effect also operates in family life. When 
some cause, such as unemployment, illness, marital or family disruption, is set into operation, it 
tends to deflect the harmonious flow of family life. A disruption occurs, its seriousness and the 
period of its effect, being directly proportioned to the seriousness of the cause. It is when a serious 
disruption occurs which needs some outside counsel and assistance, beyond the resources of the 
family, that it becomes necessary to extend available aid in one form or another. 

Unemployment 

Beyond the immediate en\ironment of the family may be a worldwide depression. Within the 
family en\ironment is forced unemployment. Whate\'er the cause may be, the effects of prolonged 



' Porter, Rose, "The Organization and Administration of Public Relief Agencies." 



124 Emergency Relief in !Noeth Carolina 

unemployment are easily discernible. Unemployment means the need of food, light, shelter, 
clothing, education, and recreation, not alone for actual subsistence, but for the conservation of 
those vital human factors, the maintenance of which makes for a wholesome family and community 
life. While leaders in government and industry are attempting to mend the fabric of our national 
economic life, it becomes the task of social workers to aid in conserving our human resources, to 
impart morale, and to lend their aid in stimulating the creation of those standards of living which 
will best maintain human xalues. 

Reasons Why Individuals Do Poor Work and Find Fewer Job Opportunities — 
Sickness, Worry, and Insufficient Food 

Another family situation which demands the attention of social workers is that occasioned by 
part-time employment. Part-time employment is one step nearer actual unemployment. Part- 
time jobs, or poorly paid jobs, mean poor shelter, insufficient food and clothing, sickness and worry. 
Individuals whose livelihood depends on manual labor cannot, under these conditions, continue 
to earn for themsehes and others. 

Skilled and professional workers cannot work well and worry at the same time. Lack of the 
necessities of life causes sickness. The body must ha\e proper nourishment, just as it must have 
sufficient shelter and clothing. Security and recreation are as essential to mental health as food 
and clothing are to physical health. Worry for oneself and one's dependents, if prolonged, may 
invite physical, mental, and even moral breakdowns. There will be an attendant loss of that driving 
force which coordinates the whole personality and gives it a sense of direction. 

A poor diet or worry causes an individual's work to fall below par. He is usually the first to be 
"laid oflF" because of the mediocre nature of his work. If an individual's work has been consistently 
mediocre, he has never had either commendation or recommendations from his employer or fellow- 
workmen. This fact leads to further personality difficulties. Chance illness, diseases, and unavoid- 
able injury are other causes of part-time employment, or involuntary unemployment. A poor 
background, illiteracy, a poor understanding of working and farming conditions, as well as poor 
health habits, are other causes for families not being self-supporting. 

The Social Work Problem 

The foregoing statements suggest certain problems of service to the family. The tools which a 
social worker uses in performing services to the family include a knowledge of human nature and 
social institutions, objective analysis, a consideration of the role of the family and the individuals 
therein, practical suggestions to arouse effort on the part of the individuals themselves to work out 
their own problems, and, through assistance in the form of relief, to supply those deficiencies which 
unemployment and impoverishment of body and mind have brought about. This last was, for 
the majority of families, the major role assumed by the Social Service Division, for the program of 
emergency relief has been directed primarily to the financial needs of families. 

The Social Work Approach to the Problem of Unemployment Relief 

"To help man out of trouble one must know him and understand him . . ." when the difficulty 
concerns a human being, we should approach its adjustment from as complete a knowledge of him 
as it is possible to obtain.^ 



'de Schweinitz, Karl, "The Art of Helping People Out of Trouble." 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 125 

The Investigation, Learning the Family Situation 

The "in\'estigation," or more appropriately, the "social inquiry," seeks a clear understanding 
of the family and its needs. The investigation, then, is an attempt on the part of the social worker 
to obtain this knowledge. 

The social worker learns the family situation in terms of the following factors : a knowledge of 
the family income, if any ; the family resources, both material and personal ; the family's health, 
which includes knowledge of the family's dietary and health habits ; the home, and the lacks, if any, 
in the way of conveniences ; the living and sleeping arrangements, and the state of repair of the. 
premises. Further, the social inquiry should obtain a knowledge of the family's environment, its 
heritage and interests, emerging from its background and experience, and the acquired interests of 
the family. The attitudes of each individual to the others, to the family, and to the social worker 
are other factors which the social worker observes. Observation is not limited to any one particular 
phase of the family, but of necessity, greater emphasis is laid on the apparent major problem or need, 
whether it be financial, health, or personal maladjustment of an individual in the family. 

The Family and the Social Worker Make Plans 

The social worker gathers information as the basis for making plans for assistance to the family. 
She has been able to learn something of the vocational background from former employers. In 
the light of the facts which she obtains, she is able to approach the family with her knowledge, 
understanding, and ability to extend any needed financial assistance, on the one hand, and, on the 
other, with an appeal to the family to plan with her in meeting its problems. 

Home Relief 

Clothing, rent, household necessities, and other commodities were given to the family, when lack 
of income, or the family's unemployability, made it necessary. Medical care, surgical and corrective 
care were other services provided for families with income insuflficient to meet these needs. The 
social worker was sometimes faced with personality difficulties in individuals. Advice about home 
making, the care of young children, or instruction in health habits and home beautification were 
other services which were asked for by families and given by the social worker. 

The Works Division and Its Resources 

If the problem be that of unemployment, as has been the case during these last years for the 
majority of those in need, then the worker and the family plan together to provide work for that 
family member best suited to be the breadwinner, either through private employment, or by place- 
ment on public works projects under the ERA Works Division. The family and the worker conclude 
that, as a means of assistance in meeting the financial problems, work is preferable to direct relief in 
maintaining the family's self-respect and independence, as well as the respect of the family's friends 
and fellow-citizens. With the prolonged depression, the value of work relief, as compared with 
direct relief, became more and more apparent. It was more adequate and provided the opportunity 
for the relief clients to live by their own efforts. 

The Civil Works Administration demonstrated that people could be profitably employed on 
public works projects. The public, as well as the Works Division, was interested in having desirable 
work done well. As the work program developed, the Social Service Division was called upon to 
assume a heavy task, that of cooperating with the Works Division in certifying members of families 
who were most suitable for employment on projects because of their employability or particular 



126 



Emergency Relief in I^orth Carolina 



EXPENDITURES OF ERA DOLLAR APRIL, 1935 
N. C. ERA 




Emergency Relief in jSTorth Carolina 127 

skills. This relationship between the Social Service Division and' the Works Division continued 
until the end of ERA, each division strengthening the other through its contributions and concern 
for the well-being of the families. The quality of the service rendered families by the Social Service 
Division, cooperating with the other divisions, demonstrated the value of a careful analysis of 
family strengths, needs, temperaments, and potentialities for restoration to a self-sufficient status. 

In a selected month, April, 1935 (see page 126), it will be seen that 48.6 per cent of the ERA 
dollar was used for general relief, that is, direct relief and work relief. Of this amount, that expended 
for work relief was slightly more than twice the amount of direct relief, work relief being 33 per cent, 
and direct relief being 15.6 per cent. The remainder of the ERA dollar went for special programs, 
such as Rural Rehabilitation, 19.3 per cent ; Administration, 9.2 per cent ; Materials, 7.1 per cent ; 
the Educational Program, 5.6 per cent ; Rentals, 4.9 per cent ; Non-Relief Expenditures, 3.2 per 
cent ; and Transients, 0.9 per cent. This analysis shows the increasing importance of the Works 
Di\ision as it was de\eloped, for one of its major functions became that of fitting its employment 
of individuals into the total social program of the ERA as administered by the Social Serxice Divi- 
sion. The Social Ser\ice Di\'ision had the further responsibility of keeping check on the individual's 
work history, of granting relief to unemployables, emergency cases, and of providing medical 
care, etc. 

Determining Eligibility 

The "Intake Clerk," or office interviewer, had the responsibility of determining which applica- 
tions should be accepted and referred to the case worker for full investigation. Approximately 
40 per cent of applications made was not accepted. The following policy governing investigations 
was determined by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration : 

"The minimum investigation shall include a prompt \'isit to the home ; inquiry as to real property, 
bank accounts, and other financial resources of the family ; an interview with at least one recent 
employer ; and determination of the ability and agreement of family, relatives, friends, and churches 
and other organizations to assist ; also the liability under public welfare laws of the several states, of 
members of a family, or relatives, to assume such support in order to prevent such member becoming 
a public charge. 

"Investigation shall be made, not only of persons applying directly to the office, but also of those 
reported to it. In this emergency, it is the duty of those responsible for the administration of 
unemployment relief to seek out persons in need, and to secure the cooperation of clergymen, school 
teachers, nurses, and organizations that might assist." 

Case workers were requested to keep in close touch with the family under care to avoid the 
necessity of the applicant applying repeatedly to the office for assistance. 

Standards of Relief 

The standards of relief were influenced by standards of living in the community, and were 
determined largely by the local or district administrators on the basis of funds available. 

Certain state-wide policies were in force regarding preparation of family weekly budgets by the 
local social service division and the determination of budgetary deficiency, the difference between 
the estimated budget and any income to the family. This "budgetary deficiency" was provided, 
as nearly as funds permitted, to prevent suffering and preserve health. Because of the under- 
nourishment of families, a variety of diet and the best quality of food in addition to clothing were 
provided wherever possible. 



128 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



OBLIGATIONS INCURRED FOR RELIEF BY TYPE OF GOODS OR 

SERVICES EXTENDED 

April 1934-March 1935 





Food 


Shelter 


Clothing 


Fuel 


Light 


Water, Gas 


Medical 


'934 
















April 


S 3'3-932-54 


% 7,465-14 


S 22,432.31 S 14-857-03 


S 


87.58 S 


52.852.49 


May 


275,817.82 


6,906.76 


12,651.93 


6,966.28 




125.84 


51,943-11 


June 


251,966.08 


9,234.61 


I5-I98-99 


3,763-64 




74-31 


51,236.79 


July 


246,768.26 


9,242.11 


22,890.33 


2,807.90 




278.38 


52,128.30 


August 


233,436.48 


21,413.06 


23.389-42 


2,432.17 




712.65 


52,263.94 


September 


203,493.84 


17,206.24 


30,183.51 


3,098-47 




261.69 


41,1 18.16 


October 


187,336.71 


17,340.51 


77.873-27 


7.335-41 




234-38 


41.759-75 


November 


195,258.40 


19,439.64 


117,400.22 


I 7,246.09 




136.78 


4', 152-03 


December 


221,970.53 


15,685.85 


93.7'9-73 


30,469.33 




'56.54 


43,386.67 


'935 
















January 


200,979.36 


14.395-68 


54,181.43 


33,693-48 




"4-15 


53,880.34 


February 


186,864.19 


10,419.61 


38,485-74 


24,073.87 




84.85 


52,934-83 


Marcli 


236,001.18 


8,824.81 


58,646.97 


16,755.08 




96-99 


61,662.98 


Total 


$ 2,753,825.39 


5 157.574-02 


$ 567.053-85 s 


163,498.75 


$ 


2,364.14 $ 


596,319-39 





Seed 


Feed 


Rural Rehabilitation 


Cash 


Other 


Total 


'934 
















April 


S 33,000.94 I 


30,086.00 




$ 


110,859.92 


B 4.923- '6 


s 590,497-" 


May 


24,003.42 


15,273-51 






244,041.23 


66,492-55 


704,222.45 


June 


14,882.17 


17.130-15 






319,340.03 


57.360.92 


740,187.69 


July 


2,290.02 


4,995-57 






425.519-12 


21,883.08 


788,803.07 


August 


1, 016. go 


2,381.29 






605,302.92 


17,582.08 


959.930.91 


September 


693-99 


1,538.99 






480,195.83 


8.575-3' 


786,366.03 


October 


350.66 


1,229.40 






459.501-79 


10,413.48 


803.375-36 


November 


1,708.53 


921.29 






714,750.83 


6,028.81 


1,1 14,042.62 


December 


726.98 


875-24 






726,352.92 


1.539-55 


1,134,883.34 


'935 
















January' 


66.80 


1,323-23 


s 


286.09 


844.757-4' 


3.998-32 


1,207,676.29 


February 


47.81 


2,236.33 




29.515-24 


641,003.51 


1.520.3' 


987,186.29 


March 


7,>3'-97 


11,242.59 




90,185.86 


730,757.08 


9,264.01 


1,230,569.52 


Total 


S 85,920.19 S 


89,233-59 


s 


119.987-19 s 


6,302,382.59 


5 209,581.58 


$1 1,047,740.68 



Emergency Eelief in I^okth Carolina 129 

N.C.ERA Statistical Division 

HOW THE CLIENT'S DOLLAR IS SPENT 




3-0% 
Miscellaneous 





54% 
Medical Care 



i.uyo 
Seed and Feed 



1.5% 
Fuel 





1.4% 
Shelter 



BASED ON OBLIGATIONS INCURRED FOR RELIEF 
APRIL, 1934, THROUGH MARCH, 1935 



130 



Emeegency Relief in North Carolina 



PER CENT DISTRIBUTION OF CASE LOAD BETWEEN WHITE 
AND COLORED 



June, 



Rank 


Co„.:ly 


Percent 


1 


CHOWAN 


76.2 


2 


MECKLKNBURO 


69-4 


3 


NEW HANOVER 


68.7 


4 


HERTFORD 


68.3 


fi 


DURHAM 


66.7 


n 


CASWELL 


66.5 


7 


PERSON 


66.1 


R 


PERQUIMANS 


65.9 




MARTIN 


65.8 


]0 


GRANVILLE 


64.6 


11 


ALAMANCE 


63.6 


12 


GATES 


62.8 


13 


WILSON 


61.2 


14 


HYDE 


60.1 


15 


LEE 


58.6 


16 


EDGECOMBE 


57.8 


17 


ORANGE 


57.4 


18 


RICHMOND 


56.3 


19 


WAKE 


65.4 


20 


MOORE 


54.8 


21 


ROWAN 


54.7 


22 


CUMBERLAND 


64.6 


23 


HALIFAX 


54.4 


24 


PAfWUOTANK 


54.3 


26 


HOKE 


53.5 


26 


FORSYTH 


52.4 


27 


ANSON 


52.1 


2« 


HARNETT 


62.0 


29 


VANCE 


60.4 


30 


WARREN 


49.1 


31 


CHATHAM 


48.3 


32 


GUILFORD 


48.3 


33 


UNION 


46.0 


34 


NORTHAMPTON 


45.1 


35 


WASHINGTON 


44.7 


36 


WAYNE 


44.5 


37 


NASH 


43.5 


3(1 


ROBESON 


43.2 


39 


GREENE 


43.2 


40 


SCOTLAND 


42.2 


41 


LENOIR 


41.7 


42 


BERTIE 


41.6 


43 


CABARRUS 


41.4 


44 


DAVIE 


40.9 


45 


JOHNSTON 


40.8 


46 


PITT 


40,7 


47 


JONES 


40,3 


48 


DUPLIN 


38.7 


49 


CLEVELAND 


37. '6 


50 


PENDER 


37.2 


51 


BLADEN 


36.8 


52 


PAMLICO 


38.7 


53 


CURRITUCK 


36.7 


54 


CRAVEN 


36.6 


55 


STANLY 


36.6 


56 


BEAUFORT 


34.1 


67 


TYRRELL 


32.6 


58 


BUNCOMBE 


30,4 


69 


BRUNSWICK 


30.4 


60 


FRANKLIN 


30.1 


61 


IREDELL 


30.0 


62 


BURKE 


29.4 


63 


ROCKINGHAM 


28.8 


64 


MONTGOMERY 


27.7 


65 


CAMDEN 


25.0 


66 


SAMPSON 


22.0 


67 


STOKES 


21.4 


68 


CATAWBA 


19.8 


69 


RANDOLPH 


19.7 


70 


HENDERSON 


19,2 


71 


DAVIDSON 


19.1 


72 


GASTON 


18.6 


73 


ONSLOW 


18Ji 


74 


McDowell 


18.3 


75 


CALDWELL 


17.1 


76 


COLUMBUS 


16.6 


77 


RUTHERFORD 


16.2 


78 


Y'ADKIN 


15.9 


79 


LINCOLN 


14.8 


80 


POLK 


13.3 


81 


CARXERET 


13.2 




ALEXANDER 


13,0 


83 


TRANSYLVANIA 


11.3 


84 


SURRY 


11.1 


85 


DARE 


10,5 


86 


WILKES 


9.2 


87 


ALLEGHANY 


7.3 


88 


WATAUGA 


4.0 


89 


HAYWOOD 


3.8 


80 


ASHE 


3.3 


91 


MACON 


3.1 


82 


JACKSON 


2.7 


93 


SWAIN 


1.9 


84 


MADISON 


1.4 


95 


Y'ANCEY 


1.1 


96 


CHEROKEE 


1.0 


97 


AVERY 


.7 


97 


MITCHELL 


.3 


99 


CLAY 


.0 


100 


GRAHAM 


.0 




White 



TTTTTTTI 



Colored 



N. C. ERA— Statialical Dtx-lsion. 



Emergtsntv Relief in North Carolina 131 

Service Cases 

Families and indi\iduals other than those receixing reHef were l<nown as "Service Cases." 
This type of ser\ice, such as finding employment, obtaining help fi"om relatives, adjusting financial 
obligations, etc., required, in many instances, much more of the worker's time and effort than was 
required for those receiving relief This service to families obviated the necessity of their becoming 
public charges. Although an average of 10,000 cases received such help each month, such cases 
were not represented in the reported total monthly case load. 

Relation of the Social Service Division to Special Programs 

As the social work was the foundation of the entire relief program, the Social Service Division 
was called upon to assume an active role in assisting with all special programs within the ERA. 

Eligible young men from relief families were assisted in their efforts to enroll in the CCC, where 
they receixed needed physical and vocational training, while their families received the major part 
of their income and were removed from relief rolls. 

In towns where no transient center existed, the social worker provided temporary food and 
shelter for transients in immediate need, assisting them to reach their destination or a transient 
center. The services of the case worker in the transient centers included the determination of need, 
investigation and advisability of returning to place of legal settlement, fitness for work, and adjust- 
ment of indi\'idual problems. 

By means of the farm and garden program, workers assisted families through their own efforts 
to pro\'ide a variety of fresh \'egetables for immediate use, as well as preservation and storage for the 
winter. This was a valuable service in developing habits of thrift and instilling a sense of security 
in having foods for daily and future needs. 

Since North Carolina is so largely rural, the services to rural families comprised one of the major 
services of the Social Service Division. In cooperation with the Rural Rehabilitation Division, the 
social worker formulated plans for the restoration of stranded rural families and families of meager 
opportunities. Through continued contacts and counsel with these families who had secured 
ad\'ances for farm supplies, equipment, and stock from the Rural Rehabilitation Division, the 
worker assisted in the initial steps toward permanent rehabilitation through agriculture. 

The social worker was the contact person in the Emergency Education Program. This program 
attained its dual objective in furnishing remunerative work for many unemployed and needy 
teachers, and a liberal education and vocational training for a far greater number of students, 
through which both teachers and pupils were benefited. 

The Organizational Development of the Social Service Division Since October, 1932 

The first consideration in development of the Social Service Division was the strengthening 
of its personnel through training. In July, 1933, the Social Service Division of the Governor's 
Office of Relief called the local administrators and social workers from each of the 107 administra- 
tions to Chapel Hill for a month's training at the University of North Carolina. The Annual 
Public Welfare Institute was combined with this summer session of social work training and held 
under the joint auspices of the Relief Administration, the State Public Welfare Department, and 
the School of PubHc Administration of the University of North Carolina, the staff of the University 
lending every possible assistance in class instruction, forums, and group discussion. 

Under the new ERA, in the fall of 1933, the division began to carry out its plan to introduce a 
trained case work supervisor into each unit, but for the most part the county administrator super- 
\ised case work along with all his other duties. Case work personnel was classified according to 



132 



Emeegency Eelief in North Carolina 



N.C.ERA Statistical Division 



Pi 
< 
1-1 

o 

Q 
O 

CO 

Q 

< 
CO 

O 

H 



450 



400 



350 



300 



250 



200 



150 



100 



DISTRIBUTION OF RELIEF BY TYPE 
JULY, 1934, THROUGH FEBRUARY, 1935 



50 













>v 






v 








\ 










/ 
































































— — _ 




/ 
/ 
/ 


y 
y 


^ 


s 


^0 — °- 


,^ 


a^ 


/ 

— 0/ — — 

/ 
/ 

■» X H W )> n 




r " — 


— 


-. "S. 

— ■^. 

















July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. 

1934 1935 
Food Clothing Medicine— o — o— Shelter jmhw**- Fuel- -. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 133 

social work training and experience, and a uniform salary scale worked out on the basis of this 
classification. Training was provided for the visitors along the lines previously followed. 

Arrangements for further training were made during the year 1934 with the School of Public 
Administration of the University to send a selected group of case workers to the University for a 
quarter's work to be followed by work in the field. This training was financed by the North Caro- 
lina Emergency Relief Administration. 

A special grant from the Federal Emergency Relief Administration made it possible for a group 
of fellowships to be awarded. In the fall of 1934, six students were sent to the New York School 
of Social Work for the fall and winter quarters, four were sent to the Pennsyhania School of Social 
Work for one semester, and four to the Atlanta School of Social Work for one semester. In the 
spring of 1935, six were sent to the New York School for the spring and summer quarters, five to 
the Pennsylvania School for the spring semester, and four to the Atlanta School for the spring 
semester. 

FERA Fellowship Students 



The New York School of Social Work : 
Fall and Winter, 1934 

Mrs. Roma Cheek 

Mrs. Inez B. Wall 

Miss E\elyn Rogers 

Miss Virginia Crawford 

Miss Euzelia Smart 

Miss Mary Louise Riggsbee 

The Pennsylvania School of Social Work 

Fall, 1934 

Miss Kathleen Tyer 
Miss Rebecca Hoskins 
Mrs. Bina Scott Roberts 
Miss Mary Frances Parker 

The Atlanta School of Social Work : 
Fall, 1934 

Mr. James H. Bailey, Jr. 
Mrs. Jeanette M. Sills 
Mrs. Mary Delahey 
Miss Rose Mae Withers 



Spring and Summer, 1935 

Miss Lessie Toler 

Miss Ethel Speas 

Miss Grace Williams 

Mrs. Lucille Hassell Harris 

Mr. J. S. Kirk 

Miss Ruth Henry 



Spring, 1934 

Miss Margaret Glover 

Mrs. Mary Neal Jackson 

Miss Iris Fly the 

Miss Lenna Gambill 

Mrs. Marguerite LeMay Mauney 

Spring, 1935 

Mrs. P. S. O' Kelly 
Miss Ruth Mitchell 
Mr. James H. Holmes 
Mr. Godfrey Herndon 



Within the organization a program of Institutes was arranged to provide some training for all 
the workers without taking them away from their duties for too long a period. A Director of 
Institutes and an Assistant, both trained social workers, were added to the state staff. These 
institutes were of two types. There was one series of four-day institutes held at various points, 
including the supervisory personnel and visiting staff from the entire state. Emphasis was placed 
upon the philosophy of social work and social work techniques, the application of social work 
practice to particular situations, and the relation of the Visitor to her job and to the community. 
The other series of institutes was of two weeks' duration. Classes were informal, based on a com- 
bination method of lecture, discussion, written assignments, and written reports. Emphasis was 



134 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



N.C.ERA Statistical Division 



AVERAGE RELIEF BENEFITS PER PERSON BY SIZE OF FAMILY 

FEBRUARY, 1935 



10 



9 
























8 
























7 
























6 
























CO 

< 

H 5 


























4 




\ 




















3 




^ 


^s. 


















2 






'J 


"^ 


^ 




























"^ 








■ 


I 


































10 II 12 

or 
more 



Number Persons Comprising Family 



Emekgency Relief in North Carolina 135 

laid on the study of the Visitor's attitude and the importance of this attitude in administering relief, 
the importance of allowing the client to make his own plans, taking operative factors into 
consideration. 

The influence of the philosophy of case work in the Emergency Relief Administration was shown. 
The interview was analyzed and studied. The necessity of determining relief eligibility on a 
budgetary basis was elaborated. The national program was clarified in both series of institutes. 

Impro\'ement was made in social records and organization of the routine of visitors. Uniform 
forms for a more complete face sheet, a budget form, a field sheet, intake blank, case transfer 
records, and other forms were introduced. Special effort was made to procure complete case 
histories of all relief families. A Manual of Instruction for Supervisors and Visitors was published 
which included a definition of the field of activity of Supervisors and Visitors, as well as 
suggestions in regard to procedure. District reference libraries of social work publications were 
supplied by the state office to be made available to the case workers. 

Interruption of the Social Program by the Civil Works Administration 

The development and strengthening of the social program in 1933 and 1934 was disrupted and 
set back by the Civil Works Administration. The speed with which this immense program was 
put into operation made it impossible to build up a well-equipped personnel. The need was 
immediate and had to be met without delay. This situation meant that the attention and interest 
of all workers were absorbed by CWA, and as a result, long-time plans and routine procedure 
suffered. 

Problems Growing Out of the Civil Works Administration 

After the Civil Works Administration was brought to a close, many problems growing out of it 
remained to aggravate the difficulties of the Social Service Division. The pressure of the program 
had instilled work habits that were too hurried to be thorough. There was general confusion 
about the nature of the program after the end of the Civil Works Administration, and many persons 
were demanding work although they were resentful of case work investigations and relief budgets. 
The investigation of new applicants for relief was a tremendous job and a difficult one due to 
attitudes which had developed. Relief clients who had received high wages fought a decrease 
in allowances, 

During the three months of hurry and strain, case records had lapsed and visiting habits suffered. 
In addition to a reinterpretation of the program to the client and would-be client, the social service 
workers had a large part of the responsibility of interpretation to the public, a public resentful 
toward the high wages of the Civil Works Administration. 

When the program was put back on a relief basis, the case worker had to interpret to the Works 
Division the abilities of the clients and in many cases to withstand pressure for certification of non- 
relief skilled workmen to complete CWA projects. During this period, the clients developed a 
highly critical attitude toward administrative workers. Complaint letters increased tremendously 
in volume, organized protest groups became more active and vocal and thus required more time 
from the Social Service Division. 

It was not easy to gather up the broken and tangled threads and try to start again weaving a 
pattern planned before the CWA experience. Case loads had grown, the organization had grown 
in size and complexity, and the work of the social service staff needed redefinition and reformation. 
The staff was not equipped and was not large enough for the task confronting it. It became a 
pressing concern of the Director of Social Service to put into immediate effect plans for the reorgan- 
ization of the Social Service Division, plans which had been, of necessity, abandoned during CWA. 



136 



Emergency Relief in N'orth Cakolina 



N.C.ERA Statistical Division 



Per Cent 



SIZE OF FAMILY— RELIEF AND GENERAL POPULATION 

JANUARY, 1935 




° f 



456789 
SIZE OF FAMILY— NO. PERSONS 



10 II 12 



General Population '////j Relief Population 



Emergency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 



137 



An adjustment division, under the supervision of the Assistant to the Director of the Social 
Service Division, was added. All complaints were carefully analyzed, referred to the proper division 
of ERA for investigation and adjustment, and followed through until a completed report of investi- 
gation, and adjustment where justified, was in the state office files. 

Consolidation of County Units to Strengthen the Social Program 

During the months following the liquidation of CWA, the social workers, already carrying far 
too heavy loads in number of clients per worker, were called upon to assist all other divisions to such 
an extent that social work was lagging. 

Through the consolidation of the 107 administrative units into 31 districts, the Social Service 
Division was strengthened. In each county a branch office was retained, with a staff of visitors 
and a senior case worker in charge. In the process of consolidation, trained social workers were 
secured for almost all of the district social service supervisory positions. The district social service 
supervisor worked directly under the District Administrator and was in charge of all social service 
activities in the district. This included supervision of all visitors through the senior case worker, 
and organization of the routine of the county office, in addition to coordination of the work in the 
various branch offices. In one or two instances, persons with no training, but with considerable 
experience with the organization, were selected. These were to be replaced by trained workers as 
they became available. The introduction of trained supervisors was one of the most important 
advances made by the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration in improving the organi- 
zation and standards of case work done. 



NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILIES BY SIZE FOR 

NORTH CAROLINA— 1930 

AND 

CASE LOAD— JANUARY, 1935 



Population — 1930 
Number of Per Cent of 



Case Load — -January, 1935 
Number of Per Cent of 



Size of 


Family 


Families 


Total Families 


Families 


Relief Families 


TOTAL 




644,033 


100. 


74,155 


100. 


I Person 




28,168 


4.4 


5,454 


7-3 


2 Persons 




103,736 


16.0 


10,722 


14-5 


3 Persons 




111,883 


17.4 


11,861 


16.0 


4 Persons 




106,132 


16.5 


11,507 


15-5 


5 Persons 




87,478 


13.6 


10,584 


14-3 


6 Persons 




67,961 


10.6 


8,060 


10.9 


7 Persons 




50,389 


7.8 


5,900 


7-9 


8 Persons 




35,475 


5-5 


4,276 


5-7 


9 Persons 




23,846 


3-7 


2,733 


3-8 


ID Persons 




14,237 


2.2 


1,569 


2.1 


II Persons 




7,719 


1.2 


811 


I.I 


12 or more 


Persons 


7,009 


I.I 


678 


•9 



138 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



N.C.ERA Statistical Division 



Per Cent 



SIZE OF FAMILY— RELIEF AND GENERAL POPULATION 

JUNE, 1935 




2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 13 

SIZE OF FAMILY— NO. PERSONS 



General Population ///// Relief Population 



Emergency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 



139 



Under the district organization, the staff of the Social Service Division by April, 1935, had 
increased within a year from approximately five hundred to about ele\'en hundred. The effort 
was made to employ a sufficient number of visitors to reduce the case load per worker to seventy-five 
cases in the rural areas and one hundred in urban centers. District Social Service Supervisors and 
Senior Case Workers were selected with special emphasis upon training, and there was constant 
weeding out of untrained and unpromising workers employed during the early days of the program 
when the need for workers was so great that due care could not be given to selection. 

Sociological Research 

The Social Service Division has worked closely with research projects carried on under the 
direction of the Division of Research, Statistics, and Finance of the Federal Emergency Relief 
Administration, giving assistance through case workers and records in the local offices, and furnishing 
personnel with experience in social investigation for field work. The division directly supervised a 
continuation of the studies of displaced farm tenants begun in 1933. This study was enlarged and 
a survey was made of active relief cases in typical counties in all agricultural regions of the state. 
This survey was of great value in the selection of rural rehabilitation clients. The Social Service 
Division also cooperated in the Child Welfare Survey carried on by the North Carolina Emergency 
Relief Administration, the American Legion, and the American Legion Auxiliary. 



NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILIES BY SIZE FOR 

NORTH CAROLINA— 1930 
AND 

CASE LOAD— JUNE, 1935 



Population — 1 930 



Case Load — June, 1935 



Size of Family 
TOTAL 

1 Person 

2 Persons 

3 Persons 

4 Persons 

5 Persons 

6 Persons 

7 Persons 

8 Persons 

9 Persons 

10 Persons 

11 Persons 

12 or more Persons 



"slumber of 


Per Cent of 


Number of 


Per Cent of 


Families 


Total Famihes 


Families 


Relief Families 


644,033 


100. 


62,010 


lOO.O 


28,168 


4.4 


3,547 


5-7 


103,736 


16.0 


9,211 


14.9 


111,883 


17.4 


10,723 


17-3 


106,132 


16.5 


10,222 


16.5 


87,478 


13.6 


9,048 


14.6 


67,961 


10.6 


6,706 


10.8 


50,389 


7.8 


4,887 


7-9 


35,475 


5-5 


3,277 


5-3 


23,846 


3-7 


2,189 


3-5 


14,237 


2.2 


1,129 


1.8 


7,719 


1.2 


604 


I.O 


7,009 


I.I 


467 


•7 



140 



Emergency Relief in ISToeth Carolina 



'' „4^ 




See special descriptive matter referring to these Illustrations on page 141. 



Emekgency Relief in I^oeth Carolina 



141 



Tabulation of Social Service Workers,* Total Cases Receiving Relief, Total Cases 
Under Care, and Average Number Cases Under Care Per Month Per Worker 

October, 1934 to December, 1935 



1934 



October 

Noxember 

December 



Social 


Total Cases 


Total Cases 


Average Number 


Ser\ice 


Receiving 


Under 


Cases Under Care 


Workers 


Relief 


Care 


Per Worker 


769 


62,207 


83,504 


108.5 


781 


67,853 


77,290 


98.9 


706 


73,813 


83,019 


117-5 



1935 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Average per month 



929 


74,155 


87,489 


94-1 


971 


69,720 


82,229 


84.6 


982 


70,549 


78,433 


79-8 


1,002 


70,857 


76,813 


76.6 


1,011 


66,149 


75,838 


75-0 


1,019 


62,010 


75,952 


74-5 


984 


59,614 


71,778 


72.9 


940 


53,913 


67,259 


71-5 


795 


49,357 


61,850 


77-7 


726 


47,545 


56,563 


77-9 


623 


42,919 


54,470 


87.4 


362 


14,186 


43,132 


119.1 



840 



59,043 



71,708 



87-73 



DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATIONS ON PAGE 140 

(i) Home of a typical Ratal Rehabilitation family, Alexander County. (2) Children of this Rural Rehabilitation family , Alexander 
County. (3) H:)use built for Relief Family, Brunswick County. (4) The home of a Relief family in Iredell County. This house was built 
during the w nter months of IQ34. Through field wo?k the mother secured $20 with which she purchased a one-acre tract of land. A neighbor 
offered her the logs in a neai-by house which had fallen down. She and her son, with the help df some neighbors, put these logs together, making 
a one-room cabin. There wis nothing with which to chink the cracks, and late November found the family with no chimney and no way lo keep out 
the cold winter air. The mother then agreed to pick 2,000 pounds of cotton for a neighbor if he would give her the brick in a chimney left in his 
field from a building that had burned there several years before. She and her children took this chimney down and carried the brick about a mile to 
their cabin. It was then that the RelieJ Administration, together with the County Welfare Department, gave her assistance in building the chimney 
and boarding up the inside of the cabin. Eleven persons live in this one room. (5) Rural Rehabilitation client. Craven County. This family 
pircha^ei one acre of land and constructed the ho'ose from farm iruome under the Rural Rehabilitation Program of 1934. (6) Alexander County. 
The head of this family worked under the CWA program, saved his money and bought a small tract of land on which there was a tobacco barn. 
With the aid of his wfe and children he gathered field stones and built a chimney, then added a room and porch, in this way converting the barn 
into a livable home. The owner and his family are delighted to have had an opportunity to acquire a home and are planning through the Rural 
Rehanlitation Program to buy necessary stock and equipment so that they may become self-supporting. (7) Rural Rehabilitation family , Ruther- 
ford County, This family built the cabin themselves, out of slabs. The land had no house on it. (8) Relief family , Iredell County. This 
is an illustration of the need for relief. The family is tragically poor. The father does not have either the willingness or the intelligence to provide 
for the famHy. There was one bed for the entire family . A pile of cotton in one corner of the room furnished the bed and covering for part of the 
family. Food was prepared on the hearth, for there was no cook stove. A "hoe-cake" was broken into bits and handed to members of the family, 
since there was no table at which the family could sit, and there were no dishes from which food could be served. 



* Includes Stenographers and Clerical Workers of the Social Service Division. 



142 



EmerctEnct Relief in North Carolina 



ANALYSIS OF RESIDUAL* CASE LOAD AS OF DECEMBER 5, 1935, N. C. ERA 

Number OF Cases '3 -51" 



Number in Family : 

Adults 30,344 

Children 30.875 



On Relief : 

Before May i ,320 

On Relief or accepted for relief in May 
Accepted — June to No\-embcr 
Accepted since November 



7,649 
2,967 
2,894 

13,510 



Primary Reasons for Actual or Probable Non-acceptance by Works Progress 
Administration or Other Federal Programs : 



On relief after November i 
No project available 
Live too far from project 
Widow (er) with minor children 
Unmarried mother with minor 

children 
All employables in school 
Responsible person serving sentence 159 
Can do light work only 



2,894 


Chronic illness 


468 


2,192 


Temporary acute illness 


328 


1,209 


Infirm, aged, blind, or crippled 


386 


470 


Insanity 


25 




Low mentality 


90 


92 


Poor rural rehabilitation risk 


223 


63 


Did not report for WPA work 


'97 


e 159 


Private employment 


909 


497 


Temporary private employment 


120 



Not registered 

Not called 

Not certified 

Not assigned 

Son in CCC 

Moved from place of residence 

Placement incomplete 

Unknown 



23 

1,579 

27 

120 

92 

65 

39 

1,243 

13,510 



Social Security Survey 



On one of the last research projects of the North CaroHna Emergency Rehef Administration, 
the Social Service Di\'ision assisted untiringly in an effort to cooperate with the administration in 
making a survey of all relief clients who may expect benefits from the Federal Social Security Act 
of 1935. This cooperation consisted of the transfer of some 30,000 case records to prepared schedules. 
This was an immense job in addition to the manifold functions and tasks that the Social Service 
Division was called upon to perform in connection with the increasing problems and the decreasing 
funds during the latter part of 1935. Howe\'er, it was felt that the survey when completed would 
present to North Carolina an accurate picture of the need of many of its people who have been on 
relief, and would assist in the future in securing assistance for the aged and infirm, dependent 
children, the crippled, blind, and physically handicapped, in such proportion as to assure some 
degree of security for these citizens from the \'icissitudes of life. 

Services to Other Federal Agencies 

In the whole period, both before and after consolidation, the Social Service Division continued 
its services to other agencies in certifying and assisting in placing Emergency Relief Administration 
clients in other Federal programs, such as Rural Resettlement Administration, National Youth 
Administration, the Ci\ilian Conservation Corps, the United States Employment Service, the Soil 
Conservation Service, the Works Progress Administration, etc. By December, 1935, the Social 
Service Division had certified 67,232 families to the Works Progress Administration and other 
Federal programs, of which numbers, approximately 45,000 had been placed on this and other 
programs by the time relief was discontinued. 

Throughout the whole period of its operation, the Social Service Division, using all the facilities 
and resources at its command, had one objective, to render adequate service to families and 
individuals in effecting necessary adjustment ; and one method, to approach the solution of these 
human problems with an informed mind and in the spirit of understanding. Of this objective, and 
this method, the public, it is believed, is becoming increasingly aware. 

* The Residual Case Load is defined as the cases actually receiving relief during the first five days of December, 1935, and for 
many reasons, such as physical disability, no projects available, widow with minor children, etc., had not been assigned to any 
public agency as Works Progress Administration, Rural Resettlement, Soil Conservation, etc. This, however, does not include an 
additional 16,500 relief cases which were closed, for whom relief had been discontinued prior to November i because of the 
inadequacy of relief funds, and had not been assigned to any public agency by December 15, 1935. 



EMEROENrv Relief in North Carolina 



143 



Prcpnrt^ by SialiniiTil Depart mrnt 

PER CENT OF POPULATION ON RELIEF BY COUNTIES 

AUGUST, 1934 




NORTH CAROLINA 



SCALE- SUm/rC MJUi 

39 « CO JS 






I I L'ndcrs.s 

|':^■V;| 5-5 'o 94 

I 1 9-51013.4 

I I I '3-5 to 17.4. 
^^^H 17.5 and o\'er 




PER CENT OF POPULATION ON RELIEF BY COUNTIES 

OCTOBER, 1934 




17.5 and o\er 



144 



Emergency Relief in N'orth Carolina 



rVcpaccd by Statlsiical Depart mmt 



PER CENT OF POPULATION ON RELIEF BY COUNTIES 

JANUARY, 1935 




IjJ 13-5 to "74 
^^H i''.3 and o\'er 

PER CENT OF POPULATION ON RELIEF BY COUNTIES 

MAY, 1935 










^ 



NORTH CAROLINA 



SCALt- SWUn MJL£i 



o a 3c u ta n 



I I Under 5.5 

5-5 to 94 



3 9-5 to 13.4 



I H 'S-Sto 17.4 
^^H 17.3 and over 





, Emekgency Eelief in ISToETH Caeolina 145 

Medical Care 

The general scope of medical care, as defined by the FERA, permitted the use of Federal funds 
to pay for medicines, medical supplies, and medical attention for recipients of unemployment relief 
in their homes or in the offices of physicians. It also permitted bedside nursing care, as an adjunct 
to medical care, and emergency dental service. Payment of bills for hospital or institutional care 
for indigents was not permitted, since this is a recognized responsibility of state and local govern- 
ments. 

The regulations provided that : ( i ) A uniform policy with regard to provisions of medical, nurs- 
ing, and dental care for relief clients be made the basis of an agreement between the State Administra- 
tion and the state and local organized medical, nursing, and dental professions ; (2) Within legal and 
economic limitations, the traditional family and physician relationship be recognized in the authori- 
zations for medical care ; (3) An agreement by the physician, nurse, and dentist to furnish the 
same type of service that would be furnished a private patient, the authorized service to be at a 
minimum consistent with good professional judgment and charged for at an agreed rate with due 
allowance for the conservation of relief funds. 

The policy was to "augment and render more adequate facilities already existing in the com- 
munity for the provision of medical care by the medical, nursing, and dental professions to indigent 
persons," but Federal funds could not be used in lieu of local or state funds to pay for these estab- 
lished services. 

Participation in medical care of relief persons was open to all licensed practitioners of medicine 
and related professions who were willing to accept the regulations and restrictions of the program. 

Early in October, 1934, the State Administration and the officers of the State Medical Association 
agreed upon uniform procedures and a schedule of fees for treatment of relief clients which was in 
affect in all counties. The schedule of fees was superseded by a revised schedule on December 7, 
1934. A State Advisory Medical Committee, appointed by the State Medical Association, and 
county advisory committees, appointed by the county medical associations, assisted the state and local 
administrations in an advisory capacity. 

A uniform policy for nuning care was not adopted. Bedside nursing was provided for clients 
by district administrators. Also unemployed and needy nurses were employed on county-wide or 
district-wide projects for examinations and care of pre-school children of relief families, clinics, in- 
struction in health standards, etc. 

An arrangement for dental treatment of indigent school children, under the supervision of the 
State Board of Health, was in effect during the school term of 1933-34. 

Emergency dental treatment was provided for the clients, but uniform procedures and schedules 
of dental fees were not agreed upon by the State Administration and officers of the State Dental 
Society until 1935. 

All authorizations for medical, nursing, and dental service were issued in writing on regular 
forms by county social workers, before the service was rendered, except in emergencies when 
telephonic authorization was given, followed by written order. 

The cost of medical care has varied greatly from month to month. Epidemics of colitis among 
children, influenza, with resulting pneumonia, and other diseases account for the apparent spasmodic 
high cost of medical care. 

An epidemic of "hemorrhagic fever," a fatal semi-tropical disease occurring in malarious areas, 
which, through the efforts of the State Health Department, had become practically extinct in this 
state, broke out among relief families in an eastern county. The quick action of the local administra- 
tion in treating patients and in immunizing exposed clients, and otherwise quickly getting the disease 
under control, prevented the spread to other counties. 



146 



Emehgency Relief in Nohth Carolina 



NCEUA statistical Divisirm 

COSTS OF MEDICAL CARE BY MONTHS 
FEBRUARY, 1935, THROUGH DECEMBER,i935 



75 

I-) 
O 
Q 

O 

CO 
Q 



O 

K 
H 



70 



60 



50 



40 



30 



20 



10 




Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. No\-. Dec. 

1935 



Date 


Physicians' F 


February* 


S 33,420.00 


March 


35,145.82 


April 


32,877.69 


May 


38,287.29 


June 


37,384.12 


July 


33.013.12 


August 


23,065.96 


September 


20,082.92 


October 


21,380.82 


November 


15,439.68 


December 


2.507,67 


Total 


292,605.09 


• February: 


Excludes Trans 



Midwi 



' Fees 



51,001.03 
900.75 
557. SO 
831.98 
588.94 
714.90 
217.00 
193.25 
200.25 
134.20 
24.00 

5,364.10 



Drngs 



S 16.087.47 

20.702.55 

19,957.93 

23,290.31 

20.783.37 

18,686.66 

12.123.71 

9,060.63 

9,827.11 

7,549.61 

1,428.07 

159,498.22 



Other 



S 391.61 
3,810,60 
2,391,69 
3,619.47 
2,882.97 
2,146.04 
1,211.97 
1,413.05 
1,542,02 
1,150,23 
191.68 

20,751.23 



NursiriQ 



Total 





S 50,900.11 


1,103.36 


61,662.98 


985.00 


66.770.11 


1,127.12 


67.156.17 


1,028.27 


62,667.67 


882.80 


56.443.62 


908.16 


37,526.80 


665.24 


31.414.99 


705.97 


33.656.17 


486.00 


24,759.72 


518.03 


4,670,35 


8,409.96 


486,628.59 


N.C.ERA Statistical Division 



Emekgency Relief in N^orth Cakolina 147 

Lack of adequate food and warm clothing has lowered the vitality of relief clients and made them 
particularly susceptible to disease. Frequently proper medical care has resulted in the clients 
securing private employment and thus being removed from relief rolls. 

In cooperation with State and County Health Departments, the Relief Administrations aided in 
reducing social disease. The State Health Department purchased medicine at wholesale prices 
for the Relief Administration. This was then distributed to the district administrations for use in 
counties having no funds for such purchases, and given through clinics or by designated physicians, 
upon authority of the county social workers. 

The cost of medical care will be found on page 146. 

Unemployment Relief Census 

Shortly after the organization of the Division of Research and Statistics of the Federal Emergency 
Relief Administration, plans were formulated for the taking of a nation-wide census of persons 
recei\ing unemployment relief. The last week in October, 1933, all the State Statisticians from 
this area were called to a conference in Washington. There they were told that a census was 
contemplated covering all cases who had received relief during October. It was decided to use a 
single-page schedule containing a minimum amount of information. The data was limited to four 
major categories, namely the color and size of relief families, and the sex and age of the persons in the 
families. In addition, the name and street address of the head of the family were given, and the 
place of residence, state, county, urban or rural. 

A small staff was organized in the State ERA, and a supply of schedules was mailed to each 
county relief office. Since the information required was so simple, it was possible, in most instances, 
to transcribe it directly from the case cards to the census blanks. Only occasionally were field 
visits necessary to supplement the office records. 

When a completed schedule arrived in Raleigh, it was given a careful examination to determine 
all spaces were filled and to detect any inconsistency in the answers. Those which appeared to be 
correct were sent to the Area Coding Office in Columbia, South Carolina ; those incorrect were 
returned to the county of origin. 

The work of transcribing schedules proceeded steadily during the first part of November, and 
by the end of the month all had been forwarded to Columbia. North Carolina was notified that 
it was the first State to complete the census. 

Final tabulations, analysis and interpretation of the data secured in the Unemployment Relief 
Census were conducted in Washington and the results were published in three Bulletins, as follows : 

Number One presented the number of families by size and race, and the number of persons 
by age, sex, and race, for geographic divisions, for states, and cities. 

Number Two presented similar data for the rural and urban areas and for all counties. 

Number Three described family composition of the cases receiving emergency relief 

The total schedules completed for North Carolina represented 56,041 families, comprising 
252,220 individuals. Of these persons 147,435 were white; 104,124 were Negro, and 661 were 
of other races. Rural dwellers numbered 167,992 and urban 84,228. 



148 



Emergency Eelief in ISTokth Carolina 



N.C.ERA Statistical Division 



HOW THE ERA DOLLAR WAS SPENT FOR MEDICAL CARE 
PER CENT DISTRIBUTION OF MEDICAL COST 

FEBRUARY, 1935, THROUGH DECEMBER, 1935 




MIDWIVES 
FEES 

NURSING 1,7 



Emergency Eelief in I^obth Cakolina 



149 



OBLIGATIONS INCURRED FOR WORK AND DIRECT RELIEF BY COUNTIES, 

APRIL 1934, THROUGH MARCH, 1935 



Alamance 

Alexander 

Alleghany 

Anson 

Ashe 

Avery 

Beaufort 

Bertie 

Bladen 

Brunswick 

Buncombe 

Burke 

Cabarrus 

Cald\vell 

Camden 

Carteret 

Caswell 

Catawba 

Chatham 

Cherokee 

Chowan 

Clay 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Craven 

Cumberland 

Currituck 

Dare 

Davidson 

Davie 

Duplin 

Durham 

Edgecombe 

Forsyth 

Franklin 

Gaston 

Gates 

Graham 

Granville 

Greene 

Guilford 

Halifax 

Harnett 

Haywood 

Henderson 

Hertford 

Hoke 

Hyde 

Iredell 

Jackson 

Johnston 



Work Relief 


Direct Relief 


Per Cent Work Relief 


Work and Direct 


Earnings Twelve 


Earnings Twelve 


Earnings of Total 


Relief Twelve 


Months Total 


Months Total 


Relief Granted 


Months Total 


S 48,275-74 


S 11,865.87 


80.3 


S 60,141.61 


10,900.34 


20,991.49 


34-a 


31,891.83 


10,604.99 


9,990-29 


51-5 


20,595.28 


39,832.30 


35,465-57 


61.0 


65,297-87 


54,666.03 


23,266.20 


70.1 


77,932-23 


13,938.09 


- 30,803.35 


31.2 


44,74' -44 


23.772-98 


. ,r ;_i6,890.33 


58.5 


40,663.31 


10,295.40 


22,603.60 


31-3 


32,899.00 


22,734.40 


24,117.56 


48-5 


46,851.96 


37,034-25 


29,949.17 


55-3 


66,983.42 


318,567.89 


303,819.50 


51.2 


622,387.39 


33,164.42 


17,100.02 


66.0 


50,264.44 


59,056.57 


62,143.04 


48.7 


121,199.61 


35,225.36 


18,707.04 


65-3 


53,932.40 


5,031.98 


12,859.10 


28.1 


17,891.08 


59,313-26 


35,057.0a 


62.9 


94,370.28 


29,316.08 


11,148.25 


72-4 


40,464-33 


56,346-54 


32,142.63 


63-7 


88,489.17 


34,802.10 


15,702.33 


68.9 


50,504.43 


24,238.46 


28,860.38 


45-6 


53,098.84 


22,990.92 


23,049.08 


49-9 


46,040.00 


7,557-50 


13,688.19 


35-6 


21,245.69 


26,595-71 


34,304-15 


43-7 


60,899.86 


27,636.83 


32,227.90 


46.2 


59,864.73 


156,180.06 


32,900.97 


82.6 


189,081.03 


42,573-62 


56,743-99 


42-9 


99,3 '7-6 1 


7,86r.oi 


15,079-03 


34-3 


23,940.04 


18,063.21 


14,222.78 


55-9 


32,285.99 


50,056.94 


36,716.67 


57-7 


86,773.61 


8,258.96 


14,325-19 


36.6 


22,584.15 


41,850.33 


45,454-42 


47-9 


87,304-75 


'55,757-35 


151,635.53 


50.7 


307,392.88 


99,193-63 


44,822.52 


68.9 


144,016.15 


300,916.86 


212,305.67 


58.6 


513,222.53 


21,670.70 


28,815.81 


42-9 


50,486.51 


1 78,840.62 


149,167.67 


54-5 


328,007.69 


7,124.30 


15,698.34 


31.2 


22,822.64 


10,892.50 


5,008.57 


68.5 


'5,90'.o7 


21,761.76 


14,273-25 


60.4 


36,035.01 


8,060.35 


13,636-33 


37-2 


21,696.68 


536,534.85 


340,809.36 


61.2 


877,344-21 


48,582.71 


78,520.20 


38.2 


127,102.91 


26,827.50 


'5,841-35 


62.9 


42,668.85 


50,210.10 


47,788.19 


51.2 


97,998.29 


29,053-35 


27,273-74 


51.6 


56,327-09 


11,209.02 


ig,2i2.i I 


36.8 


30,421.13 


12,296.73 


21,881.03 


36.0 


34,177-76 


40,048.81 


14,475-05 


73-5 


54,523-86 


57,083.49 


54,025-65 


51-4 


II 1,109.14 


5,488.67 


26,518.00 


17.1 


32,006.67 


21,638.10 


71,143.84 


23-3 


92,781.94 



150 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



OBLIGATIONS INCURRED FOR WORK AND DIRECT RELIEF BY COUNTIES, 
APRIL 1934, THROUGH MARCH, kj-t,^— Continued 





Work Relief 


Direct Relief 


Per Cent Work Relief 


Work and Direct 




Earnings Twelve 


Earnings Twelve 


Earnings of Total 


Relief Twelve 




Months Total 


Months Total 


Relief Granted 


Months Total 


Jones 


$ 22,584.10 


S 22,236.39 


50-4 


S 44,820.49 


Lee 


32,828.83 


15,354-38 


68.1 


48,183.21 


Lenoir 


43.3I5-07 


42,631.12 


50-4 


85,946.19 


Lincoln 


23,629.21 


19,142.48 


55-2 


42,771.69 


Macon 


25,798.02 


6,753.28 


79-3 


32,551-30 


Madison 


29,621.17 


18,801.02 


61. 2 


48,422.19 


Martin 


16,007.68 


17,965-49 


47.1 


33,973-17 


McDowell 


26,61 1.87 


25,073-71 


51-5 


51,685.58 


Mecklenburg 


336,576.03 


160,538.59 


67.7 


497,114.62 


Mitchell 


'7>479-24 


15,166.93 


53-5 


32,646.17 


Montgomery 


53474-45 


14,936.62 


78.2 


68,41 1.07 


Moore 


41,111.74 


43,605.99 


48.5 


84,717-73 


Nash 


21,715.80 


25,395-40 


46.1 


47,11 1.20 


New Hanover 


173.545-30 


140,765.82 


55-2 


314,311.12 


Northampton 


16,829.00 


21,744.67 


43.6 


38,573-67 


Onslow 


10,449.92 


20,414.50 


33-9 


30,864.42 


Orange 


68,522.28 


38,710.60 


639 


107,232.88 


Pamlico 


i3>448.73 


25,208.39 


34-8 


38,657.12 


Pasquotank 


18,273.92 


24,599-66 


42.6 


42,873-58 


Pender 


15,320.30 


23,719-45 


39-2 


39,039-75 


Perquimans 


20,705.70 


15,292.98 


57-5 


35,998.68 


Person 


16,256.63 


24,473-54 


39-9 


40-730.17 


Pitt 


49-351-38 


32,602.37 


6o.a 


81,953-75 


Polk 


2,583-03 


1 1,193.67 


18.7 


13,776.70 


Randolph 


34.3'9-i8 


40,175-99 


46.1 


74-495- '7 


Richmond 


121,667.07 


22,360.37 


84-5 


144,027.44 


Robeson 


99-132-31 


75,460.52 


56.8 


174,592.83 


Rockingham 


33,628.04 


27,350.20 


55-1 


60,978.24 


Rowan 


60,606.05 


78,476.82 


43-6 


139,082.87 


Rutherford 


36,687.28 


49,591-33 


42-5 


86,278.61 


Sampson 


28,461.85 


42,590-76 


40.1 


71,052.61 


Scotland 


32,768.77 


58,787.28 


35-8 


91,556-05 


Stanly 


50,744-85 


9,179-03 


84.7 


59,923.88 


Stokes 


17,449.10 


16,109.46 


52.0 


33-558.56 


Surry 


64,180.13 


37,361.02 


63.2 


101.541. 15 


Swain 


8,841.96 


8,978.97 


49.6 


17,820.93 


Transylvania 


27,219-37 


13,547-09 


66.8 


40,766.46 


Tyrrell 


25,864.84 


15,337-79 


62.8 


41,202.63 


Union 


65,907-37 


33-149-76 


66.5 


99-057-13 


Vance 


45,188.52 


'7,553-35 


72.0 


62,741.87 


Wake 


475,827.66 


154,724.26 


75-5 


630,551.92 


Warren 


29,149.88 


13,980.75 


67.6 


43-130.63 


Washington 


26,187.63 


24,160.73 


52.0 


50,348-36 


Watauga 


15,224.50 


29,288.89 


34-2 


44-5 '3-39 


Wayne 


105,715.81 


65,722.94 


61.7 


171-438-75 


Wilkes 


49,542.88 


47,298.88 


51-2 


96.841.76 


Wilson 


121,039.68 


48,983.06 


71.2 


170.022.74 


Yadkin 


6,926.31 


41,624.71 


14-3 


48,551.02 


Yancey 


23,226.54 


19,101.37 


54-9 


42,327-91 


County Totals 


$5,681,480.05 


84,222,269.70 


37-4 


$9,903,749,75 


State Projects 


21,944.81 






21,944.81 


Total 


$5,703,424-86 


84,222,269.70 




89,925,694-56 



WORKS DIVISION OF THE NORTH CAROLINA EMERGENCY RELIEF 

ADMINISTRATION 

April, 1934-DEGEMBER, 1935 



Since the North CaroUna Emergency Relief Administrator was also Ci\il Works Administrator 
for North Carolina, most of the Civil Works Administration personnel became Emergency Relief 
Administration personnel at the close of the Civil Works program. This greatly expedited the 
organization and the functioning of the Emergency Relief Administration program and enabled 
the work program in North Carolina to be gotten under way much more quickly than would have 
been the case if an entirely new organization had taken over the Emergency Relief Administration. 

When notice was received to begin the liquidation of the Civil Works program, preparations 
were immediately made to transfer the projects to the Emergency Relief Administration, and Emer- 
gency Relief projects were received and approved in the state office as soon as the Civil Works 
program was officially terminated, that is, on March 31, 1934. By May 15, 1934, all of the most 
important CWA projects had been approved as ERA projects. 

Number Relief Cases Employed on Projects Not Including Teachers and Students 

Date : Date : Date : 

April, 1934 11,468 November, 1934 29,569 June, 1935 42,507 

May, 1934 17,465 December, 1934 33>650 July, 1935 42,224 

June, 1934 24,840 January, 1935 41,781 August, 1935 35>724 

July, 1934 28,634 February, 1935 40,167 September, 1935 29,781 

August, 1934 36,896 March, 1935 41,218 October, 1935 26,389 

September, 1934 35,oi5 April, 1935 42,901 November, 1935 9,217 

October, 1934 25,138 May, 1935 44,291 

The State Works Di\ision exercised through its field forces supervision over all the activities of 
all local and district works di\isions. The State Works Di\'ision served to coordinate the acti\'ities 
of all district and local works divisions so that uniform methods and procedure were followed 
throughout the state. 

Local and state projects, except for those carried on by the Emergency Relief Administration 
for its own purposes, were sponsored by various local governmental units such as the various 
villages, towns and cities, counties, drainage districts, etc. Some local projects, such as malaria con- 
trol, rural sanitation and road and highway work, were jointly sponsored by local governmental units 
and the \arious departments of the state go\'ernment. State projects were sponsored by \arious 
state departments such as the State Highway Commission, the State Board of Health, the Depart- 
ment of Conservation and Development, etc. State and local projects were initiated either by state 
or local governmental units or by state or local governmental units with the cooperation of the 
Emergency Relief Administration. Over the state as a whole, there were many instances where 
it was necessary in order to keep the work program functioning for the local or district works di\i- 



152 



Emergency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 



EMERGENCY RELIEF WORK PROGRAM 

EARNINGS AND PERSONS AT WORK BY 

WEEKS ENDING APRIL 5. 1934, THROUGH 

NOVEMBER 14. 1935 



.. Q 

a < 



o V- 

H O 



a 1- 




April Ma> June July Aut; Scfl 

SOURCE N, C. ERA Wcckl) Rcpons (FORM 190) 

Prepared by Statistical Department 



.\pra Miy June July 



Number of Persons Working 

Toljl Earnings 

Earnings of Non-relief Persons 



OBLIGATIONS INCURRED IN NORTH CAROLINA I OR EMERGENCY 
RELIEF FROM PUBLIC FUNDS 



2,500 



PS 
< 

■J 

o 
a 
i^ 
o 
00 
a 
z 
< 

§ 



500 




Emeeoency Relief in N^oeth Carolina 153 

sions to induce governmental units to initiate projects. In no instances did the Emergency Relief 
Administration appear as sponsor for projects that were carried on as public property projects 
unless the Emergency Relief Administration secured a direct benefit, such as salvaged materials, 
for carrying on the work. 

As the work program progressed, the matter of initiation of projects, especially in the more 
heavily populated areas, became a matter of cooperation between the ERA and various govern- 
mental units. In this way it was possible for the Emergency Relief Administration to carry on 
projects that were adapted to the relief load. Every effort was made to make governmental offi- 
cials fully informed of the various rules, regulations and policies for governing the work program 
so that they could initiate the projects that were well worthwhile and at the same time adaptable 
to the work relief program. Full cooperation between any organization carrying on a work relief 
program and all state and local governmental units is essential to most efficient operation of a 
works program. 

Supervision and control of actual operations descended in a straight line from the Director of 
the Works Division, through the Division Engineers, to the District and Local Project Supervisors, 
to the foreman or superintendents on the jobs. The Division Engineers acted as field representa- 
tives of the State Works Division and were responsible for the supervision and control of all projects. 
The District Project Supervisors were held responsible to the state office through the Division 
Engineers. Various members of the State Works Division who had specialized training in vari- 
ous fields assisted the Division Engineers from time to time in supervision of projects. The State 
Works Division at all times kept the Division Engineers fully informed of its contacts with all 
local and district works divisions and rarely contacted projects except in company with the Divi- 
sion Engineer. 

Local and district works divisions were required to report to the state office weekly on all proj- 
ects in the "B" field of activity, and monthly on all projects in other fields of activity. A copy of 
this report was sent to the Division Engineers. A weekly report was also required of the District 
Project Supervisors covering their activities for each week. The weekly and monthly progress 
reports covered the location, description, and number of the project ; the county in which it was 
located ; percentage of completion ; the amount of money allotted for various items ; average num- 
ber of employees used during the reporting period and the number of hours these employees worked ; 
the amount paid to the employees by ERA and from other sources ; the amount of work done 
during the reporting period ; and the amount of work done to date. The District Project Super- 
visors' weekly reports indicated the number of projects visited, remarks as to the progress of the 
projects, report and the inspection of proposed or contemplated projects, etc. 

Other functions of the State Works Division were to check, examine and recommend for approval 
all works projects. Before the State Works Division recommended appro\al of any project, it was 
thoroughly and carefully checked from the standpoint of economic and social value to the com- 
munity and for engineering soundness. The plans were carefully checked, availability of labor 
was determined and it was ascertained that proper and necessary materials were provided and all 
necessary labor, material and equipment to complete the project were covered in the project appli- 
cation. 

The State Works Di\ision also served as a central clearing house for all reports and informaticn 
concerning the Works Program and forwarded to Washington the required reports. 

The State Works Division, the Division Engineers and the District Work Divisions were all co- 
ordinated in the general planning of Works Division acti\ities. Works Division activities were 
planned primarily on the basis of the occupations of employable relief cases. Unless projects pro- 
vided work for the rehef cases, they were not considered feasible projects. 



154 Emergency Relief in Korth Carolina 

Projects were carried on in every county in the state. The largest and most difficult projects 
were, of course, carried on in the more thickly populated areas such as Charlotte, Asheville, Raleigh, 
Winston-Salem, High Point and Greensboro. Projects in the more sparsely populated areas were 
as a rule small and of a simple nature, since the difficulties of getting a large number of workers 
together in one place were very great. It is felt that a work program is much more feasible in the 
more thickly populated areas than in those areas where the population is small and scattered. 
Among the reasons for this are, as mentioned above, difficulties of getting any large number of 
workers transported to one spot, the lack of interest on the part of the public, difficulty of getting 
worthwhile projects and difficulty of getting materials furnished by the local governmental units. 
In the western part of North Carolina, the population in the mountain areas is extremely scattered 
and more than usual difficulties are encountered in transportation. The cooperation of the State 
Highway Commission, howe\er, made it possible to carry on a number of very worthwhile road 
and highway projects which were valuable to that section of the state. In the eastern part of the 
state, malaria control projects helped to solve the difficulties. 

The tentati\'e distribution of workers by fields of activities, as suggested in the "Manual of Work 
Division Procedure," was as follows : field of activity "A," five per cent ; field of activity "B," forty 
per cent; field of activity "C," twenty-five per cent; field of activity "D," ten per cent; field of 
activity "E," ten per cent ; field of activity "F," ten per cent. It was not always possible in every 
locality to keep this percentage between different types of projects because in some cases the relief 
rolls were composed mainly of common and construction laborers and in other places there was 
a large number of women on the relief rolls which necessitated carrying on a great many projects 
in the field of acti\ity "D." Then too, the needs of the various communities and their willingness 
to cooperate had a bearing on the distribution of workers in the various fields of activity. 

In North Carolina, the objective was to carry on work projects which would provide relief cases 
with an opportunity to do that type of work which they were best qualified to do rather than to 
arbitrarily set a limit on the number of workers that could be employed in any one field of activity. 

An accurate check was kept in all local and district works divisions of the number of people at 
work, the probable length of their employment on the various projects, and projects were planned 
in such a way as to give continuous employment to relief cases. 

All relief employees were certified for work by the Social Service Division. The social service 
in\'estigation covered the age, physical condition, etc., of the client, and the Social Service Division, 
on the basis of conditions existing within the family, determined the employment priority ranking 
of the client. After the clients had been certified by the Social Service Division, they were turned 
o\er to the Works Division as eligible for employment on projects. 

Certified clients were selected for work by the Works Division on the basis of their skill and their 
physical condition. Every client certified by the Social Service Division as eligible for employment 
was inter\iewed by the Works Division to determine his occupational history and the work for which 
he was qualified. On the basis of this investigation, the client was assigned to a project on which 
he could be employed at the type of work which he seemed from the investigation to be best quali- 
fied to do. Specific instructions were given to the district and local works divisions that actual 
performance on projects, as well as the investigation, should be the basis of determining the work 
clients were best qualified to perform, and that every eflbrt should be made on the basis of the in- 
vestigation and actual work to determine that type of work the client was best able to perform. 
Each Works Division maintained an index of the various types of workers as determined by in- 
vestigation and performance on the job, and every project submitted was checked against this in- 
dex of workers to determine whether or not the various types of workers to be employed on th^ 
project could be secured from the relief rolls. Every project in North Carolina was judged first 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



155 







(l) J^^egro school in Hoke County before being remodeled. (2) The same school as No. i after being remodeled under Governor's Office of 
Relief Program. First building in state to be completed from Federal Funds. (3) Landscaping and improving school grounds in Davie County 
under Governor's Office of Relief Program. (4) Gymnasium built at Woodleaf School, Rowan County, under Governor's Offiice of Relief Program. 
(5) Interior of Community House built in Granville County under Governor's Office of Relief . (6) Checking marker on Geodetic Survey project 
under Governor's Offiice of Relief. 



156 



Emergency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 



SUMMARY OF ELIGIBLE WORKERS i6 TO 64 YEARS OF AGE BASED 
ON COMPLETE CENSUS OF ELIGIBLE WORKERS ON RELIEF, 
WITH ALL PRIORITY RANKINGS FOR WORK, 
NORTH CAROLINA— MARCH, 1935 




TOTAL 



URBAN 



Usual Occupation 



TOTAL 

White Collar 

Skilled 

Semi-Skilled 

Unskilled {Except Farm Labor) 

Farmers and Farm Laborers 

Domestic and Personal Services 

Inexperienced and Unknown 



Per Cent Per Cent 

Persons Distribution Persons Distribution 



119.972 

4,771 
fi.SOl 
20,373 
12,954 
30,695 
18, SOS 
25,570 



100.0 

3.9 
5.7 
17.0 
10. S 
25.6 
15.7 
21.3 



53.7S0 

3.249 
4.077 

13.269 
7.519 
4,,S04 

13,0S3 
7,779 



44.9 

2.7 
3.4 

11.1 
6.3 
4.0 

10.9 
6.5 



RURAL 




'ersons 


Percent 
Distribution 


60.192 




55.1 


1,522 
2,724 
7.104 
5,435 

25,891 
6.725 

17.791 




1.2 
2.3 
5.9 
4.5 

21.6 
4.8 

14.8 



From Reports of Federal Emergency Relief Admiinistration. 

URBAN "Includes all Cities and Towns with a Population of 2,500 or more Persons in 1!)30." 

RURAL "Includes Open Country and Areas Towns and Villages with a Population of under 2,500 Persons in 1930." 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



157 



N.C.EUA Statistical Division 



SUMMARY OF ELIGIBLE WORKERS 1 6 TO 64 YEARS OF AGE 
BASED ON COMPLETE CENSUS OF ELIGIBLE WORKERS ON 
RELIEF, WITH FIRST PRIORITY RANKING FOR WORK, 
NORTH CAROLINA— MARCH, 1935 




Usual Occupation 



TOTAL 

White Collar 

Skilled 

Semi-Skilled 

Unskilled 

Farmers and Farm Laborers 

Domestic and Personal Services 

Inexperienced and Unknown 



TOTAL 


URBAN 




RURAL 




Per Cent 






Per Cent 




Per Cent 


*ersons 


Distribution 


Persons 


D 


istribution 


Persons 


Distribution 


65.445 


100.0 


30,577 




46.7 


34,868 


53.3 


3.010 


4.6 


2,054 




3.1 


956 


1.5 


6,045 


9.2 


3.655 




5.6 


2,390 


3.6 


12,625 


19.3 


8,367 




12. S 


4.258 


6.5 


9,S74 


15.1 


5,798 




8.9 


4,076 


6.2 


20,701 


31.6 


3,170 




4.8 


17,531 


26.8 


S.254 


12.6 


6,118 




9.3 


2.136 


3.3 


4.936 


7.6 


1,415 




2.2 


3,521 


5.4 



From Reports of Federal Emergency Relief Administration. 

URBAN "Includes all Cities and Towns with a Population of 2,500 or more Persons in 1930." 

RURAL "Includes Open Country Areas and Towns and Villages with a Population of under 2,500 Persons in 1930." 



158 Emergency Belief in ISTorth Carolina 

on its ability to furnish employment for relief clients. If, for instance, a large number of carpenters, 
painters, brick layers and other skilled construction workers was a\ailable from the relief rolls, 
construction projects pro\iding employment for those workers were initiated ; if a small number of 
skilled workers was available, small construction or a project, such as school repair, was initiated 
to provide employment. If, in a particular county, the relief rolls were made up mainly of common 
laborers, projects such as road building, malaria control, grading of athletic fields, etc., were the 
projects initiated. In those cases where there was a large number of clerical workers, typists, 
and stenographic workers on the relief rolls, projects were pro\ided which would gi\e these workers 
employment in their regular occupations. 

While great emphasis was laid upon the fact that the primary purpose of the appro\al of any 
project was to provide employment which relief cases were best qualified to do, every effort was 
made to carry on worthwhile projects. The Works Dixision felt that it existed primarily to pro- 
vide for clients work that they were qualified to do and that work relief was pro\ided in order to 
maintain occupation skills, self-respect and to sustain morale. "Made Work," which did not fulfill 
the above requirements, was strictly prohibited as it had absolutely no advantage over direct relief 

Clients from discontinued or completed projects were not gixen any specific preference on new 
projects, although there was a natural tendency on the part of the Works Division to gi\'e preference 
to those clients who proved themselves to be the best workers. Efforts were made to train workers 
on the various projects to do better work or to train them to new occupations. In many instances, 
the sanitary priNy projects were used for this purpose and a number of common laborers became 
qualified as semi-skilled workers on the basis of their training on projects of this type. Wherever 
possible, foremen and supervisory personnel were selected from relief rolls. 

All assignments were based on the worker's ability and on \arious other conditions, such as the 
location of the project and the hours of work which the Social Service Di\-ision allotted the client. 
Employables with large families as a general rule were gi\'en more hours of employment by the 
Social Service Division than employables with small families or unmarried employables. Some 
workers would work out their entire monthly allotment in one week or in alternate weeks, especially 
if this procedure was necessitated by the conditions existing on or surrounding the project. From the 
standpoint of efficiency on the project, it was found that this method had distinct advantages, but 
from the standpoint of the client, and of his social problems, there were disad\antages. 

Professional and non-manual workers were certified and selected for work on exactly the same 
basis as other relief workers, although non-manual and professional workers with large families 
were given some preference in assignment over employables with small families or unmarried 
employables. Those with large families were allotted a larger number of hours. 

The highest standard of efficiency, both as to the quantity and quality of work was adhered to. 
Constant super\ision in the field by Division Engineers and District and Local Project Supervisors 
did much to maintain high standards. On the whole, projects carried on by the Emergency Re- 
lief Administration were as well done as would have been the case had they been carried on by 
private contract, and, in a number of cases, were done better. The quantity of production and the 
quality of the work maintained by the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration depended 
very largely on the efficiency of the supervision. Relief workers, if properly supervised, were quite 
capable of doing work of the same type as that in private practice. Almost invariably, where work 
was being carried on in a slip-shod fashion and where workers were doing a considerable amount 
of loafing, the fault was found to lie with the foreman and other supervisory personnel rather than 
with the workers. When such foremen were replaced with more efficient supervision, the fault 
was corrected. 

The same standards of efficiency were applied to non-manual and professional workers. In 



Emergency Relief in I^oeth Cabolina 159 

the case of employees of this type, the quality of the work and the amount of work done depended 
to a much greater extent on the workers themselves than on the supervision. 

Efficiency on projects was promoted mainly by the use of good supervision and by instilling in 
the workers a pride in themselves and in their work. In rare instances, reductions in working 
hours were allowed for the completion of a specified amount of work without reductions in pay 
but this was not followed as a general practice, since owing to the nature of the program, efficiency 
was not greatly promoted by this method. Piece work was carried on only in those instances where 
it was impossible to get the workers to central points. In these cases it was determined what num- 
ber of pieces the average worker could turn out in the course of an hour, and the workers were paid 
on an hourly basis in proportion to the number of pieces that were turned out. 

The worker given work relief instead of direct relief received about the same amount of money 
for work relief as would have been gotten under direct relief The main advantages to the worker 
in work relief instead of direct relief are the opportunity to retain skill, opportunity to earn his sub- 
sistence rather than to have it doled out to him, with the resultant retention of self-respect and the 
prevention of the breakdown of morale. Numbers of relief clients in all sections of the state have 
pleaded that they be given work relief instead of direct relief, saying that they do not want to be 
given anything but wish to earn it. It is the firm conviction of the Works Division after two years 
or more of handhng a work relief program that by far the greater number of relief cases prefer work 
relief to direct relief, and there is no question but that in a properly handled work program the 
worker derives far greater benefits by a work program than from a dole system. If the work proj- 
ects are well planned and properly carried on, the workers, except for the fact that they are work- 
ing on a restricted basis as far as hours are concerned, feel the same toward work relief projects as 
they do toward projects carried on by private interests. Unless, however, the work projects are 
worthwhile and are made to conform with high standards of workmanship and efficiency, much 
of the benefit of work relief is lost. Projects which are of a nature that prevent worthwhile and 
honest effort and good workmanship, if they are simply "made work," probably do more harm 
than good to the rehef cases employed on them, and direct relief, being cheaper, had better be 
supplied. 

Some relief cases employed on projects were dismissed from work relief for inefficiency, loafing 
on the job, causing friction, etc. In most of these cases it was still necessary to provide direct relief 
in commodities to the families of these workers since the families could not be allowed to suffer 
because of the faults of the working member of the family. In every case where employees were 
dismissed from work relief their families were given direct relief instead of cash. 

Efficiency among professional and non-manual workers, such as typists, stenographers, clerical 
workers, etc., was gained more by promoting interest in the work and pride in accomplishment 
than by supervision. Non-manual workers employed on projects such as sewing rooms, etc., were 
given close supervision and the efficiency of these projects was in the main due to the supervision. 
Where dismissals were necessary among non-manual and professional workers, they were treated 
in the same manner as manual workers. 

Projects carried on by the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration were of many varied 
types. The policies of the Emergency Relief Administration demanded that these projects be of a 
public character and of economic and social benefit to the general public, or to publically owned 
institutions, or to the Relief Administration, and that the projects coordinate with comprehensive 
plans for local and state development and do not consist of small isolated jobs of doubtful or limited 
value. All projects were carried on by force account and not by contract. Projects covering regular 
municipal activities for which current budgets are provided, such as garbage collection, street 



160 



Emergency Relief in Nokth Carolina 



FicH 

of 

jAc(i\ily 

A-I $ 



B-3 



B-5 
E-6 



B-13 
B-14 

B-,5 
B-16 



B-19 



AMOUNTS APPRO\ ED DV THK iN'ORTM CAROLINA EMF.RGENCY RCI.ILF 

ADMlNISTRATrON AND BY UO\ FRNMEN FAL I'NFrS FOR PROJECTS 

IN \'ARIOUS FH.LDS OF ACTIS FFV 

MARCH JO, 103 1. DECEMBER 5. 193". 

HUNDRED THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS 



Approved 



83^ 
305, 



.003 16 
•.97563 

.6-' 

■75 



'.70O.5'_ 
766,899. 

1,151,334,0 
478.397-6 

1,150,618.3 
281,8648 

39.935-6 
■3.773.5 

34.054-8 
1,214-5 



.65 3 



1,64 1, 863. 3( 
1,544.547 I-' 

120,410 
1,97' 

321,966.53 
223,099.82 

S 134.63133 

23,0Cl.3J 



3.344.776.73 
230,108.49 

331,712.02 

44,607 00 

.54,307-34 
14,333.40 

64.742-78 

Gi i.oo 

1,310,789 83 
105,5 17 58 



119,3117.33 
33,808.08 3 



3,093,966.^ 
39, '4=93 

49.473.80 
15.00 

3-.038.38 



B-20 


S 393,32119 
39.l5'-36 


C-1 


55,486.65 
17,088.75 


C-2 


23,093.93 
26,915.52 


C-3 


384.60 




0.00 


C-4 


6,79499 
800.00 


C-5 


4=.3=9-37 
3.873.39 


C-6 


0.00 




0.00 


D-i 


1.846,79494 
20,569.10 


D.2 


2,116,12648 




44,93902 


D-3 


343.627,68 
325,541.00 



Note : Any cosi less than ten lhous.ind dollars 
is not indicated on the chart. 



Appro\td by N C- ERA. ^ 

Appro\cd by Govtmmental Unitr.. E 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



161 



EMF.RCFNCV RCLIEF ADMINISTRATION EXPENDITURES AND EXPENDITURES 
Ol CO\ ERNMENTAL UNITS FOR THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA BY 
FIELDS OF ACTIVITY 
MARCH 39, 1934— DECEMBER 5, 1535 



Field or 

Acti\ily 


Amounis 




2 


4 


H 


ndrcd Th 
8 


jusand^ ol 
to 


Dollar. 
13 


'1 


r, 1 


a 


, 


2 2 


A-i 


514,394.69 
36.90 


























B-I 


402,998.55 
99.186.23 

763.189.76 
326,699.29 

740.023.03 
3»7,545-35 

679.05342 
166,300.23 


























B-2 


^ 








^^^ 






















B-3 










^^^ 






B-4 












^ 


B-5 


11,975.07 
4.253-58 


























B-6 


.,603.00 


























B-7 


5710 

731,469.47 
678,056.13 

75.5=4;i3 
1,236.32 




























^"^^ 




^^ 


















B-8 


- 








B-9 


208,170.86 
144,122.48 


1 
























B-io 
B-11 


858,275.98 

9.55' -5' 

1,027,264.97 


■ 








"^ 


1 
















96,407.51 


^T 


^^^ 






















E-12 


176,874.32 
=3.775-53 


3 
























B.,3 


28,076.81 
7.405-19 


■ 
























B-4 
B-.5 


39.001.56 
367.82 

646,054.02 
52.256.86 


■ 
























3 


"""" 




" 


















B-16 
B-,7 


79.559-19 
15.856-18 

768,029.37 
■4.717-74 


5 


























"^"' 




^^" 


















B-18 


6,139.78 
1.86 


























B-,9 


None 
None 


























B-20 


8154,294.44 
■5.504.34 


























C-i 


-10,690.13 
3,298.12 


























C-2 


20,845.82 
24.277-79 


3 
























C-3 


20.8c 
None 


























C-4 


2.095-48 
246.40 


























C-5 


11,458.28 
1,049.68 


























C-6 
D-i 


None 
None 

989,411.82 




^ 






















D-2 


11,025.03 
7l7;865.i5 


























15,241.11 


























D-3 


206,417.03 
19.557-14 




























1 
















Erne 


gency Rcl 

Local Gc 


ef Admin 
vcrnmcnl 


slralion 
1 Uniis 


■^ 







162 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



Field 

of 

Acliviiv 


Amount? 
Appro\cd 


D-4 


] Sr.o-,'„67R.4l 
28,S,i"-39 


D-5 


■ ■55 1 -65 


D-6 






5,001.61 


D-7 


2,189,001.33 
65. 73 1.97 


r.-. 


93,304.17 
■'.37575 


E-2 


280,401.4-' 
7,763.20 


E-3 


2,992-24 
1.640.00 


E-l 


49>.3j«-39 
4.797-35 


E-5 


53,62403 
1,500.00 


E-b 


210,980.81 
o,636.oS 



r-i 

F-2 

F-3 
F-4 

F-5 
F-6 

F-7 
F-8 
G 
H 



AMOUNTS APPRO\ED BY THE NORTH CAROLINA EMERGENCY RELIEF 

ADMINISTRATION AND BV UO\'ERNMENTAL UNITS FOR PROJECTS 

IN VARIOUS FIELDS OF ACTINTTY 

MARCH 29, 1934-DECEMBER 5, 1935 

HUNDRED THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS 
2 4 fi ,", 10 12 '4 16 18 








f 




1 


O 1 


1 


4 I 


6 






+ 2 


6 2 


8 3" 


88,820.38 
47,332,82 

446.773-54 
18,804.95 


3 
















II 








i 
























2,168.00 

12392 

795.093.24 


















Jl 








i3.554-:3 


1 
















u 








113,753.10 
300.00 


" 
























17,621.30 
0.00 


1 
















\ 








89.642.86 
5,186.00 


- 
















( ( 








3.338.65 
180.00 

.946,565. 97 
0.00 


















< 


1 

) 

) 


























^ 






^"" 


^ 


167.080.30 
14.825.72 


1 





























Store Room 
Project : 



$133,128.83 



Farm Relief 
Projects : 



500,648.29 



Note : An\- co'-l le:;? than (en thousand dollar'; 
is not indicated on the chart. 



Approved b> N. C. ERA. HiBHi 

Approved by Co\crnmcnlal Unit?, I ^ 



Emeroency Relief in North Carolina 



163 



D-4 
D-5 
D-6 
D-7 
E-i 



EMERGEN'CV RELIEF ADMINISTRATION EXPENDITURES AND FAPENDIl URES 

OF COX'ERNMENTAL UNITS FOR THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA B\ 

FIELDS OF ACT1\ ITY 

MARCH 29, 1934— DECEMBER 5, .93^ 



14,73=.35 f 

363,732.35 
780.47 

'3.8i5o5 
1,285.41 

=45.426.92 
7,361.48 

56,i3564 
6,793.80 



2,569.61 



E-3 


787.80 




432.96 


E-4 


156,741,65 




1.531-35 


E-^ 


2,774-"' 




78.00 


E-6 


133,198.03 




6,111. gi 



Hundrf-d Thousands ol Dollars 
6 !1 10 12 



16 



18 



F-. 


S47.044.03 
25,039.06 


F-2 


53.850-65 
2,256-59 


F-3 


582.67 
33.21 


r-4 


501,055.22 
8,525-57 


F-5 


1,854.02 
4.80 


F-6 


540.20 


F-7 


41,403.46 
2,39''-79 


F.8 


1,301.20 
70.02 


G 


2.946,565.97 
None 


H 


54.595-21 
None 



3 ( ( 

■ // 



Storeroom 
Project $133,128.85 
None 



Farm Relief 
Projects 99,648.29 
None 



Emergency Relief AdminasLration H^^H 
Local Governmental Units | I 



Note Gowmmenlal expenditures based on percent completed N. C. ERA allotments— =^6 per rent 
av-crage for all fields of activity. 



164 Emergency Rei,ief in North Carolina 

cleaning, etc., were strictly prohibited. Work projects for the improvement of hospitals, libraries, 
churches, cemeteries, institutions, etc., which are privately owned or incorporated, were forbidden. 

The following classification of projects according to field of activity covers the types of projects 
undertaken by the Emergency Relief Administration : 

A. Planning Projects 

I. Projects concerned with the planning and preparation of work projects, to be conducted 

under the supervision of the Works Division. 

B. Public Property Projects 

1. New construction of roads, streets, highways, sidewalks, pathways, and gutters. 

2. Repair and maintenance of roads, streets, highways, sidewalks, pathways, and gutters. 

3. New construction of public buildings, schools, auditoriums, community houses, city halls, 

park buildings, hospitals, etc. 

4. Repair and maintenance of public buildings, schools, auditoriums, community houses, city 

halls, park buildings, hospitals, etc. 

5. New construction of bridges, grade crossings and trestles. 

6. Repair and maintenance of bridges, grade crossings and trestles. 

7. New construction of sewers, drainage and sanitation. 

8. Repair and maintenance of sewers, drainage and sanitation. 

9. New construction of gas, electric, waterworks and other public utilities. 

10. Repair and maintenance of gas, electric, waterworks and other public utilities. 

I I . New construction of recreational facilities, playgrounds, swimming pools, etc. 

12. Repair and maintenance of recreational facilities, playgrounds, swimming pools, etc. 

13. New construction of waterways, levees, flood control, etc. 

14. Repair and maintenance of waterways, levees, flood control, etc. 

15. Landscaping, grading, erosion control, parks, airports, etc. 

16. Conser\ation offish and game — game preserves, fish hatcheries, and raising ponds. 

17. Eradication and control of disease bearers. 

18. Eradication and control of pests. 

19. Eradication and control of poisonous plants. 

20. Any other. 

C. Projects to Provide Housing 

1. Remodeling and repair of houses in lieu of rent for relief cases. 

2. Resettlement housing for resettled families. 

3. Resettlement housing for subsistence homesteads. 

4. Demolition of houses. 

5. Any other. 

D. Production and Distribution of Goods Needed by the Unemployed 
I. Clothing — sewing of garments, etc. 



Food — canning and preserving, etc. 
Fuel — cutting wood, digging peat, etc. 
Garden products. 
Household goods. 
Construction materials. 
Any other. 



Emergency Relief in N^okth Caeolina 



165 






(i) Surfacing airport road in Nash County. (2) Elimination of curves on county highway in Forsyth County. (3) Completed road 
project in Forsyth County. (4) Merrimon Avenue, Asheville, during widening. Buncombe County. (5) Merrimon Avenue, Asheville, after 
widening. Buncombe County. 



i66 



Emeegency Relief in N'oeth Carolina 



EMERGENCY WORK RELIEF PROGRAM OF THE NORTH CAROLINA EMERGENCY RELIEF 
ADMINISTRATION, APRIL i, 1934 TO DECEMBER 5, 1935 



S 




1934 



1935 



Average Employment 
afforded each worker 
per month in terms 
of 8 hour work days : 



■ 9 





■ 3 



Note — Black area represents the averagefor each month of the number of workers employed each week. The black 
plus the white area represents the maximum number employed in any one week of each month. The black area plus the 
white area plus the shaded area represents the number of relief cases employed on projects each month. The vertical bar 
chart of the number of workers employed does not include emergency education and.administrati\e projects. 



Emergency Eelief in North Carolina 167 

E. Public Welfare, Health and Recreation 

1 . Nursing. 

2. Nutritional. 

3. Other public health campaigns. 

4. Public recreation, instruction, etc. 

5. Safety campaigns and traffic controls. 

6. Any other. 

F. Public Education, Arts and Research (Exclude Administrative and Planning projects) 

1. Education. 

2. Research and special sur\eys. 

3. Public works for art. 

4. Records and clerical work. 

5. Music. 

6. Dramatic acti\ities. 

7. Library and museum. 

8. Any other. 

G. Administrative Project 

H. Tool and Sundry Eq^uipment Projects 

Planning Projects 

(A) 

Comparatively few projects were carried on under this category, mainly because skilled design- 
ers, draftsmen, and other professional men were not available from the relief rolls. Then, too, 
the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration has followed a policy of requiring that the 
necessary plans and specifications be furnished by the sponsors. In some of the larger sections, 
however, projects of this nature were carried on. In Asheville, engineers, (No. iiB-Ai-59) drafts- 
men, and clerical workers were used to prepare drawings, maps, and other data necessary in the 
preparation of projects. This project. No. iiB-Ai-59, worked an average of five men for 3,652 
man-hours. 

Projects on Roads, Streets, Bridges, Etc. 

(B. 1,2,5,6) 

So much work has been done under the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration 
on secondary dirt roads in North Carolina that it is extremely difficult to point to any one project 
as being more important than others. All the work done under the Emergency Relief Adminis- 
tration on the highways of the state has been done in cooperation with the Highway Department, 
and in every case such considerations as the amount of traffic the roads ordinarily carry, the num- 
ber of people served and the general benefit to the community have been taken into account. In 
the western part of the state, road projects have proved especially valuable. 

Under project No. 50-B2-16, in Jackson County, over one hundred miles of dirt roads have been 
improved and a number of miles of dirt roads ha>ve been constructed. In many cases these roads 
were mere trails that could carry traffic and afford outlet only during the best of weather. These 
roads have been widened, regraded and drained, and bad curves have been eliminated. Although 
handicapped by lack of equipment and transportation facilities, this project has been vigorously 



168 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 








(i) Bridge built in Wake County. (2) Bridge in Mooresville, Iredell County before work was undertaken. (3) The Jill and culvert 
which replaced the bridge shown in No. 2. (4) Bridge built at Siler City, Chatham Countv. (5) Bridge acioss creek at school in Haywood 
County. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 169 

carried on and has added thousands of dollars to the value of property in the county and afforded 
families a chance to realize more profit by giving them easier access to market, as well as cutting 
their transportation costs. The rural schools in the county have been made much more accessible 
to the school children by the extension of school bus routes. The school children have been saved 
many miles of walking in bad weather. 

This project is held to be responsible for greater civic and social activities in sections where such 
acti\ities were fast dying out due to difficulties of communication and transportation. The value 
of this project to the people whom these roads serve can scarcely be overrated. Though not spec- 
tacular or particularly striking in appearance, projects similar to this have been of great basic value 
to the communities involved. 

Average number of men employed, 195. 

Number of man-hours expended, 73,623. 

In Macon County, under project No. 56-B2-12, about one hundred and seven miles of dirt 
roads were improved. Se\'eral hundreds of families have reduced costs of transportation to 
market by one-half. Prior to the improvement of these roads by the Emergency Relief Adminis- 
tration, transportation costs for the sections involved amounted sometimes to twenty per cent of the 
value of the produce transported. As in the case of the Jackson County project, the work done 
under this project has been of inestimable value to the community. 

Average number of men employed, 112. 

Number of man-hours expended, 104,134. 

As in the case of dirt roads, a great many miles of gravel roads have been built, repaired 
and improved by the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration. The gravel roads on 
which Emergency Relief Administration projects were carried on, as well as practically all other 
roads, were secondary roads. Since the value of the work done on the gravel roads means as much 
to one community as another, it is scarcely fair to say that any one project was more important 
than another. 

In Alleghany County, project No. 3-B2-31 involved widening, grading and surfacing with 
crushed stone an important inter-highway link. The completion of this project completed an im- 
portant net work in Alleghany County as well as furnishing relief for a heavy relief load in a some- 
what isolated section. An average of fifteen to twenty workers was used each week preparing the 
roadway, crushing stone, loading and unloading the trucks and wagons which were furnished by 
local citizens. 

This project is a fine example of the cooperation of local citizens in getting work done for the 
public benefit, and is typical of the spirit of the greater number of Emergency Relief Administra- 
tion projects which have been carried on under the Emergency Relief Administration in North 
Carolina. 

Average number of men employed, 23. 

Number of man-hours expended, 5,642. 

Very little work was done on macadam roads and highways outside of city limits 
since most of the macadam roads and highways are part of the State Highway primary system 
which is maintained with prison labor. A number of miles of macadam streets and roads within 
city limits, however, have been built, repaired and improved under the Emergency Relief Admin- 
istration. From the point of \'iew of the people benefited, one of the most important projects of 
this type is project No. 62-B2-5 in Mount Gilead, Montgomery County, a little town of about 
twehe hundred inhabitants. It was located in what was, after the World War, a fairly prosperous 
farm settlement, but which since that time has had little money for civic improvements. Streets 
in the business section of the town were paved about 1923, but in the residental sections there was 



170 



Emergency Relief in Noeth Carolina 




(i) Sidewalk construction in Gatesville, Gates County. (a) Construction of curb and gutter, Beaufort, Carteret County. (3) Construc- 
tion of sidewalks in Roanoke Rapids, Halifax County. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 171 

no pa\'ement until the Emergency Relief Administration appro\-ed a project for this purpose. The 
streets in the residental section were graded and surfaced and provided the inhabitants with mud- 
less streets ; a luxury they had gi\en up hope of e\-er enjoying. Besides the benefits afforded the 
residents, employment was gi\'en to about one hundred and fifty work relief cases and a total of 
4,336 man-hours was expended. 

As in the case of macadam roads, concrete highways and roads are a part of the state's 
primary highway system and practically all the work done under projects of this nature was done 
within city limits. 

Again, judging the importance of a project in terms of benefit to those affected, project No. 
61-B1-4, for the construction of streets in Spruce Pine, Mitchell County, is outstanding. In this 
little mountain village practically the only paved streets were those on which the State Highway 
went through the town. All the residents of Spruce Pine and the city officials have been extremely 
grateful for the work done under this project and have stated repeatedly that this job was done 
better and cheaper than would have been the case had it been let to private contract. The con- 
struction difficulties involved were much greater than those ordinarily met, owing to existing con- 
ditions. 

An average of twenty-five men was employed daily on this project. 36,758 man-hours were 
expended. The project included and completed 3,243 feet of 16-foot width concrete, 180 feet of 
lo-foot width concrete, 2,780 feet of 6-foot shoulders, 1,746 feetofcurb and gutter, 1,610 feet of4- 
foot width sidewalk, 450 feet of 5-foot width sidewalk, and 12,580 square yards of other streets 
were improved by addition of sand, gravel and stone. 

Under project No. 25-B2-52, in Bridgeton, in Craven County, the main street of Bridgeton 
was repaired and paved with brick that had been discarded from county roads. The entire work 
was done by hand, using an average of about ten workers, and a total of three thousand man-hours. 
As in the case of many small communities, this project is one in which the community takes great 
pride. 

One of the most important sidewalk projects carried on under the North Carolina Emer- 
gency Relief Administration was project No. 42-Bi-i, in Roanoke Rapids, Halifax County, North 
Carolina, a town of about twelve thousand people. Most of the population of this town earns its 
livelihood by working in the many cotton mills in this vicinity. The homes in which the families 
live are typical mill village houses, and the streets, prior to the carrying on of this project, had no 
improvements. Ten miles of five-foot concrete sidewalks have been built in Roanoke Rapids un- 
der this project. The town of Roanoke Rapids is to be highly complimented for its cooperation in 
furnishing material and equipment hire for this project, and to this cooperation is particularly due 
the success of the project. The improved appearance of the town can scarcely be described in 
words. The replacement of dusty and muddy streets, with no provision for pedestrian traffic, by 
concrete sidewalks, is a permanent improvement of lasting benefit to the inhabitants of Roanoke 
Rapids. 

Number of men employed, 65. 

Number of man-hours expended, 51,740. 

A number of small highway bridges were constructed or repaired as part of road im- 
provement projects, but none perhaps have served such a useful purpose as the New Inlet bridge 
built in Dare County under project No. 28-B5-1. This bridge has been built over an inlet cut in 
the sand banks by the Atlantic Ocean and Pamlico Sound and is the most important of the bridges 
built over several inlets under this project, from Hatteras to Oregon Inlet. The natives of this 
section travel by automobile o\-er the sands especially at low tide and the only connection by this 
means of travel with the main land is cut off unless the inlets are bridged. While it is sometimes 



172 



Emeegenct Relief in North Carolina 




L--' 






(i) .Sidewalks constructed at Wilkesboro, Wilkes County. (2) Sidewalks constructed at Thomasville, Davidson County, under CWA and 
ERA. (3) Concrete approach steps built at County Courthouse, Sylva, Jackson County. (4) Sidewalk and sidewalk retaining wall con- 
structed in Spruce Pine, Mitchell County. (5) Sidewalks constructed in Northampton County. (6) Streets graded and stoned in Elk Park, 
Avery County. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 173 

possible for inland travelers to follow another route or to find fords, this is not possible along the 
coastal banks. This project has been the means of keeping these people connected with the main- 
land. 

Number of men employed, 39. 

Number of man-hours expended, 15,000. 

One of the most important projects for the construction of culverts is project No. 36-B7-5, 
Gaston County, transferred from the Civil Works Administration. Under this project, a 7 x 7- 
foot reinforced concrete culvert four feet long has been built. Completion of this project has elim- 
inated a health hazard that existed in this section of Gastonia for many years. 

No outstanding projects were carried on under this category. All of the grade crossing 
work done in this state was of a minor nature and was carried on under the various road and street 
improvement projects. 

Summary 

Total miles of road constructed, 309.01 ; improved, 1,270.74; repaired, 446.11. 

Number miles dirt road constructed, 162.14; improved, 972.88; repaired, 328.75. 

Number miles gravel road constructed, 92.26; improved, 174.15; repaired, 93.50. 

Number miles macadam road constructed, 32.11 ; improved, 5.20; repaired, 2.50. 

Number miles concrete road constructed, 12.22 ; improved, .50; repaired, 6.00. 

Number miles other road constructed, 10.23 j improved, 1 18.01 ; repaired, 15.36. 

Miles of sidewalk constructed, 93.03; improved, 33.75; repaired, 15.66. 

Miles of paths and trails constructed, 49.50; improved, i.oo; repaired, none. 

Number of bridges constructed, 113; improved, 19; repaired, 64. 

Number of large culverts constructed, 446; improved, 37; repaired, 33. 

Number of overpasses constructed, none ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 

Number of underpasses constructed, none ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 

Number of grade crossings constructed, 3 ; improved, i ; repaired, none. 

Number of types of projects for traffic control and regulation (stop lights, etc.) constructed, 

none; improved, i ; repaired, i. 
Number of other highway projects constructed, i; improved, 12; repaired, 4; headwalls 

constructed, 211. 
1,960 feet of 18-inch concrete pipe repaired. 

Public Building Projects 

( B. 3, 4 ) 

Among the important schoolhouses constructed as Emergency Relief Administration projects 
is the high school building in the town of West Jefferson, in Ashe County, built under project 
No. 5-B3-10. This project will furnish sixteen large classrooms and an auditorium with a seating 
capacity of approximately six hundred persons. This two-story brick building will furnish facilities 
for about five hundred pupils from the town of West Jefferson and adjoining sections of Ashe County. 

At the time this project was started, the town of West Jefferson had a small building, poorly 
constructed and condemned as unfit for school purposes by the State Board of Education. With- 
out the help of the Emergency Relief Administration this school could never ha\e been built. This 
project furnished employment to an average of forty-three men, and about 32,516 man-hours 
were used on the project. 



174 



Emergency Relief in N"orth Carolina 




] (i) Concrete storm culvert, Gastonia, Gaston County. (2) Water tank at State Farm Colony for Women, Lenoir County. (3) Stream 
gaging station built in Mash County. (4) Construction of sewer system in Murfreesboro, Hertford County. 



Emergency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 



17C 




(i) Paw Creek Gymnasium^ Mecklenburg County. (2) Stone Gymnasium in Yancey County. 



176 



Emergency Eelief in ISTobth Oakolina 




^ 







It ffi JWBI ES EI m tn tnn n 

talStMKtiusaiirilillilt: 



«»f* 







./ >il LwiTlfj^"! *^'' '/* '^r':?,"f,^''"«'>., (2) ^'^''''''"" '^"'^ '•''/'«'" to Rock School in Burke County. (3) Library and gymnasium 

ti jSs:nm^^^^^^ '"^C'^Tf^f *--'f,»f /,"''-«/ £«^^/™^- (4) CodcreefLool in^HayJ^dcZ^. 

[5) jejjeison High School, Ashe County. (6) West Jefferson High School, Ashe County: Second floor rebuilt, entire building remodeled 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 177 

Another important project of this type is project No. 17-B3-16 for the construction of a thirteen- 
room brick school in Mihon Township, of Caswell 'County. This project, located in that section 
of the county having the heaviest case load, provided employment for all of the skilled relief clients 
in that section. All the material for the building was furnished by the county, and an abandoned 
tobacco factory close to the project was demolished to provide much of the necessary material. 
This project, which has relieved a congested condition in the schools, has used about forty men 
who have worked more than 49,886 hours on the project. 

Although not nearly so imposing as some of the larger schools constructed, the small school- 
house, project No. 44-B3-23, built in the Big Bend Section, or the "Lost Province" of Haywood 
County, as it is called, is in its way as important a school as has been built under the Emergency 
Relief Administration. The school was built by the ERA from material salvaged from an old 
lumber company office building. 

The Big Bend community is made up of twelve families marooned in an inaccessible part of the 
county. To reach this community, it is necessary to walk twelve miles after going as far as possible 
in a car. Not even a mule can go up the trail. Since the trestle of the old lumber railroad washed 
out the pedestrian has to let himself down from rock to rock by hanging on to roots and shrubs 
until he reaches the stream, then cross by rocks, if the stream is low, and pull himself up the other 
side by roots and shrubs. This is the only way ERA case workers could reach these families. 

There is no other school within a radius of nine miles and this building is the first school in this 
section in eighteen or twenty years. There is now a full time school teacher and approximately 
twenty-five children in attendance at the school. 

Average number of men worked, 8. 

Number of man-hours expended, 1,136. 

School repair and improvement projects of one sort or another have been carried on in every 
county in North Carolina. Under these projects millions of dollars of improvements have been 
made. Among the outstanding projects of this sort is project No. 1-B4-2, for the repair and reno- 
vation of four large schools in the city of Burlington, Alamance County. Fifteen new classrooms 
were added to these buildings by converting part of the auditoriums into classrooms. From 
twenty-five to fifty men were employed on the project and about fifteen thousand man-hours were 
used. The addition of the new classrooms to the schools has relieved a very congested situation 
and general renovation has made the buildings much less susceptible to deterioration. 

In Wayne County, fifty school buildings were repaired under project No. 96A-B4-8. Fifteen 
of these schools were for white children and thirty-five for colored. Materials transferred partly 
from the CWA and furnished partly by the county school authorities, including 49,980 pounds of 
asphalt ; twenty-two tons of plaster ; 750 gallons of paint ; 8,000 feet of ceiling ; 2 1 ,000 feet of floor- 
ing; sixty-five doors; 138 sashes; five hundred pounds of nails; 13,000 feet of lumber; as well as 
a large quantity of miscellaneous hardware and materials. An average of thirty- five men have 
worked, 10,568 hours on this project. 



178 



Emehoenct Relief in ISTorth Carolina 







•-"Sfc^^i^ 




"** 




(i) Big Bend school, Haywood County. (2) Big Bend school children. (3) Pond spraying to control malaria epidemic. Black Water 
fever, affecting hundreds of relief clients. (4) Relief family exposed to Black Water fever. (5) Control and prevention of Black Water 
fever. ERA nurse at home of infected family. (6) Recreational project. Rhythm Band, Pitt County. (7) Excavation Indian Mound under 
CWA, Cherokee County. (8) Pond before drainage in vicinity of tovon of 12,000 inhabitants, Craven County. (9) Privy construction, Ran- 
dolph County. Typical of privies constructed on State-wide Health Control project. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



179 






(i) Classroom building built at Negro Training School, Gates County. (2) Wing added to school in Pitt County. (3) Colored school 
built with ERA labor and local funds in Rocky Mount, Mash County. (4) Milton-Semora School built in Caswell County with local funds 
and relief labor. 



180 



Emergency Relief in ISToeth Carolina 




(i) Foreman's house at soil erosion farm, Iredell County, before renovation. (2) Foreman s house at soil erosion farm, Iredell County 
after CWA and ERA repairs and renovation. (3) Painting in Carteret County Courthouse. Mote difference between painted section and existing 
section. (4) Tubercular cottages built in Wayne County. 



Emergency Relief in Wobth Carolina 181 

The county superintendent of schools, in a letter to the Emergency Relief Administration, says : 
"I am positive that more benefit has been received from this project and more careful work done 
than on any preceding one. In order to be convinced of this, it is necessary only to visit the schools 
and talk to the principals and teachers." ". . . from the evidence that I can gather, the state of 
repair is far superior to that existing at any time during the past six or eight years." 

This school repair project is typical of the accomplishments of many projects in many other 
counties, and the attitude of this county superintendent is that of many other county superintend- 
ents whose buildings have been greatly improved through relief projects. 

One of the most important courthouse repair projects completed by the Emergency Relief 
Administration was project No. 68-B4-3, approved for the renovation of the courthouse at Hills- 
boro. Orange County, North Carolina. This old courthouse, built in 1844- 1849, is one of the 
most charming examples of courthouse architecture in the state. The old stone jail and town 
building, which was located on the courthouse property, was torn down so that a proper setting 
could be provided for the courthouse. The demolition of the old jail was followed with much 
interest as it was rumored that the ancient hanging pit would be brought to light — but no trace 
of it was found. 

The walls of the old jail, which were thirty-two inches thick, made of flagstone laid in clay, 
provided the material for all the flagstone sidewalks built on the square. 

The restoration of this courthouse was carefully supervised so that all the work and the colonial 
characteristics of the building might be preserved. 

Another courthouse repair and restoration project was project No. 16-B4-73, approved for re- 
pairing and restoring the courthouse in Beaufort, Carteret County, North Carolina. Until work 
was begun under this project, no major repairs had been made on the courthouse for many years 
owing to the financial condition of the county. The fourteen men employed have spent 7,238 
hours building a new roof; plastering and repairing the plaster in the interior of the courthouse; 
cleaning, painting and renovating the wood work, furniture and fixtures, as well as repairing and 
painting the exterior of the building. 

Under project No. 63-B3-26, Moore County, a school bus garage, 85 x 150 feet, has been 
completed to house the county school buses and to provide a repair shop. All the materials for 
this project were furnished locally. 

Average number of men employed, 25. 

Number of man-hours expended, 7,259. 

In Winston-Salem all the fire stations have been painted and repaired under proj-ect No. 
34-B4-28. The work done involved painting the exterior of the buildings, inside walls, bedrooms, 
stairways, as well as general repairs. We have been informed that it is very interesting to note the 
change in the men who live in the fire stations as a result of the repair work. Their work is now 
carried on more efficiently than it was before repairs were started. 

Average number of men employed, 21. 
Number of man-hours expended, 6,008. 

Under project No. 11B-B4-24, the Biltmore fire station, just out of Asheville, Buncombe County, 
was completely renovated. The truck room has been enlarged to accommodate two trucks, the 
living quarters for the firemen have been replastered and redecorated, and the old and unsani- 
tary plumbing has been brought up to date. These improvements were much needed to bring this 
fire station up to date and provide adequate quarters for the firemen. 



182 



Emergency Relief in N"oeth Carolina 




(i) New Bern Library, Craven County, before remodeling. (2) New Bern Library, Craven County, after being remodeled and repaired 
by ERA. (3) Hillsboro Confederate Memorial Public Library built under CWA and ERA, Orange County. 



Emergency Relief in Worth Carolina l83 

Average number of men employed, 27. 
Number of man-hours expended, 7,161. 

In Graham County a number of school bus shelters have been built throughout the county. 
These shelters, which are of log construction, provide shelter for school children while they are 
waiting for school buses. 

In Winston-Salem, an abandoned two-story school building with sixteen classrooms and 
an auditorium, and approximately 150 by 150 feet large had stood idle for several years. This 
building has been remodeled and developed into an armory under ERA project No. 34B-B4-41. 
The rear portion of the old school building was partially torn down and rebuilt to be used as a drill 
hall, assembly room and for recreational purposes. This drill hall, sixty feet wide and one hundred 
ten feet long, has been coxered with new built-up roofing, supported by new steel trusses and floored 
with maple. The front portion has been remodeled to provide for lockers, supply and orderly 
rooms, officers' quarters, mess hall and club rooms. In the basement, showers, locker rooms and 
a small-bore rifle range has been built. 

An entirely new electric lighting system, including flood lights for the drill field, has been in- 
stalled. The building has been painted inside and out and the drill grounds have been graded 
and fenced. 

Average number of men employed, 31. 

Number of man-hours expended, 45,065. 

Under project No. 86-B4-71, the Surry County jail has been converted from a fire trap into 
a modern jail. The county had for several years been desirous of repairing the jail, but lack 
of funds had prevented the work being undertaken. When the work contemplated is completed, 
Surry County will have a fire-proof modern jail. 

Average number of men employed, 20. 

Number of man-hours expended, 7,864. 

The Forsyth County jail project No. 34-B4-69 was badly needed to eradicate over-crowded, 
unsanitary conditions. The work included cleaning old plaster from the walls, replastering and 
painting inside and out ; repairing cells ; building cells for insane inmates ; and installing shower 
baths to replace tubs. 

Average number of men employed, 23. 

Number of man-hours expended, 5,299. 

Under project No. 96-B3-63, cottages have been built for public welfare cases in Wayne 
County who are affected with tuberculosis. Materials for this work were donated by local 
organizations and individuals. These cottages, which provide for only one person, are movable 
so that they may be placed where the patient has a\ailable a greater supply of fresh air and sun- 
shine. Much interest has been manifested in these cottages by other sections of the state and it is 
expected that several counties will build similar cottages with their own funds. 

An average of four men worked for a total of 1,433 hours on this project. 

The Caswell Training School, a state-owned institution for mentally deficient children located 
in Lenoir County, has been completely renovated as a result of Emergency Relief Administration 
activities, Nos. S54-B4-9 andS54-B4-io. Under these projects for general repairs to the buildings, 
fourteen buildings were repaired and painted. Brick work, woodwork, plastering and roofs 
were put in first class condition. A reservoir ha\ing a capacity of 130,000 gallons, and a silo four- 
teen feet in diameter, were erected. A wading pool was provided for the unfortunate inmates. 



184 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 






(i) Walkway connecting hospital and nurses' home, Winston-Salem. (2) Community theater building built in Macon County. (3) hos- 
pital built at Appalachian State Teachers' College, Watauga County, with CWA and State funds. (4) Fire station built at Pinehurst in Moore 
County. (5) City Hall and fire station built at Lillington, Harnett County. (6) Warehouse remodeled for District ERA offices, Statesville, 
Iredell County. (7) Isolation ward at Goldsboro, North Carolina. 



Emergency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 185 

Average number of men employed, No. 9, 3. 

Average number of men employed, No. 10, 32. 

Number man-hours expended, No. 9, 570. 

Number man-hours expended, No. 10, 21,135. 

In Pinehurst, Moore County, project No. 63-B4-5, transferred from the Civil Works Admin- 
istration, has provided a combination city hall, fire station and public hall. An old community 
building was remodeled under this project to provide more adequate municipal facilities. 

Average number of men employed, 35. 

Number of man-hours expended, 10,110. 

Almost every ERA district and local office has been repaired and painted either as public 
property projects or for repairs in lieu of rent. Under project No. 49-B4-47, in Iredell County a 
two-story brick warehouse, 80 x 30 feet, was improved to form a modern office building which 
housed the District Emergency Relief Administration. The site and the building were purchased 
for this purpose by Iredell County. The previous district office quarters were totally inadequate 
and this project made possible much greater efficiency as well as providing an important addition 
to the Iredell County courthouse quarters. An average of twenty-five men spent 6,918 hours in 
remodeling this building. 

In Craven County, the District ERA offices, under project No. 25-B4-53, were constructed from 
a large storeroom on the second floor of an uptown building. Materials were furnished partly by 
the county and partly by the Emergency Relief Administration. An average of twenty-four workers 
working 4,390 hours converted this store space into nine private offices, one large office, two large 
halls and two rest rooms. 

The Washington County Home Project No. 94-B3-27 is one of the most important Emer- 
gency Relief Administration projects in that section of the state. The existing buildings were 
scarcely fit to live in, and the completion of this project provided a modern county home for the less 
fortunate people of the county. This project was built in exchange for a gift of some fifteen thou- 
sand acres of land by the county to the Emergency Relief Administration. 

Average number of men employed, 45. 

Number of man-hours expended, 31,000. 

Summary 

Number of schoolhouses : 

Capacity 1-50: constructed, 19; improved, 108; repaired, 215. 

Capacity 51-500 : constructed, 35 ; improved, 234 ; repaired, 405. 

Capacity over 500 : constructed, 7 ; improved, 88 ; repaired, 138. 

Number of small courthouses constructed, none ; improved, 6 ; repaired, 7. 

Number of large courthouses constructed, none ; improved, 13 ; repaired, 10. 

Number of municipal garages constructed, 6 ; improved, i ; repaired, i. 

Number of fire houses constructed, 3 ; improved, 2 ; repaired, 7. 

Number of bus and car shelters constructed, 42 ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 

Number of rest rooms constructed, 1 7 ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 

Number of armories constructed, i ; improved, i ; repaired, i. 

Number of small city and county halls constructed, 4 ; improved, 2 ; repaired, 5. 

Number of large city and county halls constructed, none ; improved, i ; repaired, 3. 

Number of jails and prisons : 

Capacity 1-50 : constructed, i ; improved, 8; repaired, 8. 



186 



Emergency Relief in T^Toeth Caeolina 




(i) Addition to school in Wilson County. (2) Community House built in Wayne County. (3) Gymnasium built in Grani'ille County. 
(4) Work shop built at Bethel Hill High School, Person County. (5) Gymnasium built in Washington County. (6) Washington County 
Home built under CWA and ERA. 



Emergency Relief in ITorth Carolina 187 

Capacity 50-200 : constructed, none ; impro\ed, 5 ; repaired, 2. 

Capacity over 200 : constructed, none ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 

Number of hospitals and sanitariums : 

1-50 beds : constructed, 5 ; impro\ed, 2 ; repaired, 3. 

51-100 beds : constructed, none ; improved, i ; repaired, i. 

Over 100 beds : constructed, none ; improved, 2 ; repaired, 2. 

Number of public buildings, combining various of above units : constructed, 38 ; improved, 

171 ; repaired, 256. 
State number of relief offices constructed, 8; improved, 70; repaired, 81. 
Number of other public buildings constructed, 51 ; improved, 54; repaired, 107. 

Sewers, Drainage, and Public Utility Projects 
(B. 7, 8, 9, 10) 

While many miles of sewers have been constructed and repaired in the larger towns and 
cities of the state, it is the smaller towns that are most grateful for sanitary sewers that have been 
built as ERA projects. It is the opinion of many that even though the sewer work done in the 
larger towns is important, that done in the smaller towns is more important. 

In the town of Columbia, in Tyrrell County, for instance, under project No. 89-B7-9, a sewer 
has been built which will serve over one thousand people. Since sanitary sewers were non-existent 
in this town until they were built under this project, the project will be the means of doing more 
to improve health and sanitation than any other project that could have been undertaken, and for 
the first time Columbia is in a position to improve its sanitary conditions and combat disease. 

Number of men worked, 33. 

Number of man-hours expended, 22,031. 

In Elizabethtown, Bladen County, under project No. 9-B7-20, a complete sewerage system 
was completed. This project was started under CWA. As the town of Elizabethtown had just 
installed their water system under private contract, this project completion afforded this community 
the privilege of modern sanitation. The construction included the installation of 2,000 feet of 12- 
inch pipe, 10,800 feet of 8-inch pipe, 9,500 feet of 6-inch pipe, 70 manholes, and other work. 

Number of men worked, 62. 

Number of man-hours expended, 34,569. 

In Faison, Duplin County, there have been built 15,300 feet of sewers and one sewer disposal 
plant under project No. 3i-B7-i2,using an average of ninety-three men and a total of 28,905 man- 
hours. 

In order to make these sewers usable, the town has constructed a water system under private 
contract. In se\eral cases such as this, where small towns without sewers had the funds to build 
either a water or sewer system, but not both, the Emergency Relief Administration projects have 
made it possible to provide modern sewer and water facilities. 

Project No. 90-B7-14, one of the major projects of Union County, affects the entire city of Mon- 
roe. The sewer line constructed in Monroe under this project is laid in a thickly populated section 
of the city whose only sanitary facilities were privies. The excavation for this project was very 
heavy, being eighteen feet deep in places and through hard slate rock. A tunnel sixty feet long 
under a railroad track also provided difficulties. Under this project, approximately of 150 men work- 
ing 118,271 hours laid 4}/^ miles of sewer pipe and built 79 manholes. 

The Bonner Street storm sewer, built under project No. 7-B7-14, in Washington, Beaufort 



188 



Emeegenct Relief in N'oeth Carolina 




(i) Digging ditch for sanitary sewer, Edgecombe County. (2) Laying sewer pipe in Burlington, Alamance County. (3) Portion of 
sanitary sewer system built in Belmont, Gaston County, with local funds and relief labor. 



Emekgency Relief in JSTokth Carolina 



189 




(i) Dam and pumping plant built by CWA and ERA at Siler City, Chatham County. (2) Laying water mains in Durham, Durham 
County. (3) Digging ditch for sewer line, Sanford, Lee County. Note sharing. (4) Reservoir constructed at Carthage. Moore County. 



190 



Emeectency Eelief in Noeth Caeolina 




(0 Deep Creek, clearing right-of-way. Drainage, Edgecombe County. (2) Hoke County, Bob's Pond drainage project near Lobelia. 
(3) ■f^va'f County, Gulrock Drainage. (4) The inter-section of ditches draining large swamps in Gates County. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 191 

County, North Carolina, has corrected a \'ery unsightly and unsanitary condition. An open ditch 
about a mile and one-half long ran down Bonner Street in front of residences making it impossible 
to have sidewalks on that side of the street. To correct this condition, forms were built and a 
thirty-six inch concrete pipe, reinforced with hog wire, was poured at the site. Special equipment 
was constructed to place the pipe in the ditch, and at all street intersections concrete drip inlets 
were constructed to take care of the waste and water. This work has greatly impro\ed a residental 
section of the city as well as provided work for an average of twelve men for 4,000 man-hours. 

In Winston-Salem, ninety-three storm sewers, 34B-B8-7, have been constructed and log repaired. 
This work has been very helpful since it has improved sanitary conditions for which local funds 
were not axailable. 

Average number of men worked, 30. 

Number of man-hours expended, 43,849. 

The drainage program has been carried on under the super\'ision of the North Carolina State 
Board of Health, cooperating with the United States Public Health Service. Practically all the 
work has consisted of the drainage of swamps, ponds, and other breeding areas of the malarial 
vector (carrier) thereby removing the source of malaria transmission from the centers of population. 
. . . The mortality records show that the counties participating in such programs have experienced 
a decrease of 16^ per cent in deaths from malaria since the program was started in 1933. This 
leads one to believe that the work completed thus far is effectixe and well worth the investment of 
relief funds. 

The greater part of this work was and is being carried on in the eastern part of the state where 
malaria is prevalent. This disease in certain sections amounts to a millstone around the necks of 
the communities affected. The control of this disease does much to improve the communities 
affected socially, economically, and physically. Public recognition of the value of this work may 
be found in an editorial published in the Raleigh News and Observer, ^une 30, 1935. The editorial 
follows : 

"Last year at this time, Edenton's Mayor reports, his town had 452 cases of malaria. This 
year it has only 2. Last year at the end of June the community had several billion mosquitoes 
swarming around. This year the mosquito is down and out. 

"Full credit is given to the ERA workers who in the past year dug ditches and drained bogs 
and mudflats. This improvement, which was wrought within a year, is worth more than a passing 
note. There was a time when Eastern North Carolina had a high percentage of malarial ills, and 
strangers were inclined to a\oid it in the summer time. But a stricter cleanliness and an improxed 
sanitation have in recent years entirely altered this picture. The results of the ERA work around 
Edenton show that it is possible to erase from North Carolina the last of its malarial areas. 

"Criticism of ERA and other relief agencies has been vociferous, especially among those persons 
who have needed no relief themselves and never extended any to a fellow being. And, in fact, 
some defects in will and deed, were, in the face of such a large task, only to be expected. But 
here is a case in which the ERA has more than justified itself The conclusion must be that if 
government-supported agencies could wipe out all the infected spots in the country, the nation 
could well afford to foot the bill, high though it might be. For prevalent good health, and the 
energy that flows from it, can, within a year or two, restore the balance to any temporarily weakened 
budget. Weakened budgets do not matter. But weakened men do." 

In spite of the fact that most of the malaria control work carried on in North Carolina is in the 
eastern part of the state, one of the most outstanding projects is the malaria control project carried 
on in Iredell and Rowan counties, in the central part of the state. It has been reported that the 



192 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 





( I ) A typical ponded swamp in Robeson County in vicinity of densely populated section. A malaria blood slide survey showed a higher positive 
reaction than any other place in North Carolina. (a) Ponds paralleling Fourth Creek before drainage, Iredell County. (3) Channel after 
drainage, Fourth Creek, Iredell County. (4) The same swamp as No. i after drainage. One year after completion, malaria decreased over, 
60 per cent. 



Emeeoency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 193 

incidence of malaria is hea\cr here than in any other place in the United States. Many acres of 
rich farm land lie idle or are farmed only intermittently because of the multitudes of malaria mos- 
quitoes that infest this area and infect the population. This condition can be corrected only if the 
area invoh'ed is properly drained so that the hundreds of ponds and pools of stagnant water are 
eliminated . 

The waterways being drained are Second, Third, and Fourth Creeks and their tributaries, all of 
which drain into the Yadkin Ri\'er. Efforts have in the past been made by one county or the other 
to carry on this work but these efforts have fallen short of fulfillment because there was no coordi- 
nated effort on the part of both counties. Since all of these creeks flow through both counties, 
only by treating the projects in the counties as one problem can the project as a whole be successful. 

In Iredell County, the work involves dredging approximately 275,000 cubic yards on 8 miles of 
Third Creek, and dredging approximately 500,000 cubic yards on some 14 miles of Fourth Creek 
by dragline and dredgeboat. In Rowan County, right-of-way and dredging must be carried on 
along 10 miles of Third Creek and 7 miles of Fourth Creek. On Second Creek a new channel must 
be cut for 71^ miles, and 45 miles of old channel must be recut on the tributaries of Second Creek. 

In each county there have been set up drainage districts covering all the areas in which work 
is to be done. The counties have raised, and will continue to raise funds by means of a special 
acreage tax levied on those through whose lands the project runs and who will be benefited. The 
Emergency Relief Administration with its relief clients has built wooden barges for the floating 
dredges, and these are now in operation. 

The United States Public Health authorities and the North Carolina State Board of Health 
authorities ha\e given much thought to this project and have cooperated with the Works Division 
of the Emergency Relief Administration in every way. It is the opinion of these authorities, as well 
as of the County Health officials and the people of Rowan and Iredell counties, that no more bene- 
ficial project could be carried on than this. 





Average 


No. 


No. Man-hours 


Projects Involved Are 


Men Employed 


Expended 


Iredell : 








49-B17-76 


94 




20,740 


49-B17-90 


108 




6,144 


49-B17-58 


8 




3,689 


49-B17-56 


194 




33,391 


49-B17-14 


43 




61,858 


Rowan : 








80-B17-4 


72 




11,551 


80-B17-3 


74 




44,639 


80-B17-51 


97 




11,681 



In addition to supervising projects, the malaria control division has aided very materially in 
other ways. It has set about to reorganize drainage districts which have long since passed into 
obli\ion and left their canals as permanent hazards to existence. It has made many sections in 
North Carolina malaria-conscious and has further assisted by distributing literature and by deliv- 
ering frequent lectures and radio talks on the subject. A serious effort to educate the inhabitants 
of infested areas in the v/ays and means of protecting themselves from malarial fever has been an 
extra duty of those employed to help with this program. It is believed that if opportunity is pro- 
is 



194 



Emergency Relief in N'ohth Carolina 



-~=>T ^ -»««!»>». 




(i) Aerial view of completely drained salt marsh near Manteo, Dare County. Work done by transients. (2) Section oj drainage shown 
in No. I. (3) Relief workers building dredging machine, Iredell and Rowan counties. (4) Transients at work on the salt marsh drainage shown 
above. (5) Dredging machine completed by relief workers shown in No. 3. (6) Dragline on Fourth Creek, Iredell County. (7) Surveying 
right-of-way for drainage of Swift Creek, Pitt County. 



Emergency Eelief in ISTobth Carolina 195 

\dded for the continuation of this work and allowance is made for the completion of all the drainage 
projects deemed necessary by those in a position to judge such matters, this state may expect enor- 
mous returns, both socially and economically, from its drainage for malaria control. 

Following is gi\en a summary of drainage activities under CWA and ERA : 

CWA 

December i, 1933-March 31, 1934 — 

Number of counties engaged in malaria control activities, 54. 

Total number malaria control projects started, 392. 

Number of malaria control projects benefiting cities, 132. 

Number of malaria control projects benefiting rural communities, 268. 

Maximum number laborers engaged in malaria control one week, 6,200. 

Average number laborers engaged in malaria control one week, 4,740. 

Number miles canal and ditches either excavated or cleaned out under super\ision of Malaria 

Control Di\ision, 566. 
Number new ditches excavated, 1,390. 
Number of ponds drained, 969. 
Total number acres ponds drained, 2,972. 
Total acres swamp land drained or given outlet, 93,278. 
Total number draglines used, 9. 

A summary of the results obtained from the ERA drainage for Malaria Control program is as 
follows : 

ERA 

April 14, 1934-December I, 1935 — 

Number of counties engaged in malaria control activities, 56. 

Total number malaria control projects approved, 439. 

Number projects affecting cities, 155. 

Projects affecting both Rural and Urban Population, 21. 

Number projects affecting rural communities, 263. 

Maximum number laborers engaged in malaria control one week, 5,030. 

A\erage number laborers engaged in malaria control one week, 2,819. 

Number miles canal and ditches either exca\'ated or cleaned out under supervision of Malaria 

Control Di\ision, 954. 
Number new ditches excavated, 2,679. 
Number of ponds drained, 3,063. 
Total number acres ponds drained, 4,290. 

Total number acres swamp land drained or given proper outlet, 25,044. 
Total number draglines used, 7. 
CWA and ERA projects completed thus far, 269. 
Floating dredges, 3. 
Projects started, 304. 
Projects completed, 269. 
Average hours per man week, 17.5. 



196 



Emeegency Relief in North Carolina 




(i) ■ Completed ditch near Raynham, Robeson County. (2) Completed canal near Wilmington, New Hanover County. (3) Completed 
channel' j2t Pittsboro, Chatham County. (4) Ditch, draining swamp which surrounded Williamston, Martin County. (5) Canal, draining 
Ground Nut swamp, near LaGrange, Lenoir County. (6) Channel drainage, swamp at Shiloh, Camden County. (7) Bertie County , drain- 
age ditch. (8) Crew removing vegetation from canal, Columbus County. (9) An inter-section of drainage project near Henderson, Vance 
County. 



Emergency Eelief in North Carolina 



197 





(i) Sanitary sewsr under conslruction at Queen Street in Kinston, Lenoir County. (a) Water tower constructed at Faison, Duplin County,.,- 
(3) Water tower constructed at Kenansville, Duplin County. (4) Stream gaging station on French Broad River near Hot Springs, Madison 
County. (5) Repairs to Toomers Creek intake, Wilmington, Hew Hanover County. (6) City reservoir constructed at Carthage, Moore 
County. 



198 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 




(i) Erecting pole on rural electrification line in Orange County. (a) Completed rural electrification line in Orange County. (3) Com- 
pleted rural electrification line in Orange County. 



Emercjency Relief in N^orth Carolina 199 

Many communities in North Carolina have been aided by additions to their water systems 
or by the complete installation of an entirely new water system. It is always difficult to say which 
class of projects are most important, but certainly those projects which improve sanitary conditions 
are well at the head of the list. The addition of modern water and sewer facilities certainly adds 
not only to the convenience of those affected, but also impro\'es social and economic conditions. 

One of the most important projects involving laying of water mains carried on under the Emer- 
gency Relief Administration is project No. 32-B9-42 in Durham. This project is an excellent ex- 
ample of the type of work that can be accomplished when municipalities and counties cooperate 
with the Emergency Relief Administration. Such cooperation is the result of a good deal of pro- 
motional work on the part of the Emergency Relief Administration and can be obtained only when 
the community fully realizes that the Emergency Relief Administration funds may be expended 
only for labor, and that materials must be furnished locally. Realization of this fundamental 
policy comes to a community only when such a program has been in operation for some time and 
not when work relief appears to be built on the shifting sands of a dozen conflicting policies. 

On this project the city of Durham furnished $42,000 worth of materials and almost 84,000 
worth of labor and supervision. One hundred fifty tons of cast iron pipe were furnished by the 
city of Durham, and laid by relief labor. 

Average number of men employed, 100. 

Number of man-hours expended, 42,518. 

Although miles of electric and gas conduits are listed under this classification, the number 
of miles indicated refers to rural electrification lines built. Three projects of rural electrification 
lines in the counties of Orange, Wilson and Hoke were completed. The first of these projects to be 
built and completed with Emergency Relief Administration funds was that built in Orange County 
under No. 68-B9-41. Much interest has been manifested in Orange County over Rural Electri- 
fication, ;ince the Ci\il Works Administration completed a project of this sort in the county. On 
the basis of information gathered from the state-wide Rural Electrification Survey, a section of 
Orange County was selected for this Emergency Relief Administration project. A meeting was 
held in the community which was attended by several hundred people among whom were rep- 
resentatives from not only those communities affected, but others as well. As a result of this 
meeting, after which the local citizens agreed to furnish a substantial part of the cost of the project, 
work was begun, 11. 2 miles of the project has been completed. These Rural Electrification 
projects are undoubtedly very important and add to rural communities one of the prime necessities 
of modern life. They are not, however, especially good work relief projects since they involve a 
maximum of materials, and skilled, non-relief labor and a minimum of relief labor. If the projects 
can be worked out on some self-liquidating basis, they should prove quite feasible. 

A\erage number of men employed, 64. 

Number of man-hours expended, 13,534. 

All of the pumping stations constructed with Emergency Relief Administration funds were 
constructed as part of regular water projects and none of them were very large. 

Among the filtration plants impro\ed was a city filter plant and pumping station in Raleigh 
repaired and reconditioned under project No. 92B-B 10-67. The work done included repairing 
and reconditioning of filter and filtration equipment, the repair of all concrete structures including 
the reservoirs and settling basins. This work was badly needed, and as was the case with most 
municipalities, funds were not available to carry on the work. An a\erage of 15 men worked 
9,636 hours to complete this project. 



200 



Emergency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 




Bij3is2i*nv::ji 






(i) Water tower built as part of municipal water system at Wadeshoro, Anson County. (2) Dam built at Apex, Wake County. (3) Re- 
taining wall built at Game Farm, Durham County. (4) Reservoir built at Marshall, Madison County. (5) Chlorinator house built at 
Marshall, Madison County. (6) Empounding dam at Wadesboro, Anson County. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 201 

Yanceyville, county seat of Caswell County, one of the very few unincorporated county 
seats in the state, has no sanitary sewer system. As a result of this, the sanitary conditions in the 
county courthouse and jail have been deplorable. To correct this condition, a small sewage dis- 
posal plant has been built as an Emergency Relief Administration project to serve the county 
courthouse and jail. This project, together with one for repairing and renovating the courthouse 
has given the people and the officials of the county a new pride in their public buildings. It is 
difficult to describe with words the benefits that such projects as these provide since the improve- 
ments are helpful not only in visible accomplishments but also in a changed mental attitude and 
outlook on the part of the indi\iduals whom the project benefits. The Works Division of the North 
Carolina Emergency Relief Administration has of course constantly endeavored to promote and 
carry on projects whose physical results will be beneficial to the various communities. It has also 
been the aim of the Works Division through these projects to promote in the various communities 
of the state, through the projects carried on, a better mode of living, a better social attitude, and 
an increased pride in the community on the part of the people who live in the community. It 
seems at times that such ideals are more easily accomplished by the example of a completed project 
than by years of preaching and lecturing. 

Average number of men employed, 21. 

Number of man-hours expended, 6,848. 

Among the projects completed under this head is project No. 54-B9-32. This project was 
approved for erecting a tank and tower at the State Farm Colony for Delinquent Girls and Women. 
Prior to the completion of this project, the water system at this institution was so inadequate that 
proper sanitary facilities could not be provided and the shortage of water greatly increased the fire 
hazard. The materials purchased by the Civil Works Administration were used to erect a 72-foot 
tower and 5,500-gallon tank. As is the case with many Emergency Relief Administration projects, 
the physical benefits are great, but the other benefits, such as better discipline, are just as important. 
In the city of Fayetteville in Cumberland County, a storage basin was built under project No. 
26-B10-32. The work involved clearing 60 acres of land, rebuilding an old mill dam so that the 
present 8-foot head would be increased to 18 feet. The new earth-fill dam has a base of 810 
feet, a crown of 30 feet, and a 33-foot spillway. 

With the cooperation of the North Carolina State Board of Health, the Emergency Relief 
Administration has improved the sanitary conditions in many of the rural schools, by building septic 
tanks. One of the most important of these is that installed in the Glen Alpine School unit in 
Burke County. Under this project a septic tank, 25 x 26 x 10 feet, and a filter bed, 41 x 100 feet, 
and 3,000 feet of connecting ditches, 2 to 8 feet deep, were built. The sanitary conditions, which 
prior to the completion of this work had been far from desirable, are now in strict accordance with 
the requirements of the State Board of Health. 

The health authorities discovered that the South Mill High School in Camden County had 
sanitary conditions which they stamped as deplorable. Sufficient funds were not available to cor- 
rect this condition, but with the help of the Emergency Relief Administration the problem was 
solved. For this project, No. 15-B7-25, the county furnished all necessary materials and with these 
materials Emergency Relief Administration labor constructed a concrete septic tank and laid 3,000 



202 Emergency Relief in North Carolina 

feet of 4-inch pipe. This is an example of the way the Emergency Rehef Administration in North 

Carolina has impro\'ed sanitary conditions for the school children of the state. 

Average number of men employed, 14. 

Number of man-hours expended, 2,314. 

No more important work can be done to pro\ide rural population and others, for whom 
sewerage facilities are not available, with adequate sanitary facilities than as was done through 
the sanitary privy program. The United States Public Health Service agrees that the sanitary 
privy as constructed in North Carolina is the next best thing to modern plumbing arrangements. 
The North Carolina State Board of Health has de\oted much time to properly planning a sanitary 
pri\y that reduces health hazard to a minimum, and all the pri\-ies built in North Carolina have 
been built under ERA projects in accordance with the plans and specifications of the State Board 
of Health. In almost ninety of North Carolina's 100 counties, community sanitation through the 
construction of sanitary privies has been carried on as Emergency Relief Administration projects. 
It would be unfair, considering case loads and \arious other factors, to say that any one county 
put on a better program than the others. In Columbus County, howe\'er, the sanitary privy 
project has recei\'ed more local attention than in many other places. To pro\-e the fact that ade- 
quate rural sanitation has an immediate economic \alue in Columbus County, many strawberries 
are raised in this county, and several years ago the sanitary conditions in this rural area were so 
terrible that the health authorities came very near to condemning the entire crop in many sections 
of the county as being unfit for human consumption. Through the acti\'ities of the Civil Works 
Administration and the Emergency Relief Administration in building sanitary privies, this condi- 
tion has been corrected. 

Average number of men employed, 6. 

Number of man-hours expended, 1,037. 

Under the projects for removing car tracks, is project No. 13-B1-14 in Concord, county seat 
of Cabarrus County. The section of South Union Street from which the car track was removed 
was in \'ery bad condition before this project was completed. The car tracks and the old brick 
pavement have been remo\'ed and replaced with concrete pax-ement. The appearance, useful- 
ness, and safety of this street ha\e been greatly increased. An a\erage of 14 men worked 1,827 
man-hours in removing these tracks. 

In the drought cattle program two abattoirs were constructed, at Hamlet and New Bern. 
Modern plants and equipment were installed to conform to the high standards of sanitation set up 
by the Health Department. The output of the abo\-e abattoirs was 100 cattle per eight hours. 
CDntinuous shifts were operated using approximately 90 per cent relief labor. Various plants of 
refrigeration were necessary in this operation and were utilized. Dressed meat was forwarded 
from these plants to canneries, storage plants, and distributed as surplus commodities. The hides 
were preserved for the operation of the Emergency Relief Administration tannery at Old Fort, N.C. 

A\erage number of men employed, 217. 

Number of man-hours expended, 55,446. 

At Greensboro, Raleigh, Asheville, and Charlotte, local abattoirs were remodeled or repaii-ed 
and were used by the Emergency Relief Administration in the slaughter of the drought cattle. 



Emergency Relief in Noeth Carolina 203 

Summary 

Miles of sewers constructed, 104.54; improved, 5.10; repaired, 58.73. 

Miles of storm sewers constructed, 1 13.86 ; improved, 2.10 ; repaired, 1 13.06. 

Miles of drainage ditches constructed, 954.06 ; improved, 359.00 ; repaired, 43.00. 

Miles of irrigation ditches constructed, none ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 

Miles of other sewers and ditches constructed, 127.67 ; improxed, 205.52 ; repaired, 158.87. 

Miles of water mains laid, 46.11 ; improved, 2.42 ; repaired, 8.87. 

Miles of electric and gas conduits laid, 11.2 ; improxed, 2.00 ; repaired, 100. 

Number of abattoirs constructed, 4; improved, 5 ; repaired, i. 

Number of electric light plants constructed, i ; impro\ed, i ; repaired, none. 

Number of gas plants constructed, none ; improxed, none ; repaired, none. 

Number of pumping stations constructed, 7 ; improved, 4 ; repaired, 2. 

Number of filtration stations constructed, 7 ; impro\ed, 2 ; repaired, 5. 

Number of sewerage disposal plants constructed, 20 ; improved, 4 ; repaired, 5. 

Number of other utilities constructed, 8 ; improved, i ; repaired, none. 

Number of septic tanks constructed, 96 ; improxed, 1 1 ; repaired, 120. 

Number of sanitary privies constructed, 18,125 ; improved, 1,126 ; repaired, 1,738. 

Number of miles of car tracks removed or otherwise disposed of, 16.83. 

Acres ponds drained, 3,063. 

Acres swamp land drained, 25,044. 

Construction and Repair of Recreational Facilities 
(B. II, 12) 

Under project No. 92-B11-154 at North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineer- 
ing, the stadium at Riddick Field was completed. The old concrete and wooden stands of the 
West Side were dismantled and replaced with modern construction in replica of the new stadium 
on the East Side. The construction consisted of approximately 1,200 cubic yards of reenforced 
concrete, cypress seats, press box, modern amplifying system, toilets and entrances. This con- 
struction was completed in the short time of thirty-eight and one-half working days. At times 
three shifts were employed per day and as high as 400 men were employed daily. This project 
was made possible by the cooperation of the college and alumni in furnishing of 85 per cent of 
materials. In this construction, 107,561 man-hours were used with an average of 262 men per day. 
The stadium constructed has a seating capacity of 7,900 people and gives this institution a modern 
football facility capable of handling with safety the crowds at such contests of 16,000 peoples. 

This modern stadium, the construction of which is now completed provides for increased 
attendance at State College games, and will doubtless prove a drawing card for other front rank 
athletic exhibitions. Work on this stadium was part of the comprehensive effort of the ERA to 
pro\ide permanent recreational facilities, well-constructed and meeting the highest engineering 
requirements. 

Under project No. 92A-B1 1-5, certain materials were transferred from the Ci\il Works Ad- 
ministration. A concrete grandstand was constructed at the North Carolina State Fair Grounds 
with an a\-erage of 50 men working 10,976^2 hours. Additional seating capacity was sorely needed 
to provide adequate space for the spectators during the \'arious events at this annual fair. The 
grandstand has a seating capacity of 3,600 and increases the seating capacity of the fair about 40 
per cent. 



204 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 




(i) Concrete bleachers at State College Stadium, Raleigh, Wake County, under construction, August 20, 7555. (2) Concrete bleachers at 
Stale College Stadium, Raleigh, Wake County, under construction, August 24, rgj^. (3) Concrete bleachers at State College Stadium, com- 
pleted October 10, 1935. (4) Air view of State College Stadium. Right-hand stands constructed with sponsor's funds and relief labor. 



Emergency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 205 

A wooden grandstand for the Concord High School was built under project No. 13-B11- 
69. This high school, before the grandstand was built by the Emergency Relief Administration, 
was entirely without seating facilities for spectators, the existing grandstand having been condemned. 
The grandstand, built of wood, has a seating capacity of 1,250, being equipped with dressing rooms, 
4 showers, 2 rest rooms and 2 ticket offices. Under this same project, the athletic field was brought 
to a uniform grade, and in doing this, about 12,000 cubic yards of earth were moved. In building 
the athletic field and the grandstand, 55 men were used for 55,570 man-hours. 

At the North Carolina College for Negroes, a wood grandstand seating approximately 1,000 
persons was built with materials furnished by the College. The project under which this was 
built, No. S32-B1 i-23-C,also involved construction of an athletic field. Until this project was com- 
pleted, recreational facilities at the college were entirely inadequate. The construction was some- 
what unusual in that cedar posts from an old fence were buried in the ground and used for supports 
for the cypress plank seating. 

Average number of men employed, 75. 

Number of man-hours expended, 64,429. 

All of the open-air theaters and amphitheaters were constructed as part of Park Develop- 
ment Projects. The most outstanding amphitheater was that which was built as part of the project 
for the development of the High Point Municipal Park. This amphitheater, with its grass seats, 
stage, and enclosure of cedars and other evergreen plant materials, forms one of the most important 
features of this project. It has a seating capacity of between 2,000 and 3,000, and will provide an 
opportunity for the presentation of all sorts of outdoor dramas, entertainments, as well as historical 
pageants, etc. 

In Charlotte at Independence Park, one of the baseball fields has been used for years for 
Sunday school leagues and business league games. Much interest has always been manifested in 
these ball games, and attendance especially on Saturday is heavy. No adequate seating arrange- 
ments were available until stone bleachers with a seating capacity of 1,500 were constructed. These 
bleachers, built in a semi-circle, give a splendid view of one of the baseball fields in the park, and 
the two stone dug-outs with concrete roof slabs, provide facilities for the competing teams. 

Average number of men employed (No. 60-B11-2), 15. 

Number of man-hours expended (No. 60-B11-2), 1,205. 

In Burlington, Willowbrook Park has been built to provide supervised recreation facilities 
for approximately 700 small children. This project, typical of so many playground projects built 
in cities, and in the rural areas, affords an opportunity for organized recreation and brings the chil- 
dren off" the streets and into a safe place to play. 

Average number of men employed (No. 1-B11-5), 27. 

Number of man-hours expended (No. 1-B11-5), 1,920. 

Another important playground project, although partially completed under CWA, is proj- 
ect No. 98-B11-13, in Wilson. The local interest in this project was extremely fine and materials 
and other faciUties were contributed by those manifesting this interest. This project forms an im- 
portant part of the recreational program in this community, the social effects of which are wide- 
spread. Although Wilson is a comparatively small town, the weekly attendance in the recreational 
centers and playgrounds of which this project is one of the most important, exceeds two thousand 
and brings to certain classes, especially those people on relief rolls, a social outlet never before pos- 
sible to them. Under this project, considerable grading and other preparatory work were done, 
after which playground equipment and other recreational facilities were installed. 

Average number of men employed, 27. 

Number of man-hours expended, 5,714. 



206 



Emergency Relief ix Xorth Carolixa 






(i) Stone bleachers built at Independence Park, Charlotte, North Carolina. (2) Putting in underground drainage system, the Municipal 
Stadium at Charlotte. (3) The Municipal Stadium, Charlotte, completed. (4) Baseball diamond built at Huntersville, Mecklenburg 
County under RFC, CWA and ERA. 



Emergency Relief in IN'orth Carolina 



207 






(l) View of amphitheater and bathhouse built at High Point Municipal Park under CWA and ERA, Guilford County. (2) Community 
House and lake built at Black Mountain, Buncombe County. (3) Improvement of Jacks Creek and Municipal Park, Washington, Beaufort 
County. 



208 



Emergency Relief in Noeth Carolina 




h 



W^XB^^ 



I 




(i) Swimming pool at Municipal Park, High Point, Guilford County. Largest outdoor pool in North Carolina. (2) Swimming pool 
and bathhouse at Pullen Park, Raleigh, Wake County. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 209 

From the standpoint of design, size, beauty, and usefulness, the High Point Municipal Park, 
built on the city lake property under project 41C-B11-1, is beyond doubt the outstanding park 
project not only in the state but in this section of the United States. This project was begun with 
RFC funds, carried on under Civil Works Administration, and worked on for 15 months and car- 
ried to completion under the Emergency Relief Administration. This project represents an im- 
prox'ement and an addition to the city of High Point recreational facilities that would most likely 
have never been possible except under these programs. 

The complete project comprises a number of units among which is the swimming pool, 270 
feet long and 75 feet wide laid out in the form of a cross, with the cross arm providing space for 50 
meter races. The bathhouse, simple in design andbuiltof wood and shingles, provides shower, locker, 
and toilet facilities for the full bathing load of the pool as well as rest rooms, concession space and 
outdoor dining rooms. The play field is directly back of the bathhouse and on the same level as 
the concession floor, and will accommodate a large number of people. To the west of the play 
field there are accommodations for picnickers including a sheltered barbecue pit and fire place. 
The ampitheater described above is one of the important features. Facilities have been provided 
for boating and fishing on the lake as well as another play field with children's apparatus and two 
tennis courts. Numerous roads, paths, and trails ha\'e been built and the whole area has been 
landscaped. The design and execution of design are excellent. In this project is a lasting monu- 
ment that will stand to confound forever those who say that all work relief activities are in the 
"Leaf-raking Category." 

Average number of men employed, 241. 

Number of man-hours expended, 286,997. 

One of the most important small parks built is that built at Spindale, North Carolina. This 
park with its swimming pool, play field, and picnic areas is built in the heart of a mill village section 
and provides recreational facilities where no such facilities previously existed, and where the people 
have little or no opportunity to get pleasure out of their leisure time. 

In describing projects carried on by the Emergency Relief Administration, it is difficult even for 
the Works Di\'ision to place the emphasis on the physical accomplishments in terms of dirt moved, 
concrete poured, etc., instead of upon the benefits which the projects furnish to the public. No 
finer thing could be done in this locality than furnishing these mill workers with the recreation 
facilities provided by the completion of this project. 

Average number of men employed (No. 81-B11-5), 40. 

Number of man-hours expended (No. 81-B11-5), 24,603. 

The outstanding small park project of historical interest is that carried on under project No. 28- 
B3-27 in Dare County, the restoration of old Fort Raleigh. Old Fort Raleigh, "the birthplace of the 
nation," is being reproduced as a monument to those hardy English adventurers who landed there 
in 1587. On this site, Virginia Dare was given the first Christian baptism in America. The chapel, 
which has been reproduced, is constructed entirely of white cedar, hewn, and thatched with native 
reed. The fort includes 16 acres enclosed on three sides with a wooden palisade. The fourth side 
faces the sound. Within the palisade were constructed twelve log-type buildings, each having an 
indi\ddual historical significance. The smaller cottages are a reproduction of those occupied by 
the early settlers. 

Much research has been done to make sure that all the work carried on at this site is faithfully 
reproduced both in the appearance and the spirit of the original colony which so mysteriously 
disappeared. Even the men engaged on this project who are natives of Roanoke Island have 
manifested much interest and a desire to attain the original atmosphere. 

Average number of men employed, 7. Number of man-hours expended, 441. 



210 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 




(i) Restoration work at old Fort Raleigh on Roanoke Island. Dare County, showing cabins and stockade in background. (2) Chapel 
constructed as part of the restoration program at old Fort Raleigh. (3) Interior of chahel at old Fort Raleigh. (4) Stockade and blockhouse 
bmlt at old Fori Raleigh under ER.i and CU'A •' r * \t/ 



Emergency Eelief in N"orth Carolina 



211 




(i) Nursery room in Greensboro operated as ERA project, Guilford County. (2) Recreational activities at Heuse Forest Camp, Craven 
County. (3) Lake park and recreational buildings constructed in Rockingham County. (4) School bus station in Graham County. 
(5) Bridge built at Blair Park, High Point, Guilford County. (6) Community Center in Greensboro, Guilford County. 



212 



Emekgency Belief in North Carolina 






(i) Intramural field at the University of North Carolina during construction. (2) Intramural field at the University of Noilh Carolina 
after completion. (3) Field house built at the intramural field at the University of North Carolina. (4) Bleachers and athletic field at State 
College for Negroes in Durham. (5) Caretaker's house at the City-County Recreational Park near Greensboro. (6) Lake and bath house 
at City-County Recreational Park near Greensboro. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 213 

The most outstanding combination field completed in the Emergency Relief Administration 
is the intra-mural field at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill. This field was built pri- 
marily to provide for organized games and sports for the student body of the University who do 
not compete on freshmen or varsity teams. It also includes one of the finest quarter-mile tracks 
in the Southeastern states. The project begun under the Civil Works Administration was taken 
o\'er by the Emergency Relief Administration with the rough grading completed, which involved 
the mo\ing of thousands of cubic yards of rock and earth. The upper field provides for four foot- 
ball fields. On the lower field the center track includes an area large enough for a combination 
football and baseball diamond as well as space outside the track for other activities such as Soccer, 
Lacrosse, etc. Besides providing for the activities of the student body, the center track will be used 
by the University track team, and a concrete grandstand and field house has been provided. The 
spirit of the University and its alumni which made this project possible reflects the growing move- 
ment to provide opportunity for class and fraternity teams instead of confining all interest to the 
varsity teams. 

Average number of men employed (No. S68-B11-12-C), 113. 
Number of man-hours expended (No. S68-B11-12-C), 89,981. 

Another interesting combination field constructed is that built under project No. 49-B11-22 in 
Mooresville, N. C. Under this project, approximately 26,000 cubic yards of earth have been moved, 
a six by six reinforced concrete culvert 40 feet long has been built. The concrete stadium has been 
constructed, 4,000 square feet of banks have been sodded, and 1,325 feet of seven-foot galvanized 
steel fence have been erected. The waste from the athletic field grounds was used to construct a 
road fill, and this fill and the culvert replace a dangerous limited tonnage bridge. Practically all 
of the dirt was moved with hand labor and wheel barrows. 

One of the most useful baseball fields built as an ERA project is that built at Brookford, 
in Catawba County, under project No. 18-B11-3. This field serves a mill area which is much in- 
terested in baseball and provides a means of recreation in an area which badly needs recreational 
facilities. 

Average number of men employed, 65. 
Number of man-hours expended, 7,000. 

One of the football fields completed as an ERA project was that built at the Oak Lawn 
Negro High School in Lincolnton. This project provides recreational facilities for the Negro school 
children in this section. It is a sad fact but facilities of this nature for Negroes are sadly lacking 
and much has been done through ERA projects to correct this deficiency. 

Average number of men employed (No. 55-Bii-i), 20. 
Number of man-hours expended (No. 55-Bii-i), 897. 

Next to the Intra-mural Field at Chapel Hill the most important football field built was that 
built in Charlotte under project No. 60-B11-3 and known as the Municipal Stadium. Much in- 
terest has been shown in the last few years in Charlotte in professional football. Although many 
of the large colleges in this section could very profitably play some of their away-from-home foot- 
ball games in Charlotte, they have so far been unable to do so because there was no adequate field. 
The completed project, since it was built on park property owned by the city of Charlotte, forms 
an important link in the park system of the city. The stadium which surrounds the football field 
is oval in shape and has been built in a central location. 

Work on the project involved building a retaining wall of stone masonry three feet high and 
900 feet long. A 14-foot fill, back of the wall, from one and one-half to one slope was constructed. 



214 



Emergency Relief in I^oeth Carolina 






r*j3f A^ _^_r--. 



- *"'*' J^.^ 'SLTl&kisiaSsri.^feS: 



(i) Iml>rovements at Greenfield Park, Wilmington, New Hanover County. (2) Improvements at Greenfield Park, Wilmington, New 
Hanover County. (3) Upper: stone wall built at the end of tennis courts. University of North Carolina; lower: asphalt tennis courts built at 
the University of North Carolina. (4) The municipal lake and park at Rocky Mount. (5) Shelter House at the municipal park at Durham. 
(6) Community House and swimming pool built at Sanford, Lee County. 



Emergency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 215 

A stone masonry culvert 365 feet long with a 36 square foot opening was laid. This is a valuable 
project as it not only provides a football field but it clears up a swampy area in which mosquitoes 
bred. 

The stadium consists of a football field surrounded by an oval-shaped retaining wall above the 
earth has been filled and graded so that temporary bleachers can be put on them. It is hoped at 
a later date that stone seats can be built to complete the project. So far it has been necessary to 
delay this work to allow the earth fill to settle properly. 

Average number of men employed, 336. 
Number of man-hours expended, 105,170. 

In Durham, under project No. 32-B11-6, the Durham City High School has been provided 
with a cinder running track which will enable the track team of the Durham City High School 
to engage in this type of competitive sport. This is very important since many more high school 
boys are competing on the track teams than have ever done so before. 

In Mecklenburg County fourteen new tennis courts have been built under project No. 60- 
B11-4-C. These courts which are of clay are located in different sections of the city and pro- 
\'ide recreational facilities for tennis players in all parts of the city. The project involved grading, 
draining, clay surfacing and building chain-link fences around courts. 

Average number of men employed, 22. 
Number of man-hours expended, 4,761. 

Following the policy of providing adequate recreational facilities for all students, the University 
of North Carolina has cooperated under project No. S68-B12-11 to rebuild 44 tennis courts at the 
University. Work involved clearing the area, moving approximately one hundred thousand cubic 
yards of dirt and between five and ten thousand cubic yards of rock. Drains of six-inch terra 
cotta pipe have been laid with stone surface to provide drainage. About 34 of these courts are 
built of asphalt to provide all weather surface, 8 are sand clay and two are concrete. Certain of 
the courts are also used for handball. 

The construction methods employed on this project were of the highest type and adequate 
drainage facilities were provided by means of crushed rock and terra cotta pipe. At almost any 
time one passes these courts — every one is in use. 

Average number of men employed, 38. 
Number of man-hours expended, 33,945. 

In the mountain towns, summer tourists and visitors are much depended on as a source of 
revenue. In fact, in certain sections of western North Carolina, tourists and other summer trade 
form one of the largest business enterprises. This being the case, the provision of adequate recrea- 
tional facilities is of prime necessity. Among the most popular of such facilities are golf courses. 
For these reasons, the golf course built in Hendersonville is an important project to the local people. 
Work on this course, which was laid out by Donald Ross, involved repairing and improving the 
original nine-hole course, and constructing nine additional holes. Completion of this project. No. 
45-B11-3, gives to Hendersonville one of the finest courses. 

Average number of men employed, 50. 
Number of man-hours expended, 59,000. 

Another important nine-hole course constructed is that in the town of Sanford, in the Sand 
Hill region. This course, which is municipally owned, affords an opportunity to the people in 
this area to find recreation in playing golf The course itself has a beautiful setting in typical 



216 



Emeegexcy Relief in !N"orth Carolina 





(l) Municipal swimming />ool built at Greenville, Pitt County. (2) Municipal swimming pool built at Kinston, Lenoir County. (3) 
Municipal swimming pool built at Durham, Durham County. (4) Alunicipal swimming pool built at Tarboro, Edgecombe County. (5) 
Tear-round swimming pool, Wayne County Community Center, Goldsboro. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 217 

Sand Hill country. Pine and similar growth form the largest part of the background for the grass 
fairways and sand greens. 

Average number of men employed (No. 53-B11-3), 15. 
Number of man-hours expended (No. 53-B11-3), 6,158. 

All swimming pools constructed under the Emergency Relief Administration were care- 
fully designed to meet the highest standards of health and sanitation. There are no more modern 
swimming pools in the South than those constructed in North Carolina as Emergency Relief Admin- 
istration projects. Special attention has been given to the proper treatment of water through fil- 
tration, chlorination, and other chemical treatment, to the proper design of scum gutters, and the 
proper relation between estimated bathing load and the size of the pool. Showers and foot baths 
have been so located that every person entering these pools must pass through both. One of the 
outstanding swimming pools constructed was that built under project No. 54-B 11-49 i^i Kinston. 
This swimming pool, built as a part of the general development of the Emma Webb Park, is 80 
feet wide, 150 feet long, and has a capacity of 500,000 gallons of water. It has a depth at its deep- 
est point of eight feet, six inches. This pool is completely equipped with ladders, spring boards, 
diving towers, and facilities for spectators. In the construction of the entire unit, nothing has been 
left undone to assure absolute compliance with the requirements of the State Board of Health. 
The recirculation system, the most modern of its kind, is completely equipped with chlorination, 
filter tanks, and other purifying devices assuring a complete change of water every eight hours. 

Average number of men employed, 50. 
Number of man-hours expended, 39,462. 

In Charlotte, a Negro swimming pool has been constructed at Fairview Park under project 
No. 60-B11-156. The pool, 100 feet square and ranging in depth from two to nine feet, was con- 
structed in the sedimentation basins of the old water works plant. The purification is to be ac- 
complished by coagulation and the water fluxed with alum. Construction of this pool is especially 
important since it is one of the first Negro swimming pools built in this section, and will afford 
swimming and bathing opportunities to a large colored population. 

The only indoor swimming pool built as an Emergency Relief Administration project is that 
built under No. 96B-B12-5 in Goldsboro. Under the Emergency Relief Administration, an aver- 
age of 12 men worked 2,342 hours to complete the pool, 24 feet x 70 feet large. An addition was 
made to the existing community house and the pool built in this addition. As in the case of all 
other pools, a filtration system of the highest type has been installed and provides the most sanitary 
year-around bathing facilities for Goldsboro. 

Most of the wading pools built were built in connection with swimming pools and park develop- 
ments. In High Point, a wading pool has been built near the large swimming pool to provide 
facilities for small children. In Kinston, a wading pool for small children 16 x 24 feet and from 
12 to 24 inches deep has been provided. This pool has a raised water line so that nurses and moth- 
ers can keep close watch on the children. 

One of the most outstanding bathing features built is McMillan's Beach built near Lumberton 
in Robeson County under No. 78-B11-18. This provides bathing and boating facilities in a sec- 
tion where such facilities were much needed. A section of the Lumber River has been cleared of 
logs and other debris and the surrounding grounds cleaned and improved. Hundreds of truck 
loads of sand have been hauled in to provide a clean, safe beach. 

Average number of men employed, 16. 
Number of man-hours expended, 3,800. 



218 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 




(i) Swimming pool and bathliouse built at Spindale, Rutherford County. (2) Pressure filters being installed at Goldsboro swimming pool. 
Similar filters were installed at other swimming pools built with CWA and ERA funds. (3) Skating rink at Asherille Recreational Park af- 
ter reconstruction. (4) Swimming pool built at Brevard, Transylvania County. (5) Filter plant reconstructed at Negro swimming pool, 
Charlotte. (6) Homey Heights Swimming Pool, Asheville. 



EMEB(iENry Relief in North Carolina 



219 




(l) Boy Scout cabin, Polk County. (2) 
Coif course built at Lumberton, Robeson County. 



Additions and repairs to Toung Tar Heel Farmers' Camp, White Lake, Bladen County. (3) 
(4) Golf course at Hendersonville , Henderson County. (5) Athletic field, Surry County. 



220 



Emergency Relief in Nokth Carolina 








(i) Administration building at Cleveland County Fairgrounds. {2) Grandstand built at Cleveland County Fairgrounds. 



Emergency Eelief in Nobth Carolina 221 

As much interest has been manifested by the North Carolina school authorities in building 
gymnasiums as in the improvement of schools, and the North Carolina Emergency Relief Admin- 
istration has been especially interested in these projects since they provide opportunities not only 
for indoor sports, but also for community gatherings, and the promotion of better social life in the 
community. Several different types of gymnasiums have been built owing to the different amounts 
of labor available, and the wishes of the local community and the materials used or supplied by the 
local people. The plans for each gymnasium were approved by the State Board of Education and 
by the State Insurance Commission so that the necessary number of exits and other fire and safety 
measures were provided. In Iredell County under project No. 49-B3-21, the Celeste Henkel Gym- 
nasium was built. This building, 125 x 70 feet, is of brick veneer construction and fills a need long 
felt in the local community to provide indoor recreational facilities. In Wake County, a 
gymnasium built under project No. 92A-B3-75 employed an average of 25 men who worked 
II, 004 hours from November 26, 1934 until May 29, 1935. This gymnasium constitutes a valuable 
addition to the school and an asset to the community. For the school, it will serve as a center for 
a year-around physical education program. For the people of the community, it will afford a 
gathering place not only for attendance at athletic contests and games in which their children 
participate, but for other activities. This gymnasium is of brick construction with steel trusses and 
a fire proof roof. The fine workmanship on the building is typical of the gymnasiums built under 
the Emergency Relief Administration program. 

The Beaufort gymnasium was started under CWA but only a few feet of brick walls were up 
when the project was suspended. Under ERA, through the cooperation of the town officials and 
citizens of Beaufort, the building was completed in forty-five working days, December 5, 1935. 
The building includes hardwood basketball court, dressing rooms and showers, and seating capacity 
of eight hundred. 

In Yancey County, under project No. 100-B3-1, a stone gymnasium has been constructed at 
the Bald Creek High School. The construction of this project is a fine example of the effort that 
has been made by the local and district works divisions to improve the skill of workers or to teach 
them new skills. When this project was started, practically no stone masons were on relief rolls. 
The foreman taught several men to lay stone, and these same men have now become fairly skilled 
stone masons. This project has served a threefold purpose. It pro\ided work for relief cases, it 
served to train relief workers in a new trade, and it has provided the school and the community 
with a fine building for indoor sports. An average of 16 workers worked 5,906 man-hours in erect- 
ing this gymnasium. 

Several different types of park buildings have been built, ranging from the simplest picnic 
shelters to the most modern bath houses. Among the more attractive buildings built are the boat 
house at the High Point Municipal Lake, the caretaker's house at the Durham Park, and the Greens- 
boro (Guilford County) Recreational Park. The boat house at High Point is of log and stone 
construction and houses facilities for the control of boating, a concession stand, and a fair-sized 
assembly room featured by a fireplace. 

The most important fair building constructed was the combination grandstand and ex- 
hibit hall for the Cleveland County Fair, located near Shelby. This structure built of stone has 
reinforced concrete seats facing the track. Underneath the seats are spaces for various exhibits. 
While the building, when the fair is not in operation, is somewhat rococo in design, it has an espe- 
cially attractive appearance when the fair is in progress with its colored lights and many banners. 
Since county fairs give to rural population recreation, education, and examples of better farming 
methods, this project is well worth while to those who use it. 



222 



Emergency Eelief in ISTokth Carolina 




(i) Gymnasium built at Beaufort, Carteret County. (2) Brick gymnasium built at Wendell, Wake County. (3) Interior of gymnasium 
built at Apex, Wake County. 



Emeegbncy Relief in North Cauolina 



223 




(i) Gymnasium built at Saluda, Polk County. (2) Gymnasium built at Alliance, Pamlico County. (3) Celeste Henkel Gymnasium 
built in Iredell County. (4) North Brook No. i Gymnasium built in Lincoln County. (5) Sparta High School Gymnasium built in Alle- 
ghany County under CWA and ERA. (6) Ferguson School in Wilkes County built under CVVA and ERA to replace burned building. 



224 



Emergency Relief in N'oeth Carolina 





(i) Communitv House built at Scotland J^eck Halifax County. (2) Interior oj Scotland Neck Community House. 



Emergency Relief in JSToeth Carolina 225 

Average number of men employed (No. 23-Bii-i), 25. 

Number of man-hours expended (No. 23-Bii-i), 12,259. 

As a part of the general development of Pullen Park in Raleigh which involved building 
a lake, swimming pool, bathhouses, merry-go-round, and other recreational facilities, a dance hall 
was constructed on the second story of the bathhouse. There are few public dance halls in this 
section, and it is believed that this hall will add much to the already great popularity of this park. 
The finest hardwood flooring has been laid on the dance floor itself, and areas reserved for specta- 
tors. 

The community buildings built with Emergency Relief Administration funds include some 
built of stone, some of brick, some of frame construction, some of stone and log construction, and 
some of log construction. The finest log community house was that built at Scotland Neck, in 
Halifax County, No. 42-B3-3. This community house has been erected on a corner lot, and pro- 
vides for both a gymnasium and a community recreation hall. The building is constructed entirely 
of cypress logs, approximately 1,500 logs being used in its construction. The main hall which 
will be used for a gymnasium, dancing, and other public gatherings, is 40 feet wide and 80 feet 
long. There is also a ladies' lounge, a men's lounge, shower baths, kitchen, pantry, and small 
library on the first floor. On the second floor is a large outside porch and several other rooms for 
small gatherings. The main hall is entirely surrounded by a second-floor balcony. 

Average number of men employed, 31. 

Number of man-hours expended, 14,600. 

The exterior and interior design of this building has made it a source of pride to the town, 
and has attracted many visitors. The entire interior is finished in a manner in keeping with the 
materials used, even the roof being supported by built-up cypress log trusses. 

The community house, built at Black Mountain, in Buncombe County, under project No. 
iiA-Bii-2, is situated on the shore of a lake developed as a part of this same project. This com- 
munity house is finished with shingles and provides a large hall as a gathering place on the main 
floor, and facilities for boating and bathing from the lower floor. 

Average number of men employed, 21. 

Number of man-hours expended, 12,266. 

Another interesting community center is that built in Roxboro under No. 73-B3-2. Al- 
though this project was started as a Civil Works Administration project, practically nothing had 
been completed, only a small portion of the foundation being laid. The community house is of 
the colonial cottage type with white clapboard exterior. The interior walls are finished in pine, 
and the whole effect is very pleasing. Facilities have been provided for an assembly hall, a small 
library room, a community room, kitchen, and men and women's lounges. 

Average number of men employed, 12. 

Number of man-hours expended, 7,856. 

One of the most unique bathhouses built is that built as a part of project No. 54-B15-59, 
in Kinston, for the general development of the Emma Webb playground. This bathhouse has a 
capacity for approximately 300 men, and 200 women. On each side, there are showers and toilet 
facilities for this number of people. A water heating plant provides hot water. A unique feature 
of the bathhouse is its open air plan which leaves the whole bathhouse unroofed except the por- 
tions which contain the lockers. This assures a maximum amount of sunlight and air which will 
help keep the dressing rooms dry, sanitary, and free from odors. The concrete walls are high 
enough to insure privacy, and the open air arrangement will be a great improvement over the aver- 
age bathhouse. 



226 



Emergency Eelief in I^okth Carolina 







(i) Middleburg Community House built in Vance County. (2) Interior of Middleburg Community House, Varice County. (3) Com- 
munitv House at Lumberton, Robeson County. (4) Smithfield Community House, Johnston County. {5) Selma Community House, John- 
ston County, (6) Community house and boathouse, Black Mountain, Buncombe County. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



227 




(i) Morganton Community Home, Burke County. (2) Historic home remodeled for community center. Tarhoro. Edgecombe County. 



228 



Emergency Relief in !N"orth Carolina 




(i) Fish Hatchery at Rutherford, Watauga County. (2) Fish breeding pool constructed at State Fish Hatchery, Alleghany County. 
(3) Concrete rearing pools constructed at Pete Murphy Fish Hatchery, McDowell Coun'y. (4) f^Pools for fish during period of growth, State 
Fish Hatchery, Roaring Gap, Alleghany County. (5) Repairs to Diamond Back Terrapin Ponds and driveway constructed at United States 
Fisheries at Beaufort, Carteret County. (6) Stone, Warden's house constructed at State Game Refuge and Fish Hatchery, Tancey County. 



Emekgenct Eelief in North Carolina 229 

Summary 

Number of grandstands constructed, 30 ; improved, 6 ; repaired, 8. 

Concrete stadia constructed, 7 ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 

Steel and wooden grandstands constructed, 13 ; improved, 3 ; repaired, 3. 

Open air theatres and amphitheatres constructed, 6 ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 

Other : Constructed, 1 1 ; improved, 3 ; repaired, 5. 

Approximate total capacity, 1-4, 100,000. 

Number of children's playgrounds constructed, 62 ; improved, 50; repaired, 11. 

Number of large parks — approximate capacity constructed, 11 ; improved, 19; repaired, none. 

Number of small parks — approximate capacity constructed, 10 ; improved, 1 1 ; repaired, 6. 

Total acreage, 1-2, 13,539. 
Number of athletic fields constructed, 359 ; improved, 132 ; repaired, 69. 
Combination fields constructed, 44 ; improved, 44 ; repaired, 29. 
Baseball fields constructed, 49 ; improved, 39 ; repaired, 8. 
Football fields constructed, 26 ; improved, 14 ; repaired, 3. 
Track fields constructed, 8 ; improved, 4 ; repaired, i. 
Tennis courts constructed, 184; improved, 15 ; repaired, 16. 
Other courts constructed, 43 ; improved, 16; repaired, 12. 

Other types of fields constructed, 5 ; improved, none ; repaired, none. Capacity, 1-7, 125,000. 
Number of golf courses constructed, 4; improved, 7 ; repaired, none. Total acreage, 508. 
Number of other recreation grounds constructed, 6 ; improved, 12 ; repaired, 6. 
Rodeo grounds constructed, i ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 
Race tracks constructed, none ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 
Rifle ranges constructed, i ; improved, 3 ; repaired, i. 
Tourists parks constructed, none ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 
Other grounds constructed, 2 ; improved, 9 ; repaired, 5. 

Number of winter sport facilities constructed, none ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 
Ski jumps constructed, none ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 
Skating rinks constructed, none ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 
Toboggan slides constructed, none ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 
Others : constructed, none ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 
Number of swimming pools constructed, 21 ; improved, 3 ; repaired, i. 
Number of wading pools constructed, 13 ; improved, 2 ; repaired, i. 
Number of bathing beaches constructed, 3 ; improved, 3 ; repaired, none. 
Number of recreation buildings constructed, 141 ; improved, 54; repaired, 52. 
Auditoriums constructed, 6 ; improved, 20 ; repaired, 25. 
Gymnasiums constructed, 83 ; improved, 13 ; repaired, 12. 
Park buildings constructed, 14 ; improved, 7 ; repaired, 8. 
Fair buildings constructed, i ; improved, 4 ; repaired, 3. 
Dance halls constructed, i ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 

Combination community recreation halls constructed, 22 ; improved, 5 ; repaired, 2. 
Bathhouses constructed, 13; improved, 4; repaired, 2. 
Zoos constructed, none ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 
Other recreation construction, i ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 
Approximate total capacity, 1-8, 150,000. 
Number of all other recreation facilities constructed, none ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 



230 



Emergency Eelief ix T^orth Carolina 




(i) Breeding pens built al the game farm, Cumberland County. (2) Lodge and classrooms at Qimil Roost, Durham County. (3) Care- 
taker's collage at Qitail Roost. Durham County. (4) Fish pool at Mount Mitchell Game Refuge. Milchell County. (5) Slone house at 
Mount Mitchell Game Refuge, Mitchell County. (6) Rearing pools at the Cumberland County fish hatchery. 



Emergency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 23l 

Conservation of Fish and Game : State Oyster Planting 

(B. 1 6) 

Under project No. loo-B 16-2, considerable work has been done to the game refuge in Yan- 
cey County. A fish hatchery has been constructed, rearing ponds buik,and game pens and deer 
corrals have been erected on a seventeen thousand acre tract set aside by the Department of Con- 
ser\ation and De\-elopment as a game refuge. 

This fish hatchery will serxe as a supply for stocking streams of a number of the mountain coun- 
ties. On this project thirty men worked 18,922 man-hours. 

At Fayetteville, in Cumberland County, under project No. 26-Bi6-i,a number offish rear- 
ing pools, 50 by approximately 170 feet long, have been constructed. This is one of the most 
important units of the Department of Conservation and Development and numbers of trout and 
bass are being bred in these pools to stock streams and lakes in the eastern part of the state. 

Other work done on this project includes improvements to the existing buildings and erection 
of brooder houses for the propagation of quail and other upland game birds. 

Average number of men worked, 73. 

Number of man-hours expended, 39,400. 

Among the most important conservation projects carried on are the oyster planting projects 
along the coast of North Carolina. In Hyde County much of this work has been done under proj- 
ect No. 48-B16-3, where 91,084 bushels were planted at an average cost of approximately So. 07 
per bushel. This county is so situated that the people depend entirely on agriculture and fishing 
activities for their livelihood, and the oyster industry is probably the main fish industry in this section. 

About ten years ago, oysters of the best quality were in abundance in the waters surrounding 
Hyde County, but due to storms shifting the bottom sands, the supply has become greatly depleted. 
The existing beds have, however, sufficient number of oysters available to plant all the desirable 
bed locations in this section. 

The planting of oysters is quite similar to ordinary planting carried on in agriculture. The 
oyster beds often become too thick for proper development and must be thinned out. The thinning 
provides seed oysters for cultixation and even oyster shells will serve to start a bed. Before any 
locations are selected for planting oysters, the proposed areas are carefully analyzed and only those 
best suited for oyster culture are used. These oyster planting projects, besides adding greatly to 
the future resources in the coastal regions, provide the only type of work which the fishermen on 
the relief rolls are best qualified to carry on. An average of about fifteen men have been employed 
for 26,240 hours in carrying on this work. 

Summary 

Fish hatcheries constructed, 3 ; improved, 4 ; repaired, i . 

Fish ponds constructed, 1 1 ; improved, 3 ; repaired, none. 

Approximate annual yield of 1-2, 251,000 fish, 1,200 terrapin. 

Game preserves constructed, i ; improved, i ; repaired, none. Total acreage, i. 

Other fish and game conser\ation projects constructed, 4 ; improved, i ; repaired, i. 

Number of harbors constructed, 7 ; improved, none; repaired, none. 

Other waterway and flood control projects constructed, 2 ; impro\ed, none ; repaired, none. 

Wells dug, 202. 

Lakes constructed, 9 ; improved, 10 ; repaired, none. 



232 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



c^! ^'!J2 L/'"' "'^1 






r^te'^rSa^i^ w^ifc^ 



(i) Boardwalks built at Wriglilsville Beach, New Hanover County, after the fire. (2) Condition of boardwalks at Wrightsville Beach 
after the fire and before restoration by CWA and ERA. (3) City docks at Morehead City before repairing, Carteret County. (4) The dike 
built at low beach in Currituck County to prevent ocean water from running into Currituck Sound. (5) Currituck County dike under construction. 
Currituck Sound is afresh water sound. (6) City dock at Morehead City after being repaired. Carta et County. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 233 

Waterway and Flood Control Projects Including Water Conservation in Drought 

Areas 

(B. 13, 14) 

The only important projects under these classifications were malaria control projects. No 
streams were cleared or rivers dredged for flood control or transportation or any other purposes 
primarily. Any benefits of this nature were secondary results of projects carried on for malaria 
control. 

The most important bulkhead construction was that on Currituck Beach under ERA proj- 
ect No. 16-B13-1. This bulkhead was constructed on a strip of beach separating the Atlantic 
Ocean from Currituck Sound. Currituck Sound is a fresh water sound and is one of the most 
important winter feeding grounds for wild duck and geese. A storm in the fall several years ago 
almost cut an inlet through from the ocean to the sound and washed out and lowered an area in the 
beach. As a result of this, the sound stood in grave danger of being subjected to an influx of salt water 
which would have turned Currituck Sound from a fresh to a salt water sound and would have de- 
stroyed most of the foods on which the wild duck and geese feed. Not only was this serious from 
the conservation standpoint, but also from an economic standpoint since a great deal of the liveli- 
hood of the natives of this section depends on the patronage of the sportsmen during the hunting 
season. 

The bulkhead, constructed of piling and sand, was built along the beach between two sand 
dunes and so far has successfully served its purpose. This bulkhead, which is about four feet high, 
should be raised to a height of about eight feet. Plans are now under way to accomplish this. 

One of the most important dams built was that built as part of project No. 19-B9-3, con- 
struction of the municipal water works for the town of Siler City, Chatham County. This con- 
crete dam was extremely diflficult to construct because bed rock for the foundation was far below 
the surface. However, a solid foundation was finally secured and its construction of reinforced 
concrete is one of the finest pieces of concrete work accomplished by the Emergency Relief Admin- 
istration. 

Average number of men worked, 47. 

Number of man-hours expended, 31,560. 

Under project No. 41B-B11-10 for the Greensboro-Guilford County Recreational Park, a 
series of three lakes has been constructed. The first of these lakes is used partly for boating and 
partly for bathing, and the necessary sanitary arrangements have been made to meet the health 
requirements. A sand beach has also been constructed to provide adequate bathing space. The 
other two lakes are used for fishing and boating. The three lakes together form the most important 
features of this large recreational area and have been much patronized by the people of this vicinity. 

Average number of men worked, 38. 

Number of man-hours expended, 48,087. 

One of the most important pieces of work under this heading was that done for Elizabeth 
City under project No. 70-B9-11 as a part of the Municipal Water Plant property. Prior to the 
completion of this project and due to the closeness to sea level of Elizabeth City, the water supply 
was extremely unpleasant in taste and odor, and at times could scarcely be used for drinking pur- 
poses. The water contained substances which caused pipe and plumbing fixtures to rapidly de- 
teriorate. Under this project an auxiliary shallow-well water supply has been developed. One 
hundred and twenty-five of these wells varying in depth from twenty to eighty feet have been sunk 
over a field of 125 acres, located 2^ miles from the city. The pumping station in the center of 
the field brings the water from these wells through the watermain to the filtration plant and supplies 



234 



Emergency Relief in jSTorth Carolina 





(i) Pump house and shallow wells built at Elizabeth City to furnish city water. (2) Spillway repaired in Franklin County. (3) Rural 
Electrification line, Wilson County. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 235 

the people with about thirteen milHon gallons of water per month. This project employed an aver- 
age of about 70 men for 20,000 man-hours. 

The photograph on page 234 shows the central pumping station which draws water from 125 
shallow wells. These wells were jetted down over the well field, an area of 95 acres. The construc- 
tion of this project consisted of laying underground 13,828 feet of 6- to lo-inch cast iron pipe; 
13,825 feet of 2- to 4-inch pipe, and building a brick pump house. The total cost of this project 
was approximately $33,000.00. 

Summary 

Miles of levees constructed, none; improved, .20; repaired, none. 

Miles of riprap wall constructed, 2.58 ; improved, none; repaired, none. 

Miles of retaining wall constructed, 3.06 ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 

Stone wall constructed i mile about University of North Carolina. 

Miles of streams cleared, 279.76. 

Miles of rivers dredged, 23.60. 

Number of bulkheads constructed, i ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 

Number of dams constructed, 12 ; improved, i ; repaired, i. 

Cubic yards of concrete in dams constructed, 965 ; improved, none ; repaired, none. 

Landscaping, Grading, Erosion Control 

(B. 15) 

One of the most important projects in this classification is the general development of 
Greenfield Park at Wilmington, undertaken under project No. 65-B15-53. This park offers recrea- 
tional facilities to thousands of people and is among the outstanding park developments in Eastern 
North Carolina. One of the most pleasing features of the setting is the picture that the combina- 
tion of water and cypress trees makes. 

One of the first things done under this project was the draining of four feet of water from the 
lake so that the tree stumps could be removed or cut to the level to provide sufficient clearance 
for boating. Over 3,000 trees and shrubs have been planted in the park to date. Two small 
islands have been built in the lake and several small wooden bridges have been constructed. 

This project has attracted state-wide attention and people from many parts of the state visit the 
park in order to enjoy the beauties natural to this section of the state. 

Many azaleas, magnolias and other plants of a like nature have been planted. 

From the standpoint of relief labor, this has been a very valuable project since it required chiefly 
common labor and to date has employed an average of 221 men who have worked 132,271 hours. 

Most of the tree and shrub planting and landscaping has been done as part of the general de- 
velopment of park areas, playgrounds and school grounds. 

Of these projects one of the most interesting was the grading and landscaping of a small area 
in the heart of High Point, done under project No. 41C-B15-5. This little park, which is built 
right on the main street of town, affords a breathing space and a resting place for pedestrians. 
Located as it is amid office and business buildings, the foilage and the small pool make it a most 
pleasing oasis. It is an excellent example of what can be done to improve the barrenness of the 
average city. 

Average number of men employed, 12. 
Number of man-hours expended, 799. 



236 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 




(ia) Wilkinson Boulevard, Mecklenburg County, before improvements. (ib) Wilkinson Boulevard, Mecklenburg County, before improve- 
ments. (2) Honeysuckle planted on fill. Roadside improvement project, Durham County. (3) Cut planted to laurel and rhododendron. 
Roadside improvement project. Buncombe County. (4) Wilkinson Boulevard after grading and planting, Mecklenburg County. (5) Wil- 
kinson Boulevard after grading and planting, Mecklenburg County. (6) Roadside improvement, Durham County. 



Emeegbnct Eelief in N'obth Carolina 237 

Perhaps the most important landscape improvement project was that done on the grounds of 
the State Capitol building, which is itself an architectural gem built over one hundred years ago. 
The Capitol had as its setting, concrete walks which cut up the square into a number of nondescript 
areas. An excellent set of plans had been prepared a few years ago for the proper treatment of 
the Capitol grounds, but the State had had no available money for carrying on the work until the 
advent of the Civil Works Administration. Most of the work, however, was done under project 
No. S92B-B15-34 which was transferred to the Emergency Relief Administration from the Civil 
Works Administration. Walks were built from materials in harmony with the building. All lawn 
areas were reseeded and grounds planted in accordance with the well designed planting plan. 
Included in the development were several areas so designed that statues could be properly featured. 
The entire project, now that it is complete, provides a perfect setting for the State Capitol Building 
and also serves as a small park. 

Average number of men worked, 35. 
Number of man-hours expended, 34,723. 

For the past several years, much interest has been manifested in highway beautification, or 
as it is more properly called, road side improvement. Most of this interest and enthusiasm has 
expressed itself in the planting of nursery stock or material which does not fit the site. Prior to 
the Civil Works Administration, the Emergency Relief Administration undertook in several differ- 
ent areas road side improvement projects to serve as examples of proper treatment of highway and 
road sides. The most important of these projects were projects No. 60-B2-48 in Mecklenburg 
County and No. 36-B15-11 in Gaston County, which were begun in May, 1933, carried on under 
CWA and completed under the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration. These projects 
in Mecklenburg and Gaston counties are on a twenty-mile length of road known as the Wilkinson 
Boulevard. This highway, with four lanes of traffic, presented about the best opportunity for this 
type of work. Much preliminary construction, especially grading and gutter work, had to be done 
before any planting could be started. The existing cuts and fills had been left at a one to one, or 
steeper, slope, and in the course of the years had become badly eroded. These banks were graded 
by hand to a two to one or better slope. The dirt removed from the cuts was used in the fills. 
Thousands of cubic yards of dirt have been moved on this project to properly prepare the road side 
for planting. After the grading had been completed, planting was begun and the selection of plant 
material has been confined mainly to native plants indigenous to that area. Great care was exer- 
cised in selecting this plant material so that plants whose ordinary habitat is in dry sunny areas 
were used in such areas and plants whose natural habitat is moist, shady areas were used on this 
highway in similar situations. The object, as should be the case in most work of this type, has 
been to tie in the paved portion of the highway to the existing topography and vegetation by means 
of proper grading and proper use of plant materials. 

Road side improvement projects, provided they can be properly done under the supervision of 
a competent landscape architect, are projects that fit in particularly well in any work relief program 
since they require a maximum of unskilled labor and a minimum of materials. 

Gaston County — Average number of men worked, iii. 
Mecklenburg County — Average number of men worked, 68. 
Gaston County — Number of man-hours expended, 156,294. 
Mecklenburg County — Number of man-hours expended, 83,631. 



238 



Emergency Relief in ^N^orth Carolina 




'^v 




(i) Raleigh Municipal Airport. Field runways built under CWA and ERA. (2) Airport hangar built at Rocky Mount Municipal 
Airport. 



Emergency Relief in N^oeth Carolina 239 

Summary 
Number of trees planted, 53,351. 
Number of shrubs planted, 22,931. 
Acres of ground landscaped, new construction, 612.45; old construction, 207; impro\'ed, 

726.50; repaired, 12. 
Miles of highway beautified, new construction, 11 ; old construction, 133.70; improved, 29; 

repaired, 10. 
Number of erosion control projects, new construction, i ; old construction, none ; impro\'ed, 

none ; repaired, none. 
Square miles protected, none. 
Acres plough-listed in drought area, none. 
Acres of terracing, 58.50. 

Cubic yards of earth moved in grading projects under this heading, 3,000,000. 
Number of other projects, 15. 

Eradication and Control of Pests and Disease Bearers 
(B. 17, 18, 19) 

Most of the projects carried on under this classification were projects for malaria control with 
the exception of a few projects carried on in a few of the coastal areas for the elimination of pestif- 
erous mosquitoes. A considerable amount of this was done under ERA in Dare County and 
consisted of drainage and elimination of mosquitoes. Owing to the flatness of the land it was neces- 
sary that the engineering work be very precise in order to conserve the grade. Drainage projects 
in Dare County : 28-B17-35 ; -36 ; -37 ; -38 ; -39 ; -40 ; -51 ; 59 ; and -40. 

Ax'crage number of men worked, 104. 

Number of man-hours expended, 20,716. 

Under project No. 48-B17-2, considerable work for the control of pestiferous mosquitoes was 
done in Hyde County at Ocracoke, a summer resort on the banks of North Carolina. Prior to the 
completion of this work, the chief objection to this area was mosquitoes, both malarial and pestif- 
erous. Visitors, as well as natives, were greatly annoyed by the countless numbers of these mos- 
quitoes, and the health of many people was impaired. 

Mosquitoes bred in the scores of ponds that dotted the island, and a system of ditches connecting 
the ponds with outlets to the sound was begun. It was soon found, however, that the motion and 
the waves in the sound, at the mouths of the ditches, caused the ditches to nearly fill up at the 
mouths. In order to overcome this, wooden spouts were built at the outlets, and the mouths of the 
ditches were walled on sides and bottom with two-inch lumber. The floors at the end of the spout 
nearest the sound were elevated so that sand would not be washed by waves into the mouths of the 
spouts. 

About eighteen miles of ditches and drains have been cut, and the mosquito problem has been 
greatly reduced. 

Average number of men worked, 18. 

Number of man-hours expended, 17,977. 

Number of other pest and disease bearer eradication projects, 461. 

Other Projects on Public Property 
(B. 20) 

The finest airport constructed, in fact one of the finest airports in the entire Southeast, is 
the Raleigh Airport begun under the CWA and completed under the ERA as project No. 92B- 



240 Emeegenct Relief in North Carolina 

B20-38. Most of the materials used were those transferred from CWA and the total project involved 
moving 286,000 cubic yards of earth, six thousand cubic yards of rock, surfacing almost two miles 
of runways 100 feet wide, construction of apron and taxi strips to the hangars and a drainage system 
for the field. The runways were 500 feet in width and approximately 3,000 feet long with a paved 
center portion 100 feet wide and the maximum grades were held within the standards of the Depart- 
ment of Commerce. 

Approximately 75 men worked 53,626 hours in completing this project. 

Under project No. 34B-B15-9, 34-B15-60, the Miller Municipal Airport, located just north of 
Winston-Salem has been completed. This project also was transferred from CWA. Before the 
project was approved, this airport consisted of only about fifty acres of poorly graded and badly 
drained land. Grades ran as high as six per cent and in many places the surface was very rough. 
Under this project, approximately 250,000 yards of common earth and rock have been excavated, 
30,000 square yards of pa\ing laid, and the entire field including the banks has been widened. 
The hangars and offices have been repaired and remodeled and appropriate airway signs made. 
An entirely new lighting system furnished by the local authorities has been installed. As a result 
of this work, Winston-Salem now has modern airport facilities. The flying surface has been in- 
creased from less than fifty acres to seventy acres. Grades have been reduced from five and six 
per cent to a maximum of two to three per cent. As a result of this project, the field has secured 
routing on the Eastern Airway Passenger Ser\ice route. 

Average number of men worked, 91. 

Number of hours expended, 145,755. 

Camp Glenn, at Morehead City, Carteret County, one of the encampments for the National 
Guard, has been greatly impro\ed under project Nos. S16-B7-26, S16-B10-27, S16-B11-28 and S16- 
B8-29. Repairs were made to the building, water system and sewer system, and additional recrea- 
tional facilities were provided. 

Average number of men worked, 23. 

Number of man-hours expended, 3,196. 

Summary 

Airports constructed, 7 ; improved, 3 ; repaired, i. 

Number of airport buildings constructed, i ; improved, 2 ; repaired, i. 

Emergency landing fields constructed, none ; improved, i ; repaired, none. 

State, county, and city poor, etc., farms constructed, 2 ; improved, 38 ; repaired, 28. 

State, county, and city poor, etc., acreage constructed, none; improved, 43 ; repaired, 40. 

Military and na\al reser\'ations, etc., constructed, none; improved, none; repaired, i. 

Acreage improved, 4,000. 

All other public property projects, 4. 

Projects to Provide Housing 

(C. 1,2,3,4,5) 

A number of the houses repaired and remodeled in lieu of rent were worked on for Rural 
Rehabilitation cases. Wilmington, however, has a project No. 65-C1-67 approved for repairing 
houses in lieu of rent for relief cases. This project will, it is believed, solve a difficult housing prob- 
lem that has faced the New Hanover County ERA. The property owners agreed to let the 
Emergency Relief Administration have houses rent free for the repairs that would be done on them. 
In no case have repairs been done that will exceed one year's rental value, except in some instances 
where one house was repaired and two or more houses given rent free. 



Emergency Belief in ISTorth Carolina 241 

To date an average of nine men have spent 8i8 hours in doing this work. 

One of the most interesting projects for building houses for Resettlement families is that car- 
ried on under project No. 89-C2-47 and project No. 89-C2-61. Tyrrell County gave to the 
Rural Rehabilitation Corporation 10,000 acres of land for a farm development. To this land, 
which is bounded by Lake Phelps, have been added 1,400 acres purchased by the Rural Rehabilitation 
Corporation. Under this project, 23 new houses have been built and 20 old houses repaired, housing 
43 families from four counties. 

Average number of men worked, 81. 

Number of man-hours expended, 13,699. 

Under project No. 34-C1-45, a county-wide project for repairing farm and home buildings for 
Rural Rehabilitation clients in Forsyth County, much work has been done. In one place a two- 
story dwelling constructed of logs with a one-story "L" used for kitchen and dining room had fallen 
into a bad state of disrepair. The building had to be reroofed and the entire outside weather- 
boarded. The horse and feed barns, which were unsafe, were demolished and rebuilt, using as much 
of the salvaged material as possible. Two tobacco barns which were in a very bad condition 
were demolished and rebuilt. 

Much work of this sort that has been undertaken for the Rural Rehabilitation Program under 
the Emergency Relief Administration will be successful. 

Average number of men worked, 11. 

Number of man-hours expended, 2,082. 

Summary 

Number sewing rooms in operation, 279. 
Number women employed in sewing rooms, 6,285. 
Number garments made, 638,596. 
New garments, 632,383. 
Renovated, 6,213. 
Types : 

Pajamas, caps, boys' suits, mens underwear, kimonos, aprons, coats, blouses, handkerchiefs, 
dresses (all sizes), shirts (all sizes), overalls (all sizes), slips, bloomers, gowns, pants, sacks, diapers, 
layettes, cannery uniforms, caps for cannery uniforms, masks, hats, hose, shoes. 

Making of Clothes 
(D. I) 

Practically all of the sewing rooms carried on as ERA projects in North Carolina produced 
garments of several types. None of the most important projects were confined to the production 
of one particular class of garments. Thousands of articles of clothing have been produced in 
North Carolina under the sewing room projects, garments sorely needed by relief clients. These 
sewing room projects have also been used as training centers for teaching women on relief the art 
of making clothing. 

In Gaston County, for instance, eight sewing rooms have been operated. The value of the 
sewing rooms in Gaston County can be seen from the following statistics : 

The number of women who have learned to sew, 42. 

The number of women who have learned to cut garments, 40. 

The number of women who have improved their sewing, 137. 

The number of women who developed special skill in sewing, 30. 

The number of women who have made no improvement, 5. 

16 



242 Emehgexct Belief in N^orth Cakolina 

From Mecklenburg County comes a photograph of a child's dress with these comments. "The 
garment presented in this photograph may not be a thing of beauty but in the heart of the Negro 
mother who fashioned it there was a pride never before known in all her life. The dress made for 
a Mecklenburg County pickaninny is a bit of Easter finery that will rate, for the child who wears it, 
with the best worn in America. The reason is plain, it is the first garment ever made for this child 
by her own mother. 

Fashioned as it is from a burlap and a sugar sack, the dress represents a minimum of cost, just 
the thread, a bit of ingenuity and patience. ' ' ■' ■ ' ' 

The Negro woman who made this garment never sewed a stitch before coming to the sewing 
room. She didn't even know how to thread a needle. Now she is learning to sew, to mend gar- 
ments for her husband and children, and to do many other things that the average man and woman 
"accepts as a matter of course." 

In these Mecklenburg County projects the women who are skilled seamstresses have been used 
to instruct the less skillful women. 

Many employable relief women ha\e been afforded work opportunities on projects for the pro- 
duction of clothing, and there is for almost every project some sort of a story of the benefits derived 
by the workers. 

In High Point a project. No. 41 C-D 1-34, under which the sewing rooms were operated, started 
with one sewing room employing 10 people. From this, however, developed a project employing 
305 people in four sewing rooms. In these sewing rooms all sorts of wearing apparel have been made. 
One real result has been accomplished : The workers have been taught pride in personal appear- 
ance. While the sewing rooms are in operation, talks on personal hygiene have been made and the 
care of children has been discussed at length. One woman who has been employed on this project 
could not hem a towel when she first began work but since that time has learned to make all sorts 
of garments. She has taken such an interest in sewing that she has purchased her own sewing 
machine. 

Number of man-hours expended, 104,515. 

In Duplin County under project No. 31-D1-3, sewing rooms have been operated which have 
provided more real good than any other project of a similar character within the County. In 
Duplin County there are a large number of families, both white and colored, who are unable for 
lack of experience to make clothing for their families. The operation of the sewing rooms under 
capable supervision has provided work for women workers. An average of 55 persons has been 
used on this project, expending a total of 28,511 man-hours. 

In many localities sewing rooms have gone far towards solving the Women's Works Division 
project problem. The articles produced are always badly needed. In those sections in which 
there are large numbers of families ha\ing no male employables, sewing rooms have been extremely 
helpful. 

Summary 

Number of houses repaired and remodeled in lieu of rent, 114. 
Number of houses built for resettlement families, 150. 
Number of houses built for subsistence homesteads, 7. 
Number of houses demolished, 29. 
Number of other housing projects (Specify), i. 



Emergency Eelief in North Carolina 243 

Canning and Preserving of Food 

(D. 2) 

Projects for the canning and preserving of food have been in every way as important as projects 
for the production of clothing. Under these projects much food has been produced for reHef 
clients. The educational value of such projects is tremendous, not only in teaching relief clients 
how to can and preserve foods but also in promoting better household management on the part of 
the relief clients. 

In Gaston County the Gaston County Local Emergency Relief Administration launched its 
canning program on July 5, 1934, in conjunction with the individual garden activities. The aim 
of the program was to have every relief family in the entire county can for winter use as many 
quarts of food as possible and as nearly as possible meet the standards of fruit and vegetable canning 
as set up by the State College Extension Department. The purpose of the project was therefore 
twofold : First, to teach families to save for their own use surplus food produced in the gardens or 
secured in other ways ; and secondly, to can as many quarts of food as possible. 

Facilities for canning demonstrations were set up in 25 white and 6 colored centers, and were 
used by relief women from 33 white and 7 colored communities. In August at the height of the 
canning season, 39 canning leaders were employed, 22 of these being relief clients. Each center 
was in charge of a canning leader and helpers were employed in some of these instruction centers. 

Relief clients were required to be present at the center for a canning lesson at least once each 
week. Incidentally many men attended. Any products brought by the clients were used in dem- 
onstration and any woman who wished to bring foods to the cannery was permitted to can it there 
under the leader's supervision. 

It was part of the duty of the canning leaders to periodically visit the homes of the relief clients 
to supervise the home canning. Prizes were given in each community as an incentive to promote 
quality and quantity. These prizes were donated by merchants in the county. The canning 
program was extremely valuable in teaching relief clients to be economical and to properly pre- 
serve foods. Many relief women had never learned to can and preserve foods. 

Aside from the actual canning of food, there is a social factor not to be overlooked. Association 
with others, chatting and talking together, not only made otherwise idle hours enjoyable but brought 
a stimulus to the ofttimes monotonous job of homemaking. This project is typical of those projects 
under which home canning and canning center work was carried on. 

In Chadbourn, Columbus County, under project No. 24-D2-59, a cannery built with ERA 
labor was operated. This cannery was put into operation May 23, 1935, and was still in almost 
continuous operation through the summer of 1935. Vegetables and fruits were canned on a fifty- 
fifty basis between the ERA and local families. 

In this section during the past four or five years, the latter part of the strawberry season has 
found the market flooded. This cannery provides an opportunity for the farmers to have their 
surplus strawberries canned on a half-and-half basis and helps to keep the market from being flooded. 

Aside from the economic value to the community, the cannery has been most important as a 
training school to women on relief rolls, teaching them better methods of canning and preserving 
foods as well as habits of personal cleanliness in handling foods. It is felt locally that the practical 
demonstration of the value of cooperation, tolerance and the dignity of labor has been very helpful. 
Remarkable changes in personal appearance and social expressions have taken place among the 
relief clients. 

Average number employed, 89. 

Number of man-hours expended, 13,847. 



244 



Emergency Relief in !N'oeth Carolina 



^ ^. 'IMIi 




(i) Distributing homemade molasses, Iredell County. (2) Shelling and sacking peas, Mecklenburg County. (3) Threshing and sacking 

wheal, Mecklenburg County. (4) Squeezing juice from sugar cane for making syrup. Craven County. (5) Making syrup, Craven County. 

(6) ERA Community Cannery, Durham County. (7) Interior Community Cannery, Durham County . (8) Potato f eld, community garden, 
Goldsboro, Wayne County. (9) Filling orders at commodity storeroom, Wilmington, New Hanover County. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 245 

By far the largest project of meat canning projects was carried on under the Cattle Program 
which handled the western cattle. One of the largest canneries established was that in Greensboro, 
operated under project No. 41B-D2-57. In this cannery, as in all the other meat canneries estab- 
lished under the Cattle Program in North Carolina, the highest sanitary standards were maintained. 
All employees underwent a physical examination before being put on the project. Special uni- 
forms were made in the sewing rooms for use in the meat canning plants, and nurses were on duty 
at all times to care for accidents and to see that the proper sanitary standards were maintained. 
The Greensboro plant provided employment for many men and women, especially men in the 
non-manual class. Soup stock, chop meat, hamburger and other forms of beef were canned. 
Night and day shifts were employed in this cannery as in all others due to the tremendous pressure 
brought to dispose of the cattle. 

Average number of persons employed, 650. 

Number of man-hours expended, 300,000. 

In Winston-Salem under project No. 34B-D2-44-C, several hundred barrels of sauerkraut were 
produced. In Watauga County and other counties adjacent to Winston-Salem, there was a surplus 
of cabbage, much of which would ha\'e gone to waste. This was purchased by the North Carolina 
Emergency Relief Administration at a very low price and sent to Winston-Salem where it was 
converted into kraut, which was distributed to relief clients in thirty counties. 

Average number of persons employed, 30. 

Number of man-hours expended, 21,311. 

- Summary 

Number of women employed, 3,084. 

Number of canning centers, 579. 

Number of other food preservation centers, 971. 

Number of cans of meat, 6,431,972. 

Number of cans of vegetables, 4,691,609. 

Number of cans of fruit, 1,187,001. 

Pounds of other foods preserved (dehydrating, etc.), 459,480. 

Garden Projects 

(D. 3) 

Garden projects carried on in North Carolina fall generally into two classes. They were oper- 
ated either as individual gardens or as community gardens. Individual gardens are those gardens 
which a relief client works for himself with his own labor. Supervision, seed, and fertilizer for indi- 
vidual gardens were furnished by the Emergency Relief Administration generally as part of the 
client's budget. 

Community gardens are those gardens operated on a large scale in which all necessary seed and 
materials and labor from the relief rolls were paid with relief funds. The produce in this case was 
property of the Emergency Relief Administration, to be distributed. 

During the season of 1935, the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration established a 
pohcy of operating community gardens only in those urban areas where land was not available for 
individual gardens. This policy was adopted because it was felt that in most instances better re- 
sults, both physical and social, would be obtained by operating individual gardens. The 1934 
Community Garden in Asheville operated under project No. 11B-D4-34 offers an excellent ex- 
ample of the results obtained from community gardens. For this project the city of Asheville 



246 



Emergency Relief iisr North Carolina 




(i) Hauling and stacking wood for relief clients. (2) Loading wood for delivery to relief clients. (3) Hauling wood from drainage 
project to wood yard. (4) Unloading wood to be cut into fuel lengths. 



Emergency Relief in N^oeth Carolina 247 

donated the use of 104 acres of land. Although some of this land had not been worked for fifteen 
years and none of it for three, excellent results were obtained. The cost of the project from the 
time work was started May i, 1934, until November i, 1934, was : 

Labor, total 30,3393/2 man-hours $9,289.25 

Material (including fertilizer) 1,264.23 

Equipment and other costs 950.00 



Total cost $11, 503. 48 

From this Garden the following was harvested : 

Apples, bushels 140 Spinach, bushels 150 

Green Beans, bushels 2,132 Cabbage Plants 150,000 

Green Corn (Roasting Ears), dozen. . . . 1 1,000 Tomato Plants 25,000 

Hard Corn, bushels 500 Cabbage, tons 40 

Carrots, bushels 86 Irish Potatoes, bushels i;500 

Okra, bushels 150 Rutabaga Turnips, bushels 500 

Tomatoes, bushels 350 White Turnips, bushels 400 

Greens, bushels 2,050 Sorghum Syrup, gallons 250 

Feed, tons 20 

From the above, a total of 61,31^6 quart cans of vegetables, soup, etc., and 900 gallon cans of 
kraut were put in the Relief Administration Cannery for winter distribution. In addition, 51/^ 
bushels of beans and okra were dried. The remainder of the produce was distributed fresh through 
the commodity building as a Relief Commodity, with the exception of the feed (roughage) and the 
hard corn which was used to feed the horses. 

Figured at the wholesale price of each of the above commodities at the time it was gathered, 
the total value of everything produced in this garden amounts to $11,644.25. 

In \'iew of the fact that so much of the labor cost on this project was for clearing the land, and 
that the equipment had to be bought, this Garden Project has been an exceptional success. 

For Individual Garden purposes the city of Charlotte was divided in 2 1 districts in which were 
817 Individual Gardens. One Supervisor and six walking Garden Inspectors visited these gardens 
to advise concerning the planting and cultivation of the gardens. One of the results of the Indi- 
vidual Garden projects is that the clients were taught to grow at least a part of their vegetables, thus 
providing themselves with necessary items of diet at little cost. 

Production of Fuel 

(D.4) 

Production of Fuel — ^About the only type of fuel produced by North Carolina Emergency Re- 
lief Administration projects is wood. In many of the larger urban areas, wood yards were 
operated continuously since the days of RFC grants. In most cases the standing timber has 
been donated and relief labor and equipment used to fell and saw the timber. 

In Davie County under project No. 30-D3-15, the county has furnished part of the trucks on 
a cooperative basis. As a result of this project 14 acres of ground were cleared and grubbed pro- 
viding acreage for ERA clients for two years. 

Average number of men employed, 12. 

Number of man-hours expended, 8,353. 



248 Emergency Relief in North Carolina 

One of the largest wood yards operated was that operated in Raleigh under project No. 92B-D4-87. 
The wood produced under this project has given relief clients assistance which prevented much 
suffering during the winter months. One general foreman, four to six truck drivers and thirty 
laborers were used each day sawing, splitting and delivering wood. 

Number of man-hours expended, 12,443^^. 

Summary 

Cords of wood cut, 25,354. 
Cubic yards of peat cut, none. 
Tons of coal mined, none. 
Tons of other fuel produced, none. 

Production of Household Goods 

(D.5) 

Such items as pillow cases, toweling and sheeting were made under the sewing room projects. 
Separate projects were set up for making mattresses from materials sent by the Surplus Commodity 
Division. 

In High Point under project No. 41C-D5-38, a mattress factory was opened with but one 
mattress maker in the entire personnel. This was a Negro who had received his training in a local 
mattress factory. A supervisor who had been trained at the Textile Institute in Raleigh used this 
man as a nucleus around which to build the entire force. Production on this project developed 
from one mattress on the first day to as high as twenty-five in one day. A steady improvement 
in the quality of work was made as time went on. From September 6, 1934, until January i, 
1935, 926 mattresses were made. Very few of the people employed on this project had ever been 
regularly employed and formed at the outset a disorganized group. They gradually, however, 
developed into good workers. 

Average number of persons employed, 57. 

Number of man-hours expended, 13,615}-^. 

Summary 

Number of brooms, mops, etc. made, 23. 
Number of pillow cases made, 97,255. 
Yards of toweling made, 189,036. 

Number of towels, 252,973. 
Yards of sheeting made, 127,675. 

Number of sheets, 66,851. 
Number of quilts made, 14,738. 
Number of mattresses made, 28,142. 
Pounds of soap made, 115,772. 
Units of other household goods made, 11,806. 

Production of Construction Materials 
(D. 6) 

Much of the construction material produced under Emergency Relief Administration projects 
is crushed stone. In Catawba County two quarry projects produced good stone at low cost and 



Emergency Relief in N^orth Carolina 249 

provided 11,503 cubic yards of stone which were used on streets and roads. The crushing and 
placing of the stone used about 100 men for fifty thousand hours. 

(D-7) 

In Winston-Salem a project for making first aid kits to be distributed to different projects in the 
state was carried out and a total of 776 kits were made. 

Average number of men employed (No. 34-D7-57), 9. 

Number of man-hours expended (No. 34-D7-57), 751)^. 

In Iredell County under project No. 49-B20-72 the best office furniture produced in the state 
has been made. From March 2, 1935 until July i, 1935, an average of 23 men spent 7,226 
hours in making 155 flat top office desks, 106 typewriter desks, 371 office chairs, 21 book shelves, 
two cabinet stands, two filing stands, six filing carriages, 14 tables, 24 costumers, eight benches and 
one bookkeeping desk. Through this project, twenty-three ERA district administrative offices, 
two field offices and the State ERA office have been partially or wholly supplied with office equip- 
ment. The furniture made under this project is as high in quality as that produced commercially. 

Summary 
Thousands of brick made, none. 
Yards of tile made, none. 
Feet of lumber cut, 136,000. 
Units of other materials produced, sets quilting frames, 40 ; cubic yards stone cut, 14,858. 

Public Welfare Projects 
(E. I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) 

In North Carolina much has been done through the Emergency Relief Administration to 
improve the health of those people who ordinarily, for one reason or another, have had no access 
to medical attention or nursing facilities. In Tyrrell County, for instance, there are over 5,000 
people with only one doctor and one nurse to serve the entire county. Under project No. 89-E1-5, 
an ERA nurse visited the relief homes of the county, giving lectures on sanitation, first aid 
courses, diet and nursing. Her activities probably saved many lives. 

Average number employed, 2. 

Number man-hours expended, 1,597. 

In Scotland County under project No. 83-E1-38, home nurses provided medical attention 
to relief cases. Two nurses paid visits to 76 homes, making daily visits to relief families. 

The school lunch room programs carried on in North Carolina have resulted not only in 
providing at least one adequate meal per school day for under-nourished relief children, but have 
been the means of causing numbers of these people to provide adequate diets in their own homes. 

In Duplin County there are numbers of families whose children are under-nourished due to 
the lack of knowledge of the mothers as to the requirements of growing children, as well as lack of 
funds. The operation of the lunch rooms in this county was the means of providing proper nutri- 
tion to 455 children weekly. Approximately 22 people worked 7,065 hours on this project. 
Teachers reported that the children of relief clients had not only improved physically through the 
provision of school lunches, but had made better grades in their school work and had improved 
their deportment. 

In Gaston County, twenty-seven lunch rooms were operated and from ten to one hundred fifty 
relief children were served hot lunches daily. A large number of these children were taught to 



250 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 





(i) Negro nursery school, New Hanover County. (2) School lunch room for Negro children, Durham County. 



Emergency Eelief in North Carolina 251 

eat vegetables and drink milk, and the children gained an average of nine pounds per child. 
Twenty-seven women worked 11,027 hours on this project (No. 36-E2-26) from October, 1934, 
until May, 1935. 

In Macon County, teachers reported that the hot lunches served to relief clients made an ap- 
preciable difference in attendance and in grades. Many children who had one or more miles 
to walk over mountain trails or muddy roads ordinarily were absent from school on all but the most 
pleasant days, but the teachers said that with a hot lunch in prospect, weather and distance 
seem to make no difference. 

The projects under which public health and home nurses worked in giving the various tests 
and treatments were in cooperation with the county health officers where such organizations ex- 
isted. The most frequent criticism which these officials made was that the Emergency Relief Ad- 
ministration could not carry on more projects of this nature. All the county health officers heartily 
cooperated and felt that the work being carried on was extremely useful and valuable, filling a 
long-felt need. 

In Gastonia, which is a town depending mainly on mills and which, therefore, has a very 
large mill population, public health, public welfare, recreational, and similar projects are unusu- 
ally valuable. For this reason much attention was given to them here as well as in other 
similar localities. In Gastonia (Project No. 36-E4-10) during the past recreational season, 26 
white and four Negro recreational workers have spent 11,416 hours providing recreational facilities 
in seventeen white and three Negro communities. Figures show that the attendance for white 
children was 137,259 and Negro children 1,652; for white adults, 28,974, and Negro adults, 107, a 
total attendance of 167,992. 

Funds subscribed by churches, Sunday schools and various other institutions made it possible 
to carry on many new games and songs, and to teach handicraft and other similar activities. 

Summary 

Number of public health nurses, 79. 

Number of people aided, 49,283. 

Number of home nurses, 222. 

Number of people aided, 14,485. 

Number of home visits, 23,450. 

Number of women employed in school lunch programs, 1,561. 

Number of school lunch programs, 949. 

Number of children fed, average, 75,000. 

Number of other lunch programs, 219. 

Number of people fed, 6,135. 

Number of nutrition lectures and demonstrations, 7,237. 

Number of other public health campaigns, 4. 

(Animal clinic, Nursery school, Orthopedic clinic. Dental clinic.) 
Number of people affected, 4,007. 
Number of Wasserman tests given, 3,824. 
Number of blood examinations made, 988. 
Number of routine medical examinations, 6,830. 
Number of special tests and examinations (Schick, etc.), 3,696. 
Number of children examined, 39,608. 
Physical defects corrected, 1,290. 



252 Emergency Relief in TsToeth Cakolina 

Dental examinations made, 12,391. 
Dental corrections, 10,652. 
Immunizations given, 19,934. 
Clinics operated, 406. 

Number group meetings for health education, 1,873. 
Number health surveys, 619. 
Number of projects for supervising play, etc., 33. 
Number of people affected, 485,996. 
Number of other welfare projects, 3. 

(Nurse and other help, Community clinic.) 
Number visiting housekeepers and aids, 268. 
Number homes visited, 36,374. 
Attendance at Group meetings, 41,758. 

Public Education, Arts, and Research 
(F. 1-8) 

One of the most important Federal Survey projects, No. S-F2-27, carried on was the project 
for the promotion of birth registration in North Carolina. The splendid publicity given this proj- 
ect and the high efficiency of the relief workers on the project made it possible to secure a much 
higher registration of births in North Carolina than it had been believed possible. 

Average number of men worked, 14. 

Number of man-hours expended, 8,441. 

The Federal Housing Administration projects carried on in a number of counties have resulted, 
according to their statistics, in many building activities. 

A state survey. No. S-F2-15, made with the ERA, and having far-reaching potential results, 
was the rural electrification sur\'ey. This survey, carried on in over seventy counties, secured 
valuable information on existing conditions with regard to rural electrification in the areas sur- 
veyed. The potential consumption and many other factors necessary to be known before a rural 
electrification program could be carried on were obtained. As a result of this program there has 
been set up in North Carolina by the state, a Rural Electrification Committee to deal with the 
problem, and on the basis of this survey it will be possible for the committee to determine those 
areas in which it is most feasible to promote rural electrification. 

Child Welfare Survey 

A very important state survey was the Child Welfare Survey carried on under project No. 
S-E6-1 which employed an average of twenty-five men and eighty-six women. This survey was 
sponsored by the American Legion Auxiliary Department and a director was furnished by this 
organization. One hundred thousand veteran cards furnished by the National Child Welfare 
Committee, sixty-five thousand state cards furnished by the Department of Child Welfare Fund of 
the Legion and the Auxiliary, ten thousand cards for the blind furnished by the State School for 
the Blind and ten thousand cards for the deaf furnished by the State School for the Deaf were used. 

The purpose of this survey was to determine the number, the names and addresses of crippled, 
blind, deaf, tubercular, and children ha\ing other physical or mental handicaps. The information 
secured under this survey will be very useful in bringing to the attention of various public-spirited 



Emergency Eelief in IsTobth Cakolina 253 

citizens and organizations the needs of specific cases. For instance, in a certain town the Rotary, 
Civitan and other clubs will be informed of the location and needs of handicapped children in 
order that they may supply funds to help these children. Other organizations, including the Aux- 
iliary Department of the American Legion, will continue to contact and help these children. 

North Carolina, under RFC funds, was one of the first states to use engineers and in- 
strument men on relief for making Coast and Geodetic surveys. Under project No. S18-F2-10, 
Catawba County, this work has been carried on. As is the case of all other projects under this 
category the results have met the strictest standards of the Coast and Geodetic Survey. Extreme 
care has been used to make these surveys precise in all respects. Many monuments have been 
established and much valuable information recorded. 

Average number of men worked, 7. 
Number of man-hours expended, 7,314. 

The most interesting water colors painted were those painted under project No. S92B-F3-7, 
Raleigh, for one of the state departments. These water colors, which are studies of wild plant 
Ufe, rank with the best work of this type. The coloring and the delineation were very accurate. 

Average number of men worked, i. 
Number of man-hours expended, 690. 

The most important project, certainly one causing the most comment, was project No. 
S-92B-F3-8, for painting murals in the State College Library. The murals, which are done in a 
somewhat modern manner, are said by some to be excellent, while others do not agree. Work on 
this project, which was begun on May 31, 1934 and completed on November 29, 1934, took one 
man and one woman 1,270 hours to complete. 

All types of clerical projects have been carried on. Various agencies. Federal, state and 
local, such as the Farm Debt Adjustment Commission, the Federal Seed Loan Commission, the 
Federal Reemployment Office, the Public Works Administration, the Federal Housing Adminis- 
tration and county offices, have been supplied with help. These projects made it possible to carry 
on work that would have otherwise suffered from lack of funds, as well as to provide work relief 
for men and women qualified to do work of this type. 

Typical of these projects is one for re-indexing records in the register of deeds office in Mitchell 
County. Under this project. No. 61-F4-5, three people have worked 3,623 hours. All the records 
in the register of deeds office were indexed. This project, as well as many others like it, resulted 
in increased efficiency and much better system of records for the counties concerned. 

One of the most important safety campaigns carried on under this classification, project 
No. 32-E5-53, was that carried on in the city of Durham under the supervision of the Police Depart- 
ment. Under this project automobiles were driven through a safety line and checked for wheel 
alignment, condition of brakes, condition of head lights and for other mechanical deficiencies. Ap- 
proximately 5,000 automobiles were checked and those found to be deficient were issued cards 
and later checked to see that they had corrected the difficulties. 

Average number of men employed, 13. 
Number of man-hours expended, i,593J4- 

The only symphony orchestra project in North Carolina was the State Symphony Orches- 
tra, operated under project No. S-F5-2. This orchestra, which has received favorable comment 
from local, state and Federal officials, has been the means, not only of providing employment for 
musicians eligible for relief, but in also making it possible for numbers of people to hear symphonic 



254 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 





(i) The North Carolina Symphony Orchestra, one of the outstanding ERA musical projects in the United States. (2) Mint Museum 
built at Charlotte. 



Emergency Eelief in Nohth Carolina 255 

music. All relief cases have been admitted to these concerts without charge. Concerts and pro- 
grams have been presented in Wilmington, Raleigh, Durham, Chapel Hill, Ashe\'ille, Charlotte, 
Greensboro, Winston-Salem and other towns in North Carolina. Recently a one-half hour pro- 
gram was presented by the symphony orchestra over a coast to coast net work of the National 
Broadcasting Company, and many radio programs have been presented through local stations. 

There can be no doubt but that this project has produced an excellent symphony orchestra in 
spite of the many hardships and difficulties under which it has been forced to operate. It is hoped 
that this project will be the means of helping the symphony orchestra to be a self-maintaining organ- 
ization. 

Summary 

Number of teachers, not including any employed in emergency education program, ii6. 

Number of Federal Surveys — list later under main types, 70. 

Number of state and local surveys, 72. 

Number of research projects and surveys other than statistical and sociological, 20. 

Number of traffic surveys, 2. 

Number of watercolors painted, 7. 

Number of oils painted, 3. 

Number of drawings, etchings, etc., 5. 

Number of frescoes, murals, 23. 

Number of statues, none. 

Number of other art projects and units produced, 603. 

Number of clerical projects, 74. 

Number of institutions aided, 102. 

Number of safety campaigns, campaigns for instruction in first aid, etc., 10. 

Number of symphony orchestras, 5. 

Number of dance orchestras, none. 

Number of other orchestras, 3. 

Total size of all audiences, 41,575. 

Number of community sings, etc., 126. 

Number of people particpating, 775. 

Number of other music projects, 3. 

Number of persons participating or effected, 546. 

Community Centers in Operation, 84. 

Number women employed in community centers, 109. 

Number men employed in community centers, 26. 

Number persons served, 60,838. 
• Number of acting companies, 4. 
Number of performances given, 20. 
Total size of audience, 2,000. 
Number of Ubraries aided in all ways, 155. 
Number of library extension services, 9. 
Number of persons served, 153,157. 
Number women employed on library projects, 190. 

Number of books repaired : 
Library books, 2,680. 
School books, 4,690. 
Number of other education, art and research projects, 28. 



256 Emergency Relief in IToeth Carolina 

Number of institutions aided, 14. 

Number of persons affected, 108,442. 

Number of handicraft projects in operation, 7 (does not include handicraft projects in ERA 
education) . 

Types of articles made : 

Baskets, 157. 

Rugs, 486. 

Toys, 1,682. 

Hinges, 235. 

Foot stools, 6. 
Handicraft Classes, 285. 
Number women employed, 41. 
Number persons enrolled, 2,698. 

WOMEN'S WORK DIVISION 

From the beginning of Unemployment Relief Activities in 1932, work was available for women 
in clerical jobs, sewing rooms (in cooperation with the American Red Cross), school lunches, pro- 
motion of relief gardens, canning, cleaning, etc. Although a large number of women was employed 
on these jobs, prior to CWA, records were not kept separating the number of women from the num- 
ber of men on work relief, and no special emphasis was placed on promotion of projects especially 
suitable for women. 

Upon the inauguration of Civil Works, which afforded mainly engineering and construction 
jobs, it was immediately apparent that very few work opportunities would be available for women. 
The large numbers of destitute and employable women who were heads of families, widows with 
children, married women, who were often the only employable member of the family, single women, 
many of whom had dependents, were a grave concern to the relief agencies. Professional and tech- 
nical women, business women, college women who had no particular training for work nor experi- 
ence, and unskilled women were without means of support. 

To deal with this problem, the FERA established the Women's Division as an adjunct of the 
Civil Works Administration. The Director of the Women's Division was charged with the respon- 
sibility of organizing corresponding divisions in the state administrations for the purpose of initiating 
and promoting projects which would provide work suitable for trained and untrained women. 

Women's Division in the State ERA and CWA 
December i, 1933 to March 31, 1934 

The state and local Civil Works Administrations were under terrific pressure to have the entire 
state quotas at work within a month after inception of Civil Works. The quota was practically 
filled when authority was given in early December to create the Women's Division, therefore an 
additional quota was allowed the state in order to provide for employable women. 

The Women's Work Division while directly responsible to the State Administrator has also been 
considered as a branch of the Works Division, and as such has, of course, closely cooperated in seeing 
that projects for the employment of relief women are provided. The Women's Division has helped 
in wage scale adjustments for Women's Work, and has been responsible to Washington for reporting 
the activities concerned with Women's Work and for making other special reports required. 



Emekgency Relief in JSTokth Carolina 257 

The Women's Work Division in North CaroHna has had no volunteer assistance in the state 
office, but the various state and local governmental agencies and departments, such as the state 
Extension Service, the Home Demonstration Agents, public welfare officials, etc., have cooperated 
closely and have been very helpful. Space, equipment, and materials for Women's Work projects 
have been provided in various ways. In some instances, such as projects for indexing county rec- 
ords, all space, equipment, and materials have been provided by the sponsors of the projects. In 
other instances, especially for sewing rooms, space and equipment have been furnished by govern- 
mental units, or some private organization or individuals. For some sewing room projects and proj- 
ects for the production of food, etc., the Emergency Relief Administration has itself furnished a 
large portion of the equipment and materials needed. 

Administraton 

The personnel of the state office of the Women's Division of the Ci\'il Works Administration 
and the Federal Emergency Relief Administration consisted of one State Director of Women's 
Work and two clerical assistants. 

County Directors of Women's Work were appointed by local Civil Works Administrators in con- 
sultation with District Supervisors, and with the approval of the State Civil Works Administrator. 
Forty-three county directors of women's work were employed. 

Work Projects 

Women's work projects were of two types — Civil Works projects and Civil Works Service projects. 
Civil Works projects were those directly connected with construction work, or leading directly or 
indirectly to possible construction work. 

In North Carolina Civil Works projects included clerical help in Civil Works Administrative 
offices. Reemployment offices and other offices connected with construction work, timekeepers, 
construction work (building a wall), highway planting and beautification, landscape gardening on 
parks and school grounds and enumerators on surveys. Civil Works projects were paid from CWA 
funds. 

Civil Works Service projects included projects other than Civil Works projects. Civil Works 
Service projects employing women in North Carolina included : Assistants to Attendance Officers ; 
clerical workers in offices of Aeronautical Adviser, CWA, County Health Departments, County 
Court Officers, Clerks of Court, County Officials, City Officials, City and County Schools, Home 
Demonstration Agents, HOLC, NRA, Registers of Deeds ; school census enumerators ; furniture re- 
pair and toy making for relief families ; janitors to schools and public buildings ; librarians to schools 
and public libraries ; lunch room workers ; laboratory technicians ; nurses in public health, schools, 
hospitals, clinics, and bedside nursing for relief families ; recreation directors ; sewing room workers 
(making mattresses, rugs, quilts and garments for relief families) ; soap makers ; taxidermists ; visiting 
housekeepers ; weeders on municipal golf courses ; and other variations of these types of work. 

Civil Works Service projects were paid from FERA funds on the basis of the following wage 
scale : 

Unskilled : Per Hour 

Practical nurses $0.30 

Lunch room workers .30 

Seamstress .30 

Janitress .30 

Wood cutters (men) .30 

17 



258 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 




(i) Women's project for making quilts, Raleigh, Wake County- (2) Weaving rugs, Durham County. (3) Women's sewing room 
project, Wake County. 



Emergency Relief in N^orth 


Carolina 


Skilled : 


Per Hour 


Visiting housekeepers 


$.35 and .45 


Cutters and pattern makers 


•35 


Professional : 




Nurses 


•45 


Dietitian 


•45 


Supervisory : 




Recreational directors 


•45 and .50 


Supervisor of nurses 


.45 and .50 


Supervisor of sewing rooms 


.35 and .40 


Others : 




Librarian 


•45 


Senior stenographer 


•45 


Junior stenographer 


•35 


Bookkeeper 


•45 


Indexing clerks 


.40 


Clerical 


•30 


Survey canvassers 


•30 


Library assistants 


•30 


Assistant attendance officers 


•35 


Dispensing government commoditi 


es .4s 



259 



The four largest units employing women were sewing rooms, clerical help, lunch rooms and jani- 
torial service. 

Sewing Rooms 

In the sewing rooms, workers rehabilitated old garments and made new materials into garments. 
Materials were used for the making of mattresses, rugs, quilts and wearing apparel for individuals 
and families on relief rolls. 

Women who were employed in the sewing rooms began as semi-skilled or unskilled but later on, 
under skilled supervision, became skilled seamstresses. 

The estimated value of the products made in the sewing rooms in North Carolina was $11 5,000, 
and the estimated number of individuals helped 34,168. 

Clerical 

This includes services to many offices of the state, cities and counties, enabling them to accom- 
plish a much greater volume of work than would otherwise have been the case. In many counties 
records dating as far back as one hundred fifty years have been re-indexed and made available for 
use. 

For the most part women who were put on clerical work were skilled workers. 



Lunch Rooms 

Workers were used to prepare and serve lunches to children of relief families, insuring that these 
children receive one well-balanced and nourishing meal daily. The lunch room workers were 
semi-skilled and unskilled. 



360 



Emergency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 






(i) Making mattresses, Mecklenburg County. (2) Mattresses made in Mecklenburg County. (3) Tying nets, Carteret County. 
(4) Weaving rugs, Mecklenburg County. (5) Repairing household furniture, Mecklenburg County. (6) Building ojjice equipment, 
Mecklenburg County. 



Emergency Relief in ISToeth Carolina 261 

Janitorial 

Many Negro women were numbered in this group. They rendered service in keeping school 
and public buildings clean and orderly. 

Visiting Housekeepers 

Visiting housekeepers, with the cooperation of the County Home Demonstration Agent, in- 
structed housekeepers in various types of home problems. The following subjects were taught : 

Vegetable cookery Making of hooked and braided rugs 

The making of comfortable beds Swedish weaving 

Food essentials Making slip covers for chairs 

Diet for pellagra patients Better home cooking 

The proper laying of a table Preparation of food for the sick 

How to read and write Bread making 

Home nursing First aid 

Quilt making Gardening 

Tie dyeing 

Literature was also given covering many of the above subjects. 

Highway Planting and Beautification 

Among the beautification projects school grounds have been cleaned of underbrush and rocks 
removed. Native shrubs and plants have been planted. Grading of school grounds has been 
accomplished. Workers on school grounds and on highway beautification have developed an in- 
terest in beautifying their own grounds with native shrubs and flowering trees. 

Relative Proportion of Men and Women on Relief Rolls 
Information received from 88 counties, March 28, 1934, concerning the relative proportion of 
men and women on the relief rolls, follows : 

Relief Rolls 

No. Percent No. Percent 

Men who are heads of families 48,906 74.8 Women who are heads of families 16,471 25.2 

Non-family men 3)254 40.8 Non-family women 4j7I9 59-2 

Other men 8,496 23.5 Other women 27,692 76.5 



Total 60,656 Total 48,882 

These figures indicate that about 20 per cent to 30 per cent of total work projects might be suit- 
able percentage of projects planned to take care of needy and unemployed women under the new 
program. 

Number of Women Employed 

Types of Work December January February March 

CWS CWA CWS CWA CWS CWA CWS CWA 

Sewing Room 848 i)544 i>957 1,288 

Clerical 732 302 1,524 115 1,797 183 1,236 145 

Lunch Room 457 571 711 801 

Janitorial 325 469 574 369 

Assistant to Attendance Officer 3 8 



262 



Emergency Eelief in I^orth Carolina 




( i) Completed mattress and rope springs made in Mecklenburg County. (a) Book repair and Library project at Negro College, Durham, 
Durham County. (3) Garment made in Mecklenburg County Sewing Room. (4) Chair making project, Black Mountain, Buncombe County. 
(5) Shoe repair shop, Mecklenburg County. (6) Negro Sewing Room, Raleigh, Wake County. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



263 



Number of ^ 


/VOMEN I 


Employed — Continued 










Types of Work 


December 


January 


February 


March 




CWS 


CWA 


CWS 


CWA 


CWS 


CWA 


CWS 


CWA 


Canning 


I 




I 




I 








Distributing Government commodities 


84 




66 




53 




27 




Enumerators 


28 




40 


152 


66 


172 


49 


65 


Farm Labor and Gardening 


30 




14 




15 








Furniture Repair 






2 












Highway and City Beautification 








10 




20 




I 


Interviewers 


36 




42 




76 




39 




Librarians 


73 




164 




262 




173 




Nurses 


no 




197 




277 




203 




Recreation Directors 


33 




II I 




155 




lOI 




Soap Making 










3 








Taxidermist 


I 




I 




I 




I 




Teachers 


131 




237 




438 




548 




Timekeepers 




I 




4 










Visiting Housekeepers 


10 




28 




25 




18 




Weeding Golf Course 






77 




47 








Christmas Wrapping Station 


13 
















Totals 


2,912 


303 


5,088 


281 


6,461 


375 


4,861 


211 



Grand Total 



3,215 



5,369 



6,836 



5,072 



Women's Activities April i, 1934, to December i, 1935 

At the close of Civil Works, all women's projects were suspended for a few months during the 
reorganization, except lunch rooms and clerical jobs. Relieved of the speed and pressure of Civil 
Works, more careful planning for fitting the job to the worker, as well as a greater variety of jobs, 
was possible. Trained women were provided with work in their specialized fields, such as public 
health and public welfare projects, surveys and research projects for the accumulation of valuable 
social and historical data which could not have been secured otherwise, recreational projects under 
trained directors, increasing playground and recreational facilities for the development of youth, 
educational programs, and varied types of technical and professional service. Providing jobs for 
the college graduates, professional and technically trained women has required ingenuity, but pro- 
viding jobs for the thousands of able-bodied unskilled women, particularly those who could not 
secure health certificates, was a real problem. 

By far, the largest number of women was employed in sewing rooms and mattress making, the 
maximum number being 6,285. Over 638,596 men's, women's, and children's garments, and 
437,900 quilts, sheets, towels, pillow cases, and other household goods were made. The mattresses 
made by women in the work rooms compared favorably with machine-made mattresses; 28,142 
comfortable mattresses were made from the cotton and ticking furnished by the Federal Surplus 
Relief Corporation for distribution among relief families. 

In addition to the women in the meat canneries, over 3,000 women were employed in canning 
5,878,610 quarts of fruits and vegetables, and dehydrating 459,580 pounds of fruit. 

Better standards of living were promoted through the 201 "visiting home makers" who gave 
instructions and advice in 36,374 homes in cooking, furnishings, cleanliness, and in the fundamental 



264 



EMERGEiMCT ReLIEF IN NoRTH CAROLINA 



fc- '<^ 




f1 








(i) Making baskets. New Hope Township, Iredell County. (2) Making axe handles, Mecklenburg County. (3) Finishing a.\e 
handles and bats in Mecklenburg County. (4) Bats and axe handles made in Mecklenburg County. (5) Children's playground equipment 
built in Mecklenburg County. (6) Harrows for use in Rural Rehabilitation program built in Mecklenburg County. 



Emergency Relief in N^obth Cabolina 



265 



comforts of the home. In addition to the individual service in homes, 7,000 meetings, attended 
by 41,758 persons, were held. 

Training classes for domestic servants were held by women experienced in housekeeping. This 
type of work has enabled maids, cooks, butlers, and chauffeurs to secure private jobs at better wages. 

Through the school lunch program, 1,561 women were employed in providing lunches for a 
weekly average of 75,000 school children. 

Public welfare and public heakh projects provided employment for 210 nurses, 126 women 
assisting in heakh work, and many more practical nurses. These projects have aided permanently 
in health promotion and prevention of disease by dispensing general health information, teaching 
midwives under medical direction, bedside nursing, and nursing service in clinics. There were 
23,450 home visits made by nurses ; 39,608 children examined ; and 19,934 immunizations given 
in homes and in clinics. 

There were 190 women employed in 84 community and recreational centers giving service to 
60,838 persons. 

In the handicraft classes, 41 women taught over 3,000 persons to make rugs, baskets, toys, pot- 
tery, and other articles that adorn the home, and which also have a market value. 

In October, a special grant of $40,000 was made to ERA for women on WPA projects, thus 
expediting the transfer of women's projects to WPA. Although working on WPA projects, they 
were paid through ERA. 

The number of women employed by months is given below. 

Women's Work Division 



April I, 


1934, through 


December 31, 


1935 




No. 




No. 


1934 


Women 


1935 


Women 




Employed 




Employed 


April 


925 


January 


7,028 


May 


1,127 


February 


6,357 


June 


2,636 


March 


6,758 


July 


3,661 


April 


7,250 


August 


4,589 


May 


8,145 


September 


4,396 


June 


9,052 


October 


4,748 


July 


9,190 


November 


5,007 


August 


7,886 


December 


6,437 


September 


6,481 






October 


5,255 






November 


759 






December 


366 



(In addition to the above figures, over 2,000 women were employed in the Emergency Relief 
Education Program.) Projects operated by women are included in the Works Division report 
according to classification. 



LABOR RELATIONS AND WAGE SCALES 

In accordance with the orders received from the Washington office, wage rate committees in 
each county, comprised of one member from organized labor, one member from business, and one 
member from the Emergency Relief Administration, were set up to determine wage rates. Wage 
rates set up varied from 15c to 30c an hour for common labor, and from 40c to $1.00 per hour for 



266 Emergency Relief in !N'okth Carolina 

skilled labor. Wage rates had absolutely no effect on budgets since the budgets were set up by 
the Social Ser\ice Di\ision in terms of dollars and cents, and the Works Division had to assign each 
worker for sufficient number of hours to earn this budget at his particular rate. 

Working hours were set at not less than six nor more than eight, in any one day, and not more 
than 30 hours in any one week. In case of extreme emergency, exceptions were made to the above 
hours. 

There were scarcely any strikes under the Emergency Relief Administration program, and for 
this reason strikes were not a source of trouble. In some cases, strikes in private industries increased 
the number of relief clients, but the strikes did not spread among relief clients. Most of the griev- 
ances and complaints were those made because of the small number of hours allotted to workers. 
Since the Works Di\ision has nothing to do with the allotment of hours, grievances and adjustments 
of this nature were handled by the Social Service Di\ision. Unemployment organizations were 
few, what few there were being in the larger industrial areas. 

Relations with labor unions were mainly concerned with wage scales and as a whole have been 
fairly reasonable. 

Labor relations in North Carolina ha\e been comparatively free from friction and unpleasant- 
ness and have never developed into a major problem. All complaints and grievances were promptly 
investigated and discriminations were properly adjusted. This and fair treatment of workers kept 
labor relations on the proper basis. 

Practically all labor problems were handled and adjusted by the State Administrator and the 
general field representatives. Conditions in North Carolina were such that this method worked 
excellently and it ne\er became necessary to establish a labor relations department in the Works 
Division. 

OLD FORT TANNERY 

Establishment of Tannery at Old Fort to Restore 
Stranded Community 

Old Fort, McDowell County, since 1902 had been a leather making town and community. 
The only industries of the town were the Union Tanning Company and the Old Fort Extract Plant, 
which together employed approximately 375 persons. 

In 1 93 1, the large tannery was so badly damaged by fire that the company ceased tanning 
operations, throwing approximately 225 men out of work. The following year the Old Fort Extract 
Plant ceased production, adding 125 more to the unemployed population of the immediate section. 
The closing of these two plants assumed the proportions of major catastrophes, not only to those 
directly invohed but to every member of the community — banker, merchant, laborer and the local 
government. Practically the entire community was prostrated and Old Fort was left with a stranded 
population, people without any means of meeting their normal obligations and with little hope of 
any renewed industrial activities. A discouraged and helpless attitude developed among the people 
throughout the entire community. No cash crops such as tobacco, cotton or wheat are grown in 
the surrounding country and the farmers had depended largely on the sale of bark and chestnut wood 
to the Union Tanning Company which used the vegetable process in tanning. Almost the entire 
population became dependent on ERA for support. 

This situation presented a very serious problem which the ERA endeavored to meet by developing 
a program looking toward permanent employment of persons around Old Fort. 

During the drought cattle program, the 48,000 hides of cattle processed by ERA, salted and placed 
in storage in the state, offered the opportunity to reestablish in Old Fort the industry for which the 
people were trained. 



Emergency Relief in JSTorth Carolina 267 

It was first planned to establish a tannery through the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation for 
processing these hides and a work room for making the finished material into harness for Rural 
Rehabilitation clients' work-stock, and leather garments for relief clients with the view of converting 
these plants into a co6perati\e tannery and leather garment shop owned by the people. 

In February, 1934, after a thorough investigation of all available buildings and building sites, 
the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation purchased a building for $5,000.00, which, with remodeling 
and additions, would provide adequate facilities for the industry. 

Alterations and additions were made by the N. C. ERA Works Division and the plant equipped 
for the manufacture of chrome leathers. 

As hides are a perishable commodity, it was necessary to have the plant ready to begin operations 
before warm weather. Early in May, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration set the deadline 
for starting tanning operations as June i . At this time, the plant consisted of only one main building 
without floor or roof, and not a machine in place. Completed plans had been made for a drying 
room, chemical storage room and supply room but no work had been done. Three shifts of men 
were employed and the work was carried on 24 hours per day, seven days per week. Technical 
specialists and engineers were secured by the State ERA to supervise the work. 

On May 29, three days before the deadline set by FERA, the first hides were put in pickle and 
the tannery started actual operation. The cost to ERA in materials, labor, equipment, and instal- 
lation of equipment was $36,496.23. About the middle of May, two weeks before the plant was 
completed, the second stipulation of the FERA was that all of the 48,000 hides should be converted 
into pickled stock not later than January i, 1936. The plant had not been designed originally to 
handle production even near the figure necessary to meet this stipulation. In order, therefore, to 
pro\'ide a margin of safety to take care of possible shut-downs, breakdowns, etc., and to insure com- 
pletion of the pickling on or before the date set, soaking was started at the rate of 400 hides per day. 
All beam house operations, except fleshing, were done by hand, thus employing a maximum of labor 
all of which was assigned to the project by the McDowell County ERA office in Marion. These 
operations included the trimming of raw hides preparatory to the soaking, the handling daily from 
one lime vat to the next, scraping off the hair on the beam, fleshing, washing, batting and pickling. 
The project employed about 130 men during this period. 

Because of the necessity of breaking in men and the resultant difficulty in handling production 
to meet the schedule, the plant was at first operated on two eight-hour shifts per day. Many of the 
men had had previous tanning experience in the old plant, and although they had never worked in 
a chrome tannery, they formed the nucleus around which the production force was built. 

By August I it was found that one eight-hour shift could maintain production at the necessary 
level and the night crew was changed to a day crew to handle the tanning, coloring and finishing 
operations which follow the pickling. This arrangement allowed practically all the men to continue 
work. By mid-September it was apparent that all stock would be in pickling condition before 
January i, and soaking was reduced to 200 hides per day. The number of labor hours was reduced 
accordingly, the plant employing almost as many men as before but fewer hours being given each. 

When the ERA work program was closed on November 18, an exception was made for the tannery 
to continue work until all hides were pickled and in condition for storage. The last hide was put in 
pickle on November 26, thus meeting the second condition imposed by the FERA more than 30 days 
before the deadline of January 31. 

As indicated above, the first production consideration was the conversion of raw to pickled stock 
in a gi\en time. Little attention was at first given to processing any finished leather. The normal 
capacity of the plant being not more than 150 hides per day, it is obvious that all working space would 
be in use if the production in the beam house was almost normal. 



268 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 





(i) Interior of the ERA Tannery at Old Fort, McDowell County. (2) Exterior of ERA Tannery at Old Fort, McDowell County. 



Emkrgenc\' Relief in North Carolina 269 

Tanning and finishing were started in August and a continuous flow of finished leather came 
through the plant from then on. Since November 26, the entire space has been devoted entirely to 
pickling stock. Production has been at the rate of 150 sides (half hides) of grain garment leather, 
150 sphts (the under side of each hide), and 25 sides of chrome re-tan harness leather per day. The 
plant was closed on January 9, 1936. 

Appraisal of Pickled and Finished Hides 

Value of stock finished hides (estimate) : 

Grain sides 55,897 sq. ft. at 13c $ 7,266.61 

Grain sides 14,184 sq. ft. at 13c 1,843.92 

Split sides 49,994 sq. ft. at 5c 2,499.70 



1 1,610.23 



Value of stock of pickled hides (estimate) : 

Grain sides 77,592 x 125 sq. ft. = 969,900 sq. ft. at 7c $ 67,893.00 

Split sides 62,496 x 5 sq. ft. = 312,480 sq. ft. at 2c 6,249.60 



Pickled hide TOTAL $ 74,142.60 

Value of chemical stock $ 8,303.12 

When the drought cattle were purchased through the Federal Surplus Corporation, the FERA 
agreed that the finished hides would not be sold on the open markets. Due to the discontinuance 
of the Emergency Relief Program, the plans for making these hides into harness for rural rehabilita- 
tion clients and garments for relief clients could not be carried out. At the time this report goes to 
press, plans are under way to transfer the entire project to the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation in 
order that the original plans may be continued. 

The project has served many purposes. It has not only provided employment and trained men 
in jobs which require skill and experience, but it has also been the means of maintaining the self- 
respect and the financial integrity of the whole community. Many have been able to pay their taxes 
and save their homes since this plant has been in operation. The ordinary necessities of life, such as 
food, clothing, and shelter, which had become luxuries, have been adequately provided. It is to 
be hoped that some arrangement can be made to continue the operations of the tannery on which 
the future of Old Fort and the community so largely depends. 

First Aid at Old Fort Tannery 

While the majority of accidents occurring in tanneries result from causes common to all industries, 
there are several hazards that seem to be particular to the leather tanning industry. From the time 
the hides are received until the finished leather is shipped, conditions are encountered which may 
be a source of injury or a menace to the health of workers. Dangerous moving machinery, such as 
paddle wheels, unhairing machines, fleshing machines, splitting machines, roller jacks, etc., are 
used. Then there are the ever present hazards from slippery floors, chemicals, vats, etc. 

With the exception of supervisors, many of those employed at the Old Fort Tannery had never 
had previous experience in this line of work. These men were employed because they needed the 
work, and, during their training period especially, were menaces, from an accident standpoint, to 
themselves as well as their fellow workers. It was obvious, therefore, that a large number of 
accidents, both minor and major, could be expected. The Safety Department gave careful attention 



270 Emergency Relief in North Carolina 

to the guarding of all machinery, belts, etc., but inasmuch as this could prevent at best only a small 
part of the expected injuries, other precautions were necessary. 

Every cut or abrasion received in handling, trimming or splitting hides is very likely to result in 
a serious infection unless prompt and efficient first aid is provided. Considering these facts, the 
Safety Department considered it necessary to operate a very complete First Aid Station at the 
Old Fort Tannery. 

Under the supcr\ision of the Supervisory Nurse for the Safety Department, the Old Fort First 
Aid Station was opened on June i, 1935. A small, but modern building was erected next to the 
tannery building, and two registered nurses were placed in charge, one for each of the two shifts 
worked. This building was divided into two rooms. The front room was used to treat the minor 
cuts and scratches, while the rear room, equipped with toilet facilities, sterilizers, hot and cold 
water, basins, cot, and all necessary first aid material and medicines for relief of minor ailments, was 
used for the treatment of the more serious cases. 

During the time the Old Fort Tannery operated, a total of 94,873 man-hours was reported. 
A total of 520 injuries was treated at the First Aid Station and 683 additional dressings were made. 
It is interesting to note that only three injuries were referred to physicians for treatment. This 
speaks well for the type of first aid rendered at the station. It is also an interesting fact that, although 
injuries received in handling hides are subject to serious infection, not a single day was lost from this 
cause. 

Of the 520 injuries reported, only two resulted in the loss of time beyond the shift on which the 
injury occurred. This gives the tannery a frequency of 21.1, which, considering the existing hazards 
and the fact that employees were not trained in the work they were doing, is indeed an excellent 
record. 

Not only were the nurses engaged in First Aid work, but each employee was carefully studied 
from a health and mental standpoint with relation to the particular work he was engaged in. In 
a number of cases it was found necessary to change the work some employees were doing so they 
would not be a menace, from an injury standpoint, to fellow workers or the indi\'idual himself A 
safety and health card was kept on each employee, and physical defects, if any, noted and carefully 
watched. If an employee had several accidents in a short period of time, an investigation was held 
to ascertain whether or not he could do better and safer work in some other part of the plant. If 
so, an immediate transfer was made. 

It is felt that the small necessary expense of the Old Fort First Aid Station was more than 
justified, as shown from the above record. 

PURCHASING DIVISION 

Following the liquidation of CWA, the Di\ision of Purchasing was placed in the Di\'ision of 
Engineering and Purchasing and later coordinated with the Finance Division. In addition to the 
State Purchasing Agent, the personnel included two Assistant Purchasing Agents and the necessary 
clerks and stenographers. 

All purchases of material, equipment, supplies, and livestock were made according to the usual 
government procedure of purchasing on specifications and bids. The award was made to the lowest 
bidder who proposed to furnish materials in accordance with specifications, and against whom no 
official protest of NRA code violation was registered by the proper code authority. Although 
closely supervised by the State Purchasing Division, purchases were decentralized to a great extent 
by authority given to district administrations to purchase locally. This flexible procedure expedited 
purchasing, and permitted local dealers to bid. 



Emergency Relief in N"orth Carolina 271 

The District Administrator appointed a District Purchasing Agent, or designated one member 
of the staff who was responsible for all purchases in the district as Purchasing Agent. 

The district administrations had the authority to make purchases of I50 or less, however, bids 
were not required on purchases of $1 or less. The bids, award, and purchase orders were forwarded 
to the State Purchasing Di\'ision for confirmation. Purchase orders for amounts in excess of $50 
were usually made by the state office. When the District Administrator was authorized to make 
purchases in excess of S50, the invitation to bid, the requisition for purchase, the statement of award, 
and purchase order were forwarded to the state office for approval before authority was given for 
vendor to deli\er. Purchase orders were checked against the amount of materials approved in the 
project application and with the allocation of funds made to the district to safeguard over-expendi- 
ture of funds. Upon completion of purchases, the necessary information and form were submitted 
to the Auditing Di\ision for examination and payment of invoices. 

An inventory of materials, tools, equipment, and livestock was kept. "A Manual for Purchasing 
Procedure" was issued by the Purchasing Division of the state office to all District Administrators 
and Purchasing Agents. It was complete in information and constituted the authority for the 
purchasing procedure of the state administration. 

In purchases made by the state office, preference was given to local and state dealers when bids 
were equal. A bid bond was filed with each bid, and in large contracts a performance bond was 
required of the vendor. All bidders were required to certify that they were operating under the 
applicable code. 

A permanent inventory was set up, in charge of a state director, for the purpose of keeping com- 
plete records of all physical properties belonging to the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administra- 
tion such as tools and equipment, materials, livestock, canneries, office furniture and equipment, 
and all properties of the same character owned by the North Carolina Rural Rehabilitation 
Corporation. 

Approximately 45 men were used in the field, working directly out of the state office, who, with 
the cooperation of the district offices, inventoried all properties by visits to warehouses and work 
projects. Lists of materials, tools, and equipment on active work projects, and also lists of tools, 
equipment, and materials remaining on hand from completed and incompleted projects were made. 
These data were forwarded by the field men to the state office, where this information was checked, 
tabulated, and put into the form of a permanent record, by counties. A summary was made for each 
district of all properties in each county of the district. 

Purchase order records were checked, and a listing of all tools and equipment was made from 
the purchase orders. A permanent record was made of these tabulations. These listings were 
compared with the actual physical inventory made by the field men to determine the amount 
of shortage caused by breakage, loss, and wear and tear. 

A card system of perpetual inventory was set up and installed in the state office and in each 
district office. A Materials Received Report form for property to be transferred in title and to be 
made available by loan, was printed and distributed to the District Relief Administrators for use 
in making ERA properties available to other governmental agencies. 

Copies of the inventories of office furniture and equipment, materials, tools, and other equipment 
were supplied the WPA for the state and district offices. Copies of inventories of all properties, such 
as livestock, feed stuffs, fertilizer, farm equipment and machinery, were supplied the Rural Rehabili- 
tation Division of the Resettlement Administration. 

Materials left on hand from uncompleted ERA projects were, when such projects were transferred 
to the WPA for completion, transferred with the project when actual operation was taken over by 
the WPA. 



272 Emergency Relief in North Carolina 

Materials left over from completed projects were collected and concentrated in warehouses in 
each of the districts. These materials were used in continuing and completing ERA projects where 
additional materials were needed, in order to sa\e additional expenditure for materials. 

The WPA has been supplied a large portion of these materials for use on such projects, as 
the N. C. State Hospital for Insane, Raleigh ; Asheville Public Playgrounds ; the Negro Recreational 
Center, Raleigh ; the Wilson Water Main and Sewer Extension ; Wilson County County-wide 
School Painting Projects ; the Salisbury Sewer Extension and Repair Project ; the State Board of 
Health State-wide Malaria Control Project ; the Wake County Road Construction, and other 
projects throughout the state, including airport projects at Charlotte, Lumberton, and Rocky Mount. 

Trucks, machinery, work tools and equipment were made available, through loans, to the WPA 
as rapidly as these could be released from the ERA work projects. Twenty-six trucks, office furni- 
ture, and other equipment were made available to the WPA, through loans, for the Surplus Com- 
modities Project. Equipment and furnishings from the transient centers, such as bedroom, dining 
room, kitchen, and office furniture, trucks, farm machinery, work tools, etc. were also transferred 
to the WPA, through loan, for the continuance of the transient work program. As the personnel 
in the ERA offices was curtailed, office furniture and equipment were made available, through loan, 
to the WPA for both state and district offices and to the county and state accounting and disbursing 
divisions of the United States Treasury Department. Transfers of office furniture, equipment, 
together with machinery, trucks and tools needed in the farm program, have also been made available 
to the Rural Rehabilitation Division of the Resettlement Administration. Office furniture, 
materials and equipment, and trucks, and such other items as were needed to carry on work in the 
several plants of the Fisheries, were transferred to the Self-Help Corporation, to be sold by the 
Corporation to the North Carolina Fisheries, Inc., a self-help cooperative, organized by the ERA. 

The inventory comprises such property in kind and value as follows : 

Tools and Equipment $ 250,532.56 

Meat Cannery Equipment 90,000.00 

Leather Tannery Equipment 35,000.00 

Transient Center Equipment 135,000.00 

Motor Trucks 70,400.00 

Fisheries Equipment 63,075.00 

ERA Livestock 70,000.00 

RR Livestock 875,000.00 

RR Equipment, Machinery, and Tools 139,000.00 

RR Fertilizer 32,915.00 

RR Stock Feed 18,300.00 

Stock Feed Left Over from Cattle Program 101,332.27 
ERA Building Materials 1,000,000.00 

ERA Office Furniture, Fixtures and Equipment of all Kinds 50,000.00 



Total $2,930,554.83 

Approximately 75 per cent of the materials inventoried has been consumed in completion of ERA 
work projects or transferred to the WPA and other emergency governmental agencies. Approx- 
imately 85 per cent of all tools and equipment, including office furniture and fixtures, has been trans- 
ferred or loaned to the WPA, Rural Rehabilitation Division of the Resettlement Administration, and 
other governmental agencies. After all needs of the Federal agencies carrying on activities 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 273 

formerly carried on by the ERA have been met, the surplus ERA property remaining on hand will 
be taken in custody by the State of North Carolina, as all property was purchased from Federal funds 
granted to the state for relief purposes. 

Conclusion 

It is impossible to operate work projects through three different work programs and not gain 
some experience and arrive at some conclusions concerning the objectives of work programs in 
general. Since unemployment is one of the major causes of the breakdown of morale and thus a 
cause of the destruction of human values, it would seem that a major objective of a work program 
should be not alone an emphasis on the excellence of completed projects, but a primary emphasis 
on the conservation of these values. 

To effect such conservation of values, it is found, as was done during the ERA program, that 
there must be the closest cooperation between the Works and the Social Service Divisions. While 
a too rigid line of demarcation cannot be drawn between the activities of these divisions, there are 
certain definite functions which each must perform if the fullest value is to be realized from a work 
program. 

Selection of workers should be a function of the Social Service Division, even though the workers 
selected are not in all cases those that a Works Division, thinking primarily of projects, might select. 
Selection should be entirely on the basis of individual, family and social welfare. It then becomes 
the duty of the Works Division to make use of these available workers as effectively as possible. 

Another function of the Social Service Division, a function to which considerable attention was 
given during the ERA program, and one which should receive adequate attention in any work 
program, is that of giving counsel to those individuals and families in need of it. Through such 
counsel, new view points may be given, and morale strengthened. These, and other like services 
are indispensable and can be furnished best through a Social Service Division. 

With regard to the wage basis, there are doubtless good arguments for both a flat weekly wage, 
and for wages based on an individual's, or a family's, budgetary deficiency. Experience in this 
state suggests that budgetary deficiency is the best basis for granting work relief (While the amounts 
paid on this basis are frequently criticised by the public, it is felt that there is a more objective basis 
here than for an arbitrary flat rate paid to different classifications of workers.) Also, such a basis 
leaves room for the consideration of such individual factors as size of family, family's earning capacity, 
family problems, etc. If this is to be the basis, then the determination of such deficiency budgets 
should be a function of the Social Service Division. 

The Works Division should be responsible for the proper classification of workers as to skill, 
experience, ability, and occupational grouping, and as suggested above, attempt to give the workers 
that employment for which they are fitted. 



18 



274 



Emeegency Eelief in ITobth Carolina 



*»»' 




(i) First aid on the job lo injured workers. (2) Giving Jirst aid at the project. 



Emergency Relief in N"orth Carolina 275 

SAFETY DEPARTMENT 

April I, 1934-November 28, 1935 

The success of any effort to secure safety, in the final analysis, depends upon the attitude of 
those at the head of the organization. The Administrator of the North Carolina Emergency Relief 
Administration stated in the very beginning of the program that every possible measure should be 
taken to properly safeguard workers on North Carolina projects. This statement was clear and to 
the point. While it is true that superintendents and foremen are the ones on whom rests the re- 
sponsibility for infusing ideas of safety into the men on the job, these supervisors must know that 
the head of the organization is sincerely interested in accident prevention. The emphatic state- 
ment of the Administrator left no doubts in their minds. 

A State Director of Safety was appointed by the State Administrator, and he was requested to 
build an adequate and efficient organization. While all details relative to the safety program were 
left to the judgment of the State Safety Director, he was assured that, should he find occasion to 
call upon the State Administrator, he would find the Administrator squarely behind him. In 
every instance this was found to be true. 

Organization 

The Safety Department was organized on April i, 1934, with a personnel consisting of the State 
Safety Director, five field representatives, a supervising nurse and two stenographers. The state 
was divided into five districts, and each field representative was responsible for one district. In- 
asmuch as Winston-Salem was almost the center of the state geographically as well as from a case- 
load standpoint, this city was designated headquarters for the Safety Department. 

Responsibilities 

Not only was the Safety Department charged with the responsibility of seeing that the projects 
were operated un a safe manner, but all buildings used by the Emergency Relief Administration 
had to meet the approval of the Safety Department before they could be used for any purpose and 
were reinspected each month. All transient shelters and camps were subject to inspection by the 
Safety Department, inspection being made every thirty days. Trucks used for general hauling and 
transportation of workers had to be certified by the department. A certificate of inspection was 
in the cab of every truck used. 



First Aid 

Adequate first aid material was available on all projects. While this equipment was generally 
used by men trained in the American Red Cross Standard First Aid Course, it was necessary in some 
instances that this material be used by those not qualified as First Aiders. For this reason, unit type 
material was used. The lo-unit kit was used on a majority of the projects, but a large number of 
pocket packets were furnished to crews of four or five men scattered over a large area. The 10- 
unit kit, of 20 gauge metal, contained the following items : 



2 units I -inch adhesive compresses 
2 units 3 yi per cent iodine 

(or mercurochrome) 
I unit burn ointment 
I unit eye dressing 



I unit ammonia inhalants 
I unit 2-inch bandage compress 
I unit 4-inch bandage compress 
I unit U. S. Army Tourniquet 



276 Emekgency Relief in North Carolina 

The pocket packets contained the following items : 

lo I -inch adhesixe compresses i Saf-T-Top iodine (or mercurochrome) 

2 2-inch bandage compresses 2 tubes burn ointment 

4 ammonia inhalants 

As stated above, this material was not always used by trained first aid men. Therefore, no 
roller bandage, adhesive tape, alcohol, etc., was used, since this type material should be handled 
only by those familiar with its use. 

The money used for first aid material was money well spent. There is danger of infection in 
any wound where the skin is broken. The final report of the Emergency Relief program shows 
that only ten cases of infection, in\ol\dng the loss of time, were reported. This speaks well for the 
type material used as well as the manner in which it was used. 

In addition to first aid kits, a large number of snake bite outfits were furnished on projects where 
there was likelihood of encountering snakes. This outfit consisted of plunger type suction pump 
to withdraw the poison, tourniquet, lancet, iodine and bandages. These kits were metal, and 
could be carried in the pocket where they would always be available. 

When men were engaged in work dangerous to their eyes, such as breaking stone, they were 
furnished with the very best protecti\'e goggles obtainable. Spectacle type goggles with screen 
side shields were used in most cases. When an employee wore corrective spectacles he was fur- 
nished a "cover-all" goggle, thus overcoming possible hazards by reason of the men removing their 
corrective spectacles and putting on goggles. Nine pairs of goggles were returned to the Safety 
Department that were broken while in actual use. In each case, with the exception of one, an eye 
was saved by using this protection. In the one case, blows were received to each lense. Had the 
goggles not been in use in this case the employee would now be totally blind. Not considering 
the untold misery from the loss of an eye or both eyes, these nine cases sa\'ed in actual money se\'eral 
times the amount spent for goggles during the entire program. 

On the larger and most hazardous projects, first aid was rendered by graduate nurses. This 
work was done under the super\ision of the Safety Department's supervising nurse. 

Field Inspection 

Even though men have studied and understand safe practices, there is no assurance that they 
will remember them indefinitely. It is necessary, therefore, to call their attention constantly to 
the necessity of preventing accidents. In this connection all projects were inspected by the Safety 
Department, and close inspection was given those projects considered of a very hazardous nature. 
More than 3,000 projects were inspected by the department's field force, exclusive of sewing rooms, 
and more than 2,000 recommendations made. In practically every instance major recommenda- 
tions were carried out immediately, and a follow-up inspection did not find the same conditions 
existing. 

As stated above, every building used by the Emergency Relief Administration was subject to 
the approval of the Safety Department. More than 650 buildings were inspected, and while most 
of these were appro\ed, it was necessary to make many repairs, and in some instances to condemn 
the buildings. 

A large number of sewing rooms and mattress workrooms was operated under the Emergency 
Relief program. These rooms received the close attention of the Safety Department. The super- 
vising nurse visited each room, and in addition to arranging for necessary first aid, gave worth- 
while health instruction to the employees. Careful check was made in the interest of preventing 
fires, with the result that only one room was destroyed by fire, and this started in an adjoining 
room not being used by the Relief Administration. 



Emeeoency Relief in N'orth Carolina 277 

Transient Service 

During the Emergency Relief program more than 122,000 transients were cared for in North 
CaroHna by the Transient Bureau. These men and women were housed in eleven shelters and 
camps throughout the state. Seeing that these people were located in suitable places was quite a 
problem for the Safety Department. Adequate fire protection had to be provided, sanitary prob- 
lems had to be sol\-ed and work projects safeguarded. 

Each shelter and camp was inspected at least monthly by the State Safety Director. Each 
location was provided with fire-fighting equipment, fire-gongs and, where necessary, approved 
outside fire escapes. 

Inasmuch as there was a more or less constant checking out and receiving of transients, it was 
necessary to hold at least two fire drills each month so that everyone in the building would be familiar 
with exits and would know just what to do in case of fire. Fire departments were organized and 
each floor in each shelter or camp was in charge of a fire lieutenant. Each fire extinguisher was 
in charge of an individual and when an alarm was sounded the fire extinguishers were immediately 
manned and ready for action. The floor lieutenant never left his floor until the last man had 
answered the fire call. 

No particular time was set for fire drills. Alarms would sound any time during the night, and 
it was not unusual to have drills between midnight and day. The State Safety Director, without notice 
to camp or shelter officials, would occasionally visit the shelters and have special drills. This gave 
the department a check on the time necessary to empty the building as reported by the supervisor 
of the shelter. Men, generally, responded to these drills without comment. Occasionally some 
transient, pulled from a nice warm bed at 3 : 00 a.m., would have plenty to say. However, most 
of them realized that these drills were necessary to properly instruct them, and that the State Safety 
Director was not just having a lot of sport at their expense. 

These drills pro\ed of real value as shown by the one fire North Carolina had in its transient 
camps and shelters. Fire was discovered in one shelter at 5 o'clock in the morning. This was a 
three-story building and 165 transients were registered. Within four minutes after the alarm was 
sounded every person in the building had assembled in the front yard of the building. Fortunately 
the fire did very little damage to the building or equipment. These men had been trained to 
answer fire alarms promptly, and the alarm sounded the morning of the fire was just another drill 
to them. 

Watchmen with patrol clocks made regular rounds in each shelter and camp. Dials from these 
clocks were mailed to the Safety Department each week. These dials were carefully checked and 
missed stations noted. If as many as two stations were missed in any one night or six missed in any 
one week the Department recommended that a new watchman be secured. 

Meat Processing 

During the program of cattle slaughtering and meat canning, a total of 1,481,762 man-hours of 
exposure was reported to the Safety Department. This program was of a very hazardous nature, 
involving the use of knives and machinery. Especially was this true when it is considered that, 
with the exception of a very few, employees had never been engaged in similar work. 

The necessity of proper protection was seen in the very beginning by the Director of the Bureau 
of Engineering and Purchases. Arrangements were made to place a Registered Nurse on each 
shift in each cannery and abattoir. These nurses treated 8,077 cuts, scratches, etc., and made more 
than 30,000 additional dressings. It is interesting to note that of the 8,077 cases handled, only 21 
resulted in infection. Had this prompt and efficient treatment not been available, the infection 
rate would ha\e been tremendous, considering that each bone scratch was very likely to become 



278 Emergency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 

infected. A total of 36 lost-time accidents was reported. Again first aid played an important 
part. In three cases large arteries were severed, and had it not been for the presence of trained 
nurses, it is \ery likely that three fatalities would have been charged against the program. 

All canning machinery was carefully guarded, at the point of operation as well as all transmis- 
sion. Only one serious injury was chargeable to canning machinery, and this occurred when an 
operator's helper, against instructions, attempted to oil the machine while in motion, thereby 
losing two fingers. 

Accidents 

During the Emergency Relief program a total of 436 lost-time accidents was reported. While 
a record of each accident was kept in the office of the Safety Director, lost-time accidents received 
especial attention. A lost-time accident is one in which the injured employee loses time beyond 
the remainder of the shift on which he was injured. With an exposure of 39,512,374 man-hours 
reported. North Carolina had an accident frequency (the number of lost-time accidents per 1,000,000 
man-hours of exposure) rating of i i.o. This is a very good record, especially when it is considered 
that during the early confusion attending the beginning many employees of the program were 
engaged in work entirely foreign to their training. Cotton mill workers sometimes were digging 
ditches, office workers worked in gravel pits, department store clerks were cutting trees. As the 
program developed progress was made in fitting men to the jobs. Naturally these persons were 
in danger at all times, but with the assistance of project superintendents and foremen they were 
made "safety-conscious" to the extent that their accident experience was surprisingly low. 

Main Causes of Accidents 

The lost-time accident chart, by main causes, will be found on another page. A study of this 
chart will show that "Falls of Persons" is given as the major cause, 76 accidents being charged. This 
includes falls from heights, falls on the surface, and falls "into." "Hand Tools" follows, with a total 
of 69. Considering the number of hand tools used this is very low. However, this cause would 
have had a higher rate had it not been for the close inspection given tools. Picks and shovels with 
broken handles were immediately discarded until they could be repaired. Striking faces of chisels, 
etc., were not allowed to become mushroomed, and cutting tools were kept in good shape. 

Dynamite 

Several tons of dynamite were used on relief work. Particular attention was necessary here 
to see that proper transportation was provided, storage facilities adequate, and trained men used 
to handle blasts. That explosives were handled properly is shown by the fact that only six lost- 
time accidents are charged to this cause. The most serious of these accidents was the loss of one 
eye from a premature blast. 

Trucks 

Hundreds of trucks were used for general hauling and transporting workers. Only 25 lost-time 
accidents were charged against "Vehicles." Trucks were kept in good mechanical condition and 
only experienced drivers were used. Each driver was required to fill out a "Truck Driver's Ques- 
tionnaire" before he was employed. If he was unable to answer the questions, he was not allowed 
to handle ERA trucks. 

Passenger Vehicles 

Quite a large number of passenger cars was used by the field personnel. Each driver using 
his or her car on official business answered the questions contained in the "Passenger Car Ques- 
tionnaire." In addition, each passenger car had to pass a mechanical test by an approved me- 
chanic and approved as being safe to operate on North Carolina highways. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



2 79 



Fatalities 

Two fatalities were charged to the Emergency ReUef program. Both of these could have been 
prevented. In one case a single log was being transported by truck from the woods to the saw mill. 
An employee decided to ride straddle this log rather than in the cab of the truck where he belonged. 
As the truck came out of the woods the project foreman saw the employee on the log and stopped 
the truck and told him to get off and ride in the cab. The foreman, sure his order would be obeyed, 
walked away. However, the employee refused to change his position and forced the truck driver 
to proceed. Just as the truck arrived at the mill a slight incline was encountered causing the log 
to roll against the truck standards, breaking them and throwing log and man to the ground. The 
employee was instantly killed. This was disobedience of orders. 

In the other case a supervisor failed to follow safety orders relative to bracing all trenches five 
feet or more in depth. The supervisor knew that the trench was deep enough to brace, but felt 
that the soil was of such a nature that it would be safe for the men to work without timbers. How- 
ever, without warning a cave-in occurred and one employee was killed. 

Conclusion 

The Safety Department feels that the Emergency Relief Safety program was a success. This 
success was made possible by the cooperation the department received from the State Administra- 
tor and the Director of the Division of Engineering and Purchases, and others in official capacity. 
As stated in the beginning, any safety program, to be successful, must have the active support of 
those at the head. 



Lost-Time Accidents April 


I, I 


934 


TO November 2 


3, 1935 










DISTRICT 


Man-Hours 


03 




> 

'o. 
y. 




CO 

O 


^-H 
o 
m 


■s 

be 

a 
o 

m 


-S 

o 

tuo 

"3 


a 

o 

be 


<v 

IS" 

o 

a 

03 


-a 
a 

2 


"3 
a 

'a 

< 




3 

o 

a 

'a 
■ S 

2 


< 

22 


h- 1 




a 

a 

3 


Number 1 


1,970,510 


2 


2 











6 


5 


1 





2 


11.2 


Number 2 


3,239,272 





1 





1 





8 


3 


3 





7 


8 


3 


5 


39 


1 


12.0 


Number 3 


6,301,259 


3 


8 


4 


5 





16 


28 


14 


8 


15 


9 


1 


5 


116 


3 


18.3 


Number 4 


3,212,839 


1 


1 











6 


3 


4 


3 


7 


11 


1 


3 


40 





12.5 


Number 5 


6,653,154 


3 


5 


1 


6 





12 


8 


12 


3 


11 


20 


2 


4 


87 


2 


13.1 


Number 6 


5,275,018 





5 











6 


3 


10 


1 


3 


8 





4 


40 


1 


7.6 


Number 7 


6,012,784 


3 


2 


1 


1 





15 


6 


2 


1 


11 


6 


1 


4 


53 


2 


8.8 


Number S 


4,409,797 


5 








1 


1 


5 


3 


4 





6 


5 





3 


33 


1 


7.5 


State Trans. 


20,166 















































0.0 


AsheviUe 


216,644 























1 

















1 





4.6 


Charlotte 


239,047 

















1 


1 




















2 





4.8 


Dunlap Springs 


42,771 















































0.0 


Greensboro 


254,961 















































0.0 


Raleigh 


219,834 


1 






































1 





4.5 


SaUsbury 


520,904 















































0.0 


Camp Weaver 


171,970 





1 



































1 


" 


5.8 


New Hope 


170,571 

















1 























1 





5.8 


All Others 


580,872 















































0.0 


TOTALS 


39,512,374 


18 


25 


6 


14 


1 


76 


60 


51 


16 


62 


69 


8 


30 


436 


10 


u.o 



Frequency based on 1,000,000 Man-Hours. 



Two fatalities. 



280 



EiiEEGENcy Relief in N'oeth Carolina 







(i) Rural Rehabilitation clients harvesting wheat on community farm. Wake County. (2) Rural Rehabilitation clients harvesting wheat 
on community farm, Wake County. (3) Rural Rehabilitation clients harvesting wheat on community farm, Wake County. 



A PLAN FOR THE REHABILITATION OF TENANT FARMERS 
IN EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA 

Following is the outline of a Planfor the Rural Rehabilitation of Tenant Farmers in Eastern 
North Carolina as submitted in the Fall of ig^j by Dr. Roy M. Brown, Director, Division 
of Social Service. 

Thii plan was first submitted at a Social Service conference at the University oj Noith 
Carolina in July of 1333. 



There are in North CaroUna east of Raleigh about 10,000 farm families, mainly tenants for many- 
generations, a few who have gone to the towns and have moved back to the country because they 
could no longer make a living in town, who this year have had no arrangements with any landlord 
to make a crop and who have had no other employment sufficient to enable them to earn a subsistence. 
Two-fifths of these are white ; three-fifths are Negro. The prospects are that the number will be 
increased by the curtailment of cotton and tobacco acreage. There is little prospect that with agri- 
cultural recovery anything like a majority of these families will be reabsorbed into agriculture under 
the present farming system. There is no prospect that they will be absorbed in any appreciable 
numbers into any other industry. They must be reabsorbed into agriculture. This appears practi- 
cable on a live-at-home basis, but only with governmental aid. These families have no capital and 
no credit. Rehabilitation must be on a relief basis. If anything approaching a solution of the 
problem is to be accomplished, rehabilitation must be attempted on a quite large scale. The 
alternative appears to be a permanent dole. 

There is submitted herewith a tenative outline of a plan for the rehabilitation of 5,000 families. 
If this number could be placed on land, those of the remainder who are not so unfit as to be unem- 
ployable would perhaps immediately or at least with the recovery of agriculture find employment 
either as tenants or as farm laborers. As the program gets under way it may be desirable to enlarge 
it to include greater numbers. 

II 

1 . Create and incorporate under the laws of North Carolina a non-profit corporation with power 
to accept on gift, or to purchase, hold, and improve land ; to settle upon it and direct on a rental or 
other practicable basis such farm relief families as may appear to the corporation and to the North 
CaroUna Emergency Relief Administration to be suitable for such rehabilitation ; to equip such land 
with such livestock, farming implements, machinery, buildings, etc., as may be necessary; and to 
dispose of such lands to individuals on terms hereinafter provided for. 

2. Select from farm families on relief who have no arrangement with any landowner to make 
a crop and who have no other employment that will provide subsistence a number of families not 
to exceed 5,000 to be settled on the land provided for under Section 3. 

3. Secure by purchase or gift not to exceed 100,000 acres of land of at least fair quality for agri- 
cultural purposes. Said lands are to be surveyed and divided into 20-acre tracts, only for the 
purpose of locating dwelling. The entire area is to be cultivated for the first three years as a unit. 

4. Borrow from the Federal Public Works fund, or from some other fund provided by the 
Federal Government, equipment and for supervision for perhaps three years. 



282 Emergency Relief in Nobth Carolina 

5. The corporation will direct the farming on this land for a period not to exceed thirty-three 
years. Beginning with the fourth year, one-half of the farm products, exclusive of a subsistence 
garden, the products of one or more cows to furnish milk and butter for the family, chickens and 
hogs for home consumption, and fruits for home use, will be charged as rent on the land and to pay 
for supervision. 

6. At the end of the third year the entire acreage will be reclaimed, drained, and in an approxi- 
mate equal state of cultivation. Allotments to individual families may then be made intelligently. 

7. The rent, after deducting the cost of supervision, shall be applied toward the purchase of the 
land. It should be possible for each family to own its farm at the end of a period not exceeding 
thirty-three years. 

8. The farming shall be of the "live-at-home" type so directed as to interfere as little as prac- 
ticable with the markets for farm products. Until such time as in the opinion of the Federal Secre- 
tary of Agriculture, or such other authority as may be agreed upon, there has been such recovery in 
agriculture as to warrant selling the surplus products of these farms on the open market, the products 
received as rents shall be sold at the current market price to the Federal Relief Administration and 
shall be distributed to those who must be aided from public relief funds. 

9. For the purposes of carrying out the preceding section, the corporation may furnish on a 
community basis facilities for canning and otherwise conserving products of the farms. It may 
also encourage and promote the cooperative ownership of equipment, livestock, or such other 
co6perati\'e ownership and enterprises as may appear desirable. 

10. Adequate provision must be made to prevent the payment of large salaries to managers 
or others employed in the program of rehabilitation and in every way to insure the people to be 
benefited against exploitation of any kind. 

1 1 . The money borrowed shall be secured by deed of trust or such lien on the land and equip- 
ment and improvements as may be proper. 

12. While it is desirable that the land for this purpose be in large tracts for the facilitation of 
supervision and the promotion of cooperative enterprises, it may be possible to adapt the program 
to smaller tracts. 

13. Provision must be made for both white and Negro families. 

A Cropping Plan for the Rehabilitation of 300 Tenant Families 
IN Eastern North Carolina 

The plan outlined herein is adequate for the subsistence of 200 families (or 1,000 people). To 
carry out the plan successfully, a tract of 4,000 or 5,000 acres of land is needed. This is about as 
large a unit of land as could be secured in one body. 

For subsistence of the above families there should be placed on the farm the following livestock : 
laying hens, 3,000 ; dairy cows, 100 ; brood sows, 50 ; and 100 work mules. To adequately feed this 
amount of livestock and to supply food for 1,000 people would require that approximately 1,700 
acres be cultivated yearly. The remainder of the land would be available for wood, for soil building 
purposes, and for growing such other crops as would be determined by the Secretary of Agriculture 
or such other authority as may be agreed upon, for marketing to the Federal Relief Administration 
and on the open market. 

This plan is based upon the assumption that a large tract of land is to be farmed for the first three 
years on a community basis. If it be found necessary to place the families on separate individual 
farms, the number of livestock, the acreage of pasturage, and perhaps other items, must be enlarged. 



Emergency Eelief in North Carolina 283 

If a real attempt at the solution of the problem of the displaced tenant in the eastern half of the 
State of North Carolina is to be made on this or some similar plan, provision must be made for at 
least 5,000 families. This would require twenty-five units of 200 families each. This plan of colonies 
of 200 families is offered as a suggestion only and may be modified as the plan progresses. When the 
land is secured this may not appear the most practicable plan. Or such a plan may be practicable 
in some cases and not in others. 

Cost 

Estimates of the cost of land, houses, livestock, and farm equipment for a unit of 200 families 
range from $150,000 to $200,000. A detailed estimate submitted by the North Carolina State 
College of Agriculture and Engineering places the total cost, including $22,000 for tractors and 
tractor-drawn machinery, at $171,515. Omitting the more elaborate farm machinery the cost on 
this estimate is reduced to approximately $150,000. This estimate is based upon the assumption 
that it may be practicable to secure land with timber from which most of the lumber for buildings 
could be cut and that a great deal of the work may be done by the settlers. 

A second estimate with greater emphasis on housing places the cost for a 200-unit at $200,000. 

State College Estimate 



Land, 5,000 acres 


$ 50,000 


Houses and other buildings 


60,000 


Livestock 


29=500 


Farm equipment 


10,500 



Total 



$150,000 



Second Estimate 



Land, 5,000 acres 

Homes 

Other buildings 

Livestock 

Equipment 

Miscellaneous 

Total 



$ 50,000 

100,000 

10,000 

25,000 

10,000 

5,000 

$200,000 



On these estimates the total cost for 5,000 families would be a minimum of $3,750,000, a maxi- 
mum of $5,000,000. 



284 



Emeegenct Relief in N^orth Carolina 



Op.Q AMIZ ATlOAl t^] AjIJ 
)^U|1AL [lyAbiUTATlO/l DlYblOAl Of THL ^^^'l'\L'k 



STATE t/MHa- 
£NCV P.EL!E^ 
CO W.V^1SS1 O M 



;\l«^'i*li*A' 



SOCIAL 
SERVICE. 

Div- ta-A- 



PU&LI C 

fLELA-TlONS 

DIVE-6.-A- 



5TA5T1CAL 

DIVISION 

E ■ p.- A • 



p. U p. A L 

P.EHABILITATIO*! 
CO p.POP.ATIO/1 



fLUptAL 
P.EHA5- 



DIV IIEHABILITA- 
troM INOIVIDOAL 

lAI PLftCE 



DIV- WO E.IC. 
CEJiTER.^ AND 
SELF LIQUIO- 
ATIAIQ WoR.lt. 
PROJECTS- R.B: 



fl/JANCE. 4 

AccooNTme 

J)IV- E-IL-A- 



BIVlSIOKOf 

PURCHASE 

Ell A- 



WORKS 

DIVISION 

t■I^.•^ 



Div IS \o;i 

R.UB.AL 

Homt^VAKiM 



D IVlSio/1 
ILELOCAT\CiN 

ST HANDED 
POPULATIOHRB: 



flELD B-EPHESENTATlVES 
FAW *HO«E 5PECIM1ST 



DISTR.1CT EMER&CWO 
^ELIE-F ADMIJH- EE.A- 



COUNTS puaAL 
P.EI(A61L1TA.T10W 
COMfMTT E E. 



DIST- PAI2.M SUPV 

BUT- Home Econotn- 

\ST. tL- B_- 



STATE EH-SEtV- 

COUAITS FAB.M i 

J(OME AGEMT' 



COUNT!) FAS.A\ 
FOREMAN K.K- 



COO/IT^ «OME 
AVAKEttS CLE. 



(2. U D. A. I_ 
REHABILITATION CLIENT 



RURAL REHABILITATION DIVISION 



Introduction* 

Planning for Rural Rehabilitation in North Carolina 

In preparing for a rural rehabilitation program in North CaroHna, the North CaroHna Emer- 
gency Relief Administration was not called upon to draw idealistic plans for ideal communities 
but to prepare to meet practical problems as they are found in the cases of innumerable rural families 
throughout the State. Along with innumerable rural families which had been living on margin, 
it was felt that there were hundreds of other farm families which needed only slight help and 
encouragement to become self-sustaining. It was for this group of people particularly that plans 
were made. 

Recognizing the fact that a first step in attacking the problem was to find out the extent and nature 
of the problem, a research study, under the direction of Mr. Gordon Blackwell, was authorized by 
the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration. The chief objective of this study was to 
determine the extent to which persons on relief could be rehabilitated on the land. A digest of this 
report follows : 

Scope of Study: This study of rural relief families in North Carolina was carried on in 1934 in 
eleven rural counties. The various agricultural regions of the State were sampled. It is believed 
that these eleven counties represent a fair cross section of the rural population of the State. There 
were approximately 3,600 relief families in the area studied. Fifty-one per cent were found capable 
of making a li\ing at farming ; following data concern this select group, 1,850 families. 

Educatio7i: Average grade attainments : husbands, around the fourth grade, wives, around the 
fifth grade ; reached high school : husbands, 10 per cent, wives, 13 per cent ; attended college : both 
parents, one in every 275 ; school enrollment : children 7-13, 93 per cent, 14-15, 74 per cent, 16-17, 40 
per cent, 18-20, 15 per cent; educational retardation: children, 7-16, inclusive, 28 per cent no 
retardation, 23 per cent retarded one year, 17 per cent retarded two years, 12 per cent retarded 
three years, 9 per cent retarded four years, 5 per cent retarded five years, 6 per cent retarded six 
years or more. 

A special study of more than 1,800 school children, representing the total enrollment in this age 
group for nine representative schools scattered over Iredell County, reveals that children of relief 
families now enrolled in school are retarded much more than children of non-relief families. 

Illiteracy rate, all individuals 10 years old and over : varies between 10 and 20 per cent ; is always 
several points higher than the 1930 census figures for the whole population of the country. 

Economic Insecurity: Income : $ 1 33 for 1 933 is the average per family, $28.32 is average per capita ; 
tenure : large number displaced tenants, lack of employment for agricultural laborers, trend shows 
that relief families rent land from relatives more and more frequently ; housing : less than one-half 

* The material herewith presented was taken chiefly from "Pioneering in Rural Rehabilitation in North Carolina," which 
was published while the Rural Rehabilitation Program was still in operation, and before the Rural Resettlement Administration 
had assumed active control of the whole rural program. For this reason the report is written in the present, rather than the past, 
tense. Also the designation RR, adopted for brevity, signifies Rural Rehabilitation and not Rural Resettlement. 



286 Emergency Relief in ISToeth Carolina 

have available toilet facilities of any kind ; rating of houses : good 1 6 per cent, fair 39 per cent, poor 
45 per cent ; possessions : few possessions owned by relief families, furniture inadequate in one-fifth 
of the cases, livestock perhaps needed more than anything else ; debts : landowners, approximately 
40 per cent have place mortgaged for 45 per cent of its value ; 79 per cent of all families owe debts 
(other than mortgages) averaging S77 ; type of debts : 3 out of 5 — medicine or medical attention, 
I out of 3 — groceries or clothing, i out of 3 — back taxes, a few owe debts for farm supplies, burial 
expenses, furniture, and petty personal loans ; insurance (data complete for only 3 counties including 
665 families) : 3 out of 5 have never had any kind of insurance, i out of 5 has had insurance but has 
been forced to allow the policy to lapse, i out of 5 has insurance now in force ; type of insurance : 
burial insurance is most common and life insurance next, policies which have been allowed to lapse 
are usually of the life variety — more than half have lapsed during the depression — peak year, 1934. 

Social Situation: Membership in social, fraternal, or religious organizations (other than church 
membership) : one relief family in every ten has some member belonging to such organizations ; 
one in ten has allowed such membership to lapse, half of these having lapsed during the depression ; 
social contacts for mountain families are most rare. 

The Church: Nine out of 10 relief families ha\'e some member belonging to a church; church 
membership : husbands 63 per cent, wives 89 per cent, children (10 years old and over) 35 per cent ; 
one-half are Baptist, one-fourth are Methodist, others are scattered in a large number of 
denominations. 

General Classification of Relief Families as to Capability of Rural Rehabilitation: Only five per cent 
of relief families was classified as non-farmers. Their rehabilitation probably can be best accom- 
plished outside of agriculture. 

Forty-four per cent of all relief families was classified as not capable of rural rehabilitation, falling 
either in the aged, no male provider, or disabled groups. Since the date of this study, some of these 
have been turned back to the counties as unemployables. The majority, however, still are on relief 
rolls as they can be partially self-supporting. Nevertheless, most of them will always have to rely 
to some extent upon the aid of relatives, friends, or the government. 

And finally 51 per cent appears capable of rural rehabilitation, that is, it seems probable that they 
should be able to make a living by farming or by a combination of farming and work in a seasonal 
industry. These families are therefore of interest to the Rural Rehabilitation Division. The fol- 
lowing definition was adhered to in determining whether or not a family should be placed in this 
classification : 

A family to be capable of rural rehabilitation must measure up to three qualifications : 
(i) there must be an able-bodied male between the ages of 16 and 59, inclusive ; (2) from 
the point of view of health, the family as a unit must appear capable of farming a crop large 
enough for its support ; and (3) the family must have had at least one year of farming 
experience. 

It should be noted that personal factors such as mental ability, initiative, and character are not 
considered in determining this classification. Such factors, however, are taken into account in 
rating these families as discussed below. Henceforth, we shall consider only this group of 1,850 
relief families who are classified as capable of rural rehabilitation and who comprise 51 per cent of 
the relief load of the eleven counties. 

Tenure of Relief Families Capable of Rural Rehabilitation: Of these relief clients who appear capable 
of rural rehabilitation, 12 per cent are small farm owners with an average amount of cleared land ot 
approximately 25 acres and an average total acreage of approximately 55 acres; 19 per cent are 
rural home owners with an average cleared acreage of 6 acres and an average total acreage of 22 acres ; 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 287 

45 per cent are tenants^ cultivating an average of 1 5 acres ; and 24 per cent are agricultural laborers 
almost all of whom have been squeezed out of the tenant system since 1929.^ 

Opinions Concerning Relief Families Classified as Capable of Rural Rehabilitation: Landlords or farm 
employers were contacted for approximately three-fourths of these families. Reports were obtained 
from case workers and work project foremen for almost all. If a case had been under the rural 
rehabilitation program during the year, a report from the farm supervisor was obtained. It is felt 
that a composite of opinions from these various sources should give an idea of the general capability 
and potentialities of the families. Following is a summary of the rating given these reports : 



Source of Report 



Rating 



Favorable 


Medium 


Unfavorable 


Per Cent 


Per Cent 


Per Cent 


39 


41 


20 


41 


36 


23 


57 


35 


8 


44 


41 


15 



Landlords and farm employers 
Case workers 
Work project foreman 
Farm supervisors 

All reports 



46 



37 



17 



On the whole, reports from small farm owners are best, for rural home owners next, and poorest for 
families in the tenant or agricultural laborer groups. These differences, however, are very slight 
indeed, variation being confined to three or four per cent. 

Final Rating of Families as Prospects for Rural Rehabilitation: It should be called to mind again that 
51 per cent of all relief families were classified as capable of rural rehabilitation and were individually 
studied. After completing the entire investigation for such a family, the field worker weighed care- 
fully all the evidence and gave the family a final rating as a prospect for rural rehabilitation in the 
broad sense of the term. Just what can the rural rehabilitation program do for the family and what 
are the chances of the family succeeding? Answers to these two questions determined in the final 
analysis the rating given a family. Considering, then, need and capability, 28 per cent of these 
families was rated as good prospects, 42 per cent fair, and 30 per cent poor. Families in the tenant 
and agricultural laborer groups were rated slightly lower than landowners. 

A total of 140 or approximately 1 1 per cent of the tenants and agricultural laborers classified as 
capable of rural rehabilitation was rated excellent prospects for permanent rehabilitation with the 
chance of eventually owning their own farm. These families appear certain of making a go of it 
even without much supervision. Although a relatively small number, 140 out of 1,277 tenants and 
agricultural laborers classified as capable of rural rehabilitation, these excellent prospects stand out 
as an avenue by which the government can make its first advance toward abolishing the evils of the 
tenant system in the South. In colonization or homestead projects in which fairly close supervision 
and guidance are available at the beginning, perhaps 50 per cent more, or 639 of these 1,277 tenants 
and agricultural laborers can eventually also become farm owners. To aid such families to become 
independent landowners will be both financial and human economy. 



' Of every ten tenants, one is a cash renter, two are share tenants, six are croppers, and one comes under the heading of "other." 
^ Most of the families in this last group are commonly called displaced or dispossessed tenants. 



288 



Emekgenct Relief in T^orth Carolina 




( I ) Rw al Rehabilitation client plowing his field with mule purchased through the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation, H 'ilkes County. (2) Ru- 
ral Rehabilitation client with horse and wagon puichased through the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation, Wilkes County. (3) A fine crop of beans. 
Rural Rehabilitation program. Buncombe County. (4) Rural Rehabilitation clients picking beans. Wake County. (5) Potato sprayer in 
operation on farm oj a Rural Rehabilitation client, Alleghany County. (6) Cabbage field of a Rural Rehabilitation client. Buncombe County. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 289 

The Live-At-Home Program 

In January, 1929, Goxernor O. Max Gardner held a meeting of state agricultural leaders to 
discuss'ways and means of improving farming conditions and rural life in North Carolina. At this 
conference it was decided among other things that a long-time agricultural program for the state 
should be inaugurated. The State College Agricultural Department, employing the assistance and 
suggestions of successful farmers, was asked to prepare this program. 

A detailed, long-time program was studied by agricultural leaders and it was decided to launch 
a well-organized Live-At-Home program, this effort to be a major undertaking until the state 
became as nearly as possible 100 per cent self-supporting in the production of food and feed. 

In December, 1929, the Live-At-Home program was launched, with Dean I. O. Schaub, of State 
College, as active chairman, and the campaign was carried to all North Carolina counties. In 
carrying out this program. Dean Schaub had the hearty cooperation of the press of the state, the 
Vocational Education Division, the State Department of Education, the State Department of 
Agriculture, county agricultural advisory boards, the State Health Department, ci\ic groups, 
manufacturing and industrial groups, and other agencies. 

In an address to State leaders. Governor Gardner said in part : "The idea in the phrase Live-At- 
Home as it is being applied to agriculture in North Carolina today, is not a new or original idea. 
The fact that it is not new, however, is unimportant. Few of our ideas or our beliefs or our programs 
are new. Our new ideas are usually old notions adapted to new problems. 

"Agriculture-farming in this state is faced today with many exceedingly difficult problems. Out 
of the thinking and planning and speaking about these problems by the leaders of the state, the 
phrase Li\'e-At-Home was coined. 

"The Live-At-Home program has for its main purpose the encouraging of all of us engaged in 
farming to grow for ourselves and to supply ourselves with all the food and feed-stuffs and livestock 
products necessary for family and farm consumption the year round. It would also encourage us to 
grow enough surplus to supply the small towns and the cities which are our logical markets ; and it 
would encourage the city folks of this state to give a preference to the North Carolina farmer in their 
purchase of the supplies which he grows." 

Large-Scale Rehabilitation Trends in North Carolina 

Along with such plans as the Live-At-Home program, has gone an increasing conviction that 
thorough planning must be done for thousands of North Carolina's displaced tenants, small farmers 
and others of that marginal group which makes its living from the land. Such a plan contemplating 
supervised, cooperative farm colonies, with money and capital goods advanced, to be secured by liens 
on the land and property, the plan being self-liquidating, was first submitted to a Social Service 
Conference at the University of North Carolina in July, 1933. The plan in outline form was then 
prepared for publication by Dr. Roy M. Brown, Director, Division of Social Service, N. C. ERA, 
and Charles A. Sheffield, Assistant to the Director of Extension, State College, working with Mrs. 
Thomas O'Berry, State Administrator, N. C. ERA. The plan is submitted in its entirety on page 
281. 

The Rural Rehabilitation Program, April-December, 1934 

Beginning on April i, 1934, the forementioned plan which had been forming for some time was 
put into effect. The relief program in rural areas was supplemented by a program of rural rehabili- 
tation under direction of the Rural Rehabilitation Division. The aim was to make as many relief 
families as possible, with one or more able-bodied men, self-supporting by December i. The result 
was that 10,354 families were temporarily removed from relief rolls, while 2,965 were permanently 
rehabilitated. 



290 



Emergency Relief in Noeth Carolina 




(i) Pastoral scene. (2) Hay grown and harvested by relief clients. (3) Tobacco grown, sun cured and stored by relief families. 
(4) Canning vegetables grown by relief families. (5) Home gardens. (6) Relief client distributing fertilizer on his farm. (7) Home 
garden. (8) Outdoor canning. Vegetables grown by relief families. 



Emergency Relief in N'ohth Carolina 291 

Relief families with farming experience were encouraged from the beginning to grow field crops. 
Signed agreements were made with landowners, securing the use of land in return for clearing or 
ditching the land, repairing buildings, or for a share of the crop. 

A total of 6,469 agreements was signed covering 52,868 acres. Under these agreements, which 
were in the form of leases between landlord and tenant, 3,269 tenants gave a share of their crops, 
while 531 cleared or ditched land or gave other services for use of the land. Some landlords, finan- 
cially able, with surplus land, cooperated splendidly by giving the use of land free to 1,737 tenants 
on relief, permitting them to retain all the crops. 

During the effort to place families on farms as tenants through signed agreements between land- 
lord and tenant, 11,856 additional families and 124 single persons were secured farm lands 
through share-crop agreements, thus increasing the number to 18,325 families and single persons 
growing field crops on 145,098 acres, or an average of 7.9 acres per farm. 

To get the desired acreage, however, some families had to cultivate two or three separate tracts, 
on as many different farms, which sometimes consisted of very poor land. Very few of the families 
placed on farms had any work stock, or could secure the use of a neighbor's mule in exchange for 
work. Some had farm implements, but most had neither stock nor implements. The landlord in 
many cases pro\ided work stock, but even then there was not enough to cultivate the acreage, only 
7,077 mules, horses, or steers being obtainable for 18,000 farms and 31,000 gardens. 

Through the State ERA ofl[ice, 1,000 horses and mules, and some farm implements were purchased 
and distributed. Local relief administrations purchased 51 mules and 26 steers, and some farm 
implements to aid in the program. Some work stock plowed for as many as three or four families 
each week, such animals being known as ERA community stock. 

During the planting period for field crops, family gardens were not neglected. Emphasis was 
laid on the necessity for each family to plant a garden or lose the right to any relief. The result was 
gratifying, in that 30,389 families and 972 single persons had gardens averaging an acre each. This 
was in addition to the 18,325 families who were farming, each of whom had a garden. 

Through an educational campaign, all these relief cases, 49,686, were encouraged to own a cow, 
pigs and chickens. They were also stimulated to grow in their gardens and on their farms all food 
and feed crops possible, expert direction being given to the preserving of surplus products for winter 
use. 

Seeds and plants were furnished by ERA to all relief families, and in some instances where it 
was impossible for the landlord or client to furnish fertilizer, the ERA furnished it. Some local 
relief administrations, in order to give work to many families with farming experience, not otherwise 
pro\ided with work, cultivated 3,718 acres in community gardens to raise food and feed for relief 
purposes. 

Where advances were made to the client, such as fertilizer, feed for his livestock until some 
could be raised, food, clothing, medicine, etc., repayment was to be made either in kind or by work 
done on ERA projects. Every person participating in this program understood that he or she must 
do everything possible to raise necessities, the ERA promising to assist and cooperate where necessary. 
All advances of cash and goods were to be repaid. It was made clear that this program was not in 
the nature of a dole, but a cooperative enterprise between the individual and his government to 
help overcome the problems attendant upon the depression. 

To obtain satisfactory results in any program, particularly an effort of this nature, a certain 
amount of competent supervision is necessary. Hence, during the planting and growing season a 
farm foreman, or farm supervisor, visited each garden and farm from time to time to see that planting 
and cultivating were being properly attended to, and to give counsel and advice. Special assistance 



2,9:2 



Emergency Relief in Nokth Carolina 



and encouragement were given those whose crops were affected by drought, or excessive wet spells, 
during the summer when many crops were practically destroyed or cut very short in the yield. 

The har\est of field crops was considered to be very good despite bad weather, poor land, and 
the shortage of work stock, farm implements, etc. The results obtained in this particular program 
speak well of the pride, determination and industry of those who, starting practically from nothing, 
evinced a desire to help themselves if means were provided. 

The \alue of crops raised, estimated from available data, was more than $5,500,000.00. The 
meat produced was worth over $225,000.00. Housewives canned vegetables and fruit valued in 
excess of $500,000.00. Farms under the control of local relief administrations yielded more than 
$176,000.00 worth of food and feed crops for relief purposes. 

The results of a county canning program are given here in the report of Iredell County. The figures 
included here show what is possible in a well-organized effort to can subsistence foods. An interesting 
thing to note is that in cases where canning instruction was given in the home, the canning instruc- 
tion was adapted to the available facilities, and not to ideal canning facilities. Another profitable 
by-product of canning effort is the fact that a real desire to conser\e fruits and \egetables has been 
stimulated. 

Following are given the figures, in quarts, of foodstuffs canned in the 1934 program in Iredell 
County : 

Vegetables and Fruits Canned from Indi\idual Gardens, 1934 





Quarts 




Quarts 




Quarts 


Beans 


29,444 


Okra 


1,503 


Peas 


4,810 


Beets 


1,441 


Squash 


6 


ReUsh 


71 


Apples 


11,436 


Tomatoes 


6,735 


Potato 


3,770 


Berries 


1,086 


Kraut 


276 


Pickles 


1,794 


Cucumbers 


1,271 


Carrots 


31 


Greens 


374 


Peaches 


7,424 


Soup Mixture 


4,578 


Persimmons 


39 


Plums 


23 


Apricots 


3 


Rhubarb 


32 


Corn 


23>504 


Pears 


6,041 


Butterbeans 


2 


Grapes 


320 


Damsons 
Pumpkin 


196 

1,248 


Pepper 


4 





Quarts 


Beets 


429 


Beans 


3,115 


Cucumbers 


146 


Corn 


2,364 



uarts 




Quarts 


103 


Okra 


131 


108 


Figs 


3 


1,489 


Pickles 


12 


855 


Pears 


64 



Total Quarts Canned from Individual Gardens 107,462 
County or Community Gardens 

Peaches 

Apples 

Soup Mixture 

Tomatoes 

Total Quarts Canned from County or Community Gardens 8,819 

Bought or Donated 
Beans 1,628 

Total Quarts Bought or Donated 1,628 
Canning centers, 16. 
Canning demonstrated, etc., in relief homes, 83. 

NOTE. In canning the above products, 70 per cent of the containers used was glass, thus 
allowing those containers to be used again after being sterilized. 



EMER(iENCY Relief in North Carolina 



293 



NORTH CAROLINA 
A comparison of the values of 13 principal field crops, canned vegetables and fruits, subsist- 
ence gardens, and meat, produced by Relief Families in the Farm and Garden Program in 1934. 

Total estimated value of gardens, field crops, meat, etc 36,750,775.25 

Total estiniated value of field crops grown by Administrative units 176,733.7+ 



A Comparison of \'alues 

Subsistence Gardens 
Tobacco 

Corn 

Canned Vegetables and 

Fruits 

Irish Potatoes 

Cotton 

Sweet Potatoes 

Meat 

Hay— All Tame 

Cabbage 

Turnips and Green? 

Wheat 

Cotton Seed 

Sorghum 

Peanuts 

Collards 



500,- 



7SOr 



h^-S^r 



r.500,- 



1,750,- (Add 000) 





><i,n 't 


'!!.':'/, 




','//)/ >,'///,'///,' J/,',>,',>,',',',' J >i,' 


>! 1, 442, 1 3 1. 72 



^529,387-25 




_ ^351,33375 

V'}I'!"/'IH/I'A , 
l'//////.'/'''/,'.-V//1 ^307,1 13.94 

$262,759 70 
)!2S7,585.S6 
$229,484.80 




$85,404.80 
$80,150.28 
?74,593-" 
$71,985.00 
$70,170.00 
$65,783.20 
$39,<^73-"3 



^^1 FOOD CROPS 

[\\\\1 FEED CROPS 

^\^ FOOD ,-\ND FEED CROP 

\''////\ MOXEY CROPS 



Average Xumber Families On 
Relief in Sta.te Between 
June I and November 30 

Relief Families in Farm and 
Gardens Program 

Relief Families with Gardens 
Only 

Relief Families Farming 

Relief Families Temporarily 
Rehabilitated 

Relief Families Permanently 
Rehabilitated 



25,000 
I 



50,000 
I 



18,325 or 36.9% 



10,354 or 20.8% 
or 6% 



75,000 
I 




72,832 



Several tables showing detail production, acreage^ values, etc., of ERA farms, community farms, and client farms and gardens appear in the 
Appendix. See Index. 



THE RURAL REHABILITATION CORPORATION 

Mrs. Thomas O'Berry, President 
L. H. KiTGHiN, First Vice President T. L. Grier, Secretary 

Harriet Elliott, Second Vice President C. E. Phinney, Treasurer 

Directors 

Dr. Roy M. Brown Harriet Elliott Col. Terry A. Lyon Mrs. Gordon Reid 

T. E. Browne T. L. Grier Mrs. Thomas O'Berry Dean I. O. Schaub 

C. A. Dillon L. H. Kitchin Dr. Howard Odum Dr. Carl Taylor 

Dr. Roy M. Brown, Resigned as President in 1934. N. M. Lawrence, Resigned as Secretarj in 1935. 

The foregoing material indicates the thoughtful attention which was being given to the long-time 
solution of rural problems. The consensus of informed opinion was that nothing less than a well- 
conceived plan, comprehensive in scope, efficient and self-liquidating in its application, and adapted 
to the problems existing in the various sections of the state, would suffice. Out of the foregoing 
developments, laying emphasis as they did on both indi\'idual rehabilitation and group rehabilita- 
tion in well-organized farm colonies, and in line with the general rural rehabilitation program of the 
Federal Government, the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation came into being, designed to give 
effect to the present and future rural program in this state. 

The Rural Rehabilitation Division was a major division of the N. C. ERA. The Rural Rehabil- 
itation Corporation was organized as a finance corporation to handle all the business activities of 
the division. Like many other chartered corporations it was permitted a wide scope of acti\-ities. 
All financing of clients was through the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation so that the client's 
indebtedness was through one organization. 

The officers and directors of the Corporation are non-salaried, administering the affairs of the 
Corporation as part of their regular duties. The expense of administrative personnel was paid from 
the special earmarked Division fund. 

North Carolina Rural Rehabilitation — State Functions 

The following section gives in detail the administratixe setup indicated on the foregoing chart, 
as well as specifying the extent and nature of the Corporation's relationships. 

A. State Rural Rehabilitation Staff, (i) State Director: The State Director of Rural 
Rehabilitation is responsible to the State Administrator of Relief and to the Board of Directors of 
the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation. He is responsible for the coordination of all of the functions 
of the Rural Rehabilitation Division and of the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation ; for administrative 
decisions and directions ; for plans, progress, procedure ; and for all other rural rehabilitation 
activities carried on in cooperation with other governmental agencies. (2) Executive Assistant: 
The State Rural Rehabilitation Staff", in addition to the State Director, consists of an executive 
assistant to whom is assigned the following departmental heads : (a) Assistant in charge of the 
rehabilitation of indi\'idual farm families in place (i.e., on farms where they live, or on farms obtained 
for them), (b) Assistant in charge of re-location and rehabilitation of stranded farm families in 
organized communities, (c) Assistant in charge of work centers and self-liquidating rural rehabil- 
itation works projects, (d) Assistant in charge of home economy and home making. 

The necessary specialists and trained personnel required to carry on the work of the divisions 
listed above, together with the necessary clerical and professional assistants, are made available as 



E^rERGENCY Relief in I^obth Carolina i5fl5 

needed to put into effect the acti\itics undertaken. The assistants in charge of the several divisions 
study and pass upon all acti\ities coming within the scope of that particular division, which activity 
is finally cleared through the state director. 

B. Rural Rehabilitation Field Staff. The field staff consists of the necessary technically 
trained personnel to exercise general supersision o\er all Rural Rehabilitation activities undertaken 
throughout the state. This staff serves as a liaison between the district administrations and the 
state office. 

C. Rural Rehabilitation District Staff. The district staff consists of the following : 
(i) Trained district farm supervisors, (2) Trained district home economists. 

The farm supervisors and home economists exercise super\ision ox'er the acti\ities undertaken 
within their administrati\e districts. 

D. Rural Rehabilitation County Organizations. Farm foremen working under the 
supervision of the District Farm Supervisor, and in cooperation with the County Farm Demon- 
stration Agent, supervises the farm acti\'ities within the county unit. And in like manner one or 
more home makers, working under the District Home Economists and in cooperation with the 
County Home Demonstration Agent is assigned to each county unit to carry on the home making 
activities. 

E. Personal Approval, (i) All field representatives are appointed by the state admin- 
istration. (2) All county and district personnel is appointed by the district administration and 
approved by the state administration. 

F. Relation to the Social Service Division. All Rural Rehabilitation clients are first 
recommended by the Social Ser\ice Di\ision of the Emergency Relief Administration for review. 
Those approved by the District Rural Rehabilitation Supervisor are referred to the County Rural 
Rehabilitation Ad\isory Committee for consideration and must be approved by the district admin- 
istrator and referred to the State Director of Rural Rehabilitation. 

G. County Rural Rehabilitation Advisory Committees. County Rural Rehabilitation 
Advisory Committees in each county are formed from the following groups : County Farm Demon- 
stration Agents ; County Home Demonstration Agents ; Vocational Agricultural Teachers ; Home 
Economics Teachers and Representati\ es ; citizens from farm organizations, business groups and 
women's organizations. 

H. Family Budget. Individual family budgets are prepared by the county field staff, reviewed 
by the county advisory committee, submitted to the district administrator and if approved by the 
administrator, forwarded to the state office for final approval. 

I. Relation to the Works Division of the ERA. Construction and other works activities 
in\ol\ing engineering, planning, and construction are supervised and executed by the Works 
Di\ision of the ERA. 

J. Relation to the Finance Division of the ERA. All finances of state corporations are 
disbursed to the district through a duly elected treasurer of the corporation and accounted for by 
the district through the bonded oflficials of the Finance and Auditing Division of the ERA. All 
repayments by rural rehabilitation clients to the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation are made through 
and accounted for by the Finance and Accounting Division of the ERA. 

K. Relation to the Statistical Division of the ERA. All rural rehabilitation statistics are 
cleared through and are recorded by the Statistical Division of the ERA. 

L. Relation to Public Division of the ERA. All rural rehabilitation publicity is collected 
by and released thi'ough the Public Relations Division of the ERA. 



296 



Emergency Relief in Worth Carolina 




(i) Rural Rehabilitation clients harvesting Irish potatoes near Rocky Mount, Nash County. (2) Horse and colt belonging to Rural Re- 
habilitation client. Wake County. (3) Livestock of Rural Rehabilitation client, Durham County. (4) Tobacco crop oj Rural Rehabilitation 
client, Durham County. (5) Rural Rehabilitation client with his peanut and corn crop, Edgecombe County. (6) Colt belonging to Rural 
Rehabilitation client, Edgecombe County, 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 297 

M. Relationship With Other Governmental Agencies. Activities with other governmental 
agencies, such as the Farm Credit Administration, Federal Surplus Land Corporation, Soil Erosion 
Service, etc., are undertaken in accordance with signed agreements entered into between the 
Rural Rehabilitation Division of the State ERA and the governmental agency in question. 

N. Execution of Rural Rehabilitation Corporation Functions. All functions of the 
Rural Rehabilitation Corporation are executed by the Rural Rehabilitation Director through the 
District and State Administrations. 

0. Relationship Between Rural Rehabilitation Client and Rural Rehabilitation 
Corporation. When a relief client is approved by the State Rural Rehabilitation Division for 
rehabilitation, he is removed from the relief rolls and all advances from this point on are made from 
Rural Rehabilitation Corporation funds, secured by proper liens, notes and chattels, and are to be 
repaid to the Corporation and used by the Corporation as a revolving fund. The supervisory staff 
of the Rural Rehabilitation Division supervises all activities of approved rural rehabilitation clients. 

Rehabilitation Plans Under the Corporation 

Experience gained in rural rehabilitation efforts in this and other states during these last years 
has led steadily to the conviction that no one plan will answer adequately the needs of all persons, 
or of geographically separated communities, which figure in a general program. For persons are 
as sectional in their thinking and actions as are localities. Added to this fact are individual 
temperamental diflferences which serve to reinforce sectional tradition. Also in separate sections 
of the state, farming practices, varied crops and farming traditions, add themselves to the universally 
admitted indi\idualism of the farmer, to render the application of any one general plan extremely 
unwise. 

Recognizing this fact, and to meet the problem, the program of rural rehabilitation under the 
Rehabilitation Corporation is so divided as to give it the necessary degree of elasticity. There are 
four major sections of the general plan : 

1. The rehabilitation of families on individual farms ; 

2. The re-location and rehabilitation of stranded farm families in organized communities ; 

3. Rural work centers, in conjunction with farming, where small industries for the benefit of 
the rural community will be fostered, and self-liquidating rural rehabilitation work projects operated ; 

4. The department of home economy and home making. 

I. Rehabilitation of Families on Individual Farms 

Approximately 90 per cent of the persons already approved for rehabilitation are located on 
indi\idual farms. It is not always necessary to move a family from its present location or to a farm 
colony in order to successfully rehabilitate it. Frequently debt adjustment, an agreement with 
the landlord, the purchase of needed implements, stock, or fertilizer, are all that is necessary. Where 
this can be done it is done. 

In the period elapsing from the beginning of the Rural Rehabilitation Program under the 
Corporation, and February 25, 1935, when the weekly reports were begun, 4,025 families were 
accepted. The chart on page 299, giving week-by-week data, reveals the steady growth in the num- 
ber of cHents appro\'ed. 

A prime consideration governing the selection of clients, and one implicit in the whole program, 
is the desire to preserve the home as a significant social unit, providing that type of life in pleasant 
surroundings most conducive to the development of healthy, intelligent, and independent citizens. 
It is felt, and for ample reason, that if the home can be preserved, then, in most cases a piece of basic 
and profitable social work will have been done. 



298 



Emergency Relief in T^oeth Carolina 




'■.'M^aBK:>^J^'W 



S*.**^- 



(i) RR family with livestock purchased through the RRC, Iredell County. (2) RR client feeding his chickens, Carteret County. (3) 
RR client plowing fields with steer purchased through RRC, Jones County. (4) A typical RR family, Iredell County. (5) RR client 
and mare purchased through RRC, Wilkes County. (6) RR family and livestock purchased through RRC, Iredell County. (7) RR client 
and steer purchased through the RRC, Iredell County 



Emergency Relief in Nokth Carolina 299 

A CHART SHOWING THE NUMBER OF RURAL REHABILITATION CLIENTS ACCEPTED, WEEK 
BY WEEK, AND THE AVERAGE AMOUNT OF FUNDS ADVANCED 

Feb. 25 March 2 March 9 March 16 March 23 March 30 April 6 

1. Number of families previously accepted for 

Rural Rehabilitation 3,101 4,025 4,405 4,946 5,589 6,311 6,853 

2. Number of families accepted for Rural Re- 

habilitation week ending 924 380 541 643 722 542 451 

3. Number family plans returned or held in 

office during week for additional infor- 
mation 266 30 22 76 141 50 29 

4. Number family plans rejected week of 12 4 42 

5. Number families accepted to date 4,025 4,405 4,946 5,589 6,311 6,853 7,304 

6. Number families canceled to date 

7. Total number families remaining on Rural 

Rehabilitation rolls 4,025 4,405 4,946 5,589 6,311 6,853 7,304 

8. Average amount of ad\'ances approved per 

family (for 6 months — -Jan. i to July i, 

1935)- 
Subsistence 

Operating expenses 

Capital goods 



S 55-46 


$ 58.25 


$ 61,32 


$ 68.90 


$ 61.49 


S 63.80 


S 69.65 


142.06 


126.65 


130.85 


132.61 


119-56 


'37-73 


149-54 


106.27 


III. 27 


150-91 


148-75 


169.20 


179-69 


182.46 



April 13 April 20 April 27 May 4 May 11 May 18 May 25 



7,304 


7,688 


8,058 


8,210 


8,396 


8,556 


8,651 


384 


370 


15.2 


186 


160 


95 


137 


42 


15 


I 


2 


9 


7 


2 




I 

















7,688 


8,058 


8,210 


8,396 


8,556 


8,651 


8,788 


235* 


252' 


261* 


303 


303 


672 


1,032 



1 . Number of families previously accepted for 

Rural Rehabilitation 

2. Number families accepted for Rural Re- 

habilitation week ending 

3. Number family plans returned or held in 

office during week for additional infor- 
mation 

4. Number family plans rejected week of 

5. Number families accepted to date 

6. Number families canceled to date 

7. Total number families remaining on Rural 

Rehabilitation rolls 7,453 7,806 7,949 8,093 8,253 7,979 7,756 

8. Average amount of advances approved per 

family (for 6 months — -Jan. i to July i, 

1935) : 

Subsfstence $ 59.06 $ 54.47 $ 57.79 S 55-42t $ 33-34t S 30.6ot 

Operating expenses 127.17 114.94 99-00 103.40 95-89 104.50 

Capital goods 176.46 154.06 104.14 112.76 130.28 132.39 

* This figure represents total cancellations to date, and not merely for the week in which the figure is shown on the report. 
t These allotment averages for subsistence show a slight decrease, because of the fact that these items are approved only for 
the period covered by the budgets. 

Rural Rehabilitation Farm Colonies and Work Centers 

As INDICATED previously, in the operation of the Rural Rehabilitation Program, relief families 
are located (i) on individual farms ; (2) with small groups on selected land ; and (3) in large colonies. 
Soil and other conditions obtaining in certain sections of the state render it advisable to concentrate 
clients in these areas in colonies where, with greater possibility of a well-rounded rehabilitation 
program, more effective work can be done. 

The colony rehabilitation plan will provide the following features : 

a. Indi\"idual farm ownership under group management. 

b. The ad\-antages and economies of ownership, by the group, of heavy farm equipment with 
a minimum capital outlay per family. 



300 



Emergency Relief ik N"oeth Carolina 







(i) Tenant house before purchase by Rural Rehabilitation Corporation, Wake County. (2) Same house remodeled for RR client. 
(3) Home Economics supervisor teaching canning in RR homes, Mecklenburg County. (4) Home remodeled for RR family, Stokes County. 
(5) Cabbage grown by RR client, Carteret County. (6) Cash crop — -cotton grown by RR client, Craven County. 



Emergency Relief in J^Torth Carolina 301 

c. Rehabilitation of families, socially, economically, morally, and educationally by group 
instruction from agriculture economists, social workers, educators and home economists. 

d. Work centers for increasing the earnings of colony members, by providing part-time employ- 
ment, and by securing higher returns through processing their farm products, and for rendering 
ser\'ices to a community which are not otherwise available. 

e. Recreation advantages from park areas to be provided in all colony projects. Social contacts 
and cooperation will be through group meetings. 

f Cooperative ownership of group-owned facilities, such as land, parks, farm machinery, etc. 
g. The advantages of cooperative buying and marketing. 

At the present time there are three farm colony projects in the process of development. These 
are located in Wake County on the Beale Johnson Farm, in Halifax County on the Tillery Farm, 
and in Tyrrell County on the Magnolia Farm. 

Beale Johnson Farm Colony 

This farm is located in Wake County, 13 miles south of Raleigh on paved highway No. 21. 
There are 582 acres owned by the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation in this tract, and options have 
been secured on 278 adjoining acres making a total of 860 acres to be incorporated in this project. 
It is anticipated that approximately 30 to 32 families will be located in this colony. Surveys are 
now being made to determine the number of families that the land will advantageously support. 
The size of each farm will be approximately 30 acres. The estimated gross income from each 
individual farm per annum should be approximately $1,400.00. This would be supplemented by 
part-time employment in the work center and some increased value of their farm products by 
processing same at the work center. 

Work Center 

Near the center of this tract of land is to be located the work center consisting of a canning 
plant, wood working, and blacksmith shop, cane mill, hatchery, potato storage house, flour, feed 
and corn mill and a community house in which will be located a library, sewing room and an 
assembly room. During the summer months education and recreation camps are to be conducted 
for underprivileged members of relief families. The buildings composing this work center are being 
artistically grouped in an area surrounding the lake on this place in accordance with plans of our 
landscape architect. 

The operation of this work center will give full-time employment to about 3 or 4 persons and 
part-time employment to the other members of this colony. The facilities here provided will enable 
the members of this colony to very materially enhance the value of their farm products by processing 
the same with their own labor with the use of the facilities here provided. 

Group Farming Equipment: A number of units of heavy farming equipment, such as tractors, 
fertiUzer distributors, stalk cutters, corn planters, threshing machines and hay balers, etc., will be 
acquired for the use of families in this colony to enable them to obtain the advantages and economies 
these machines afford in connection with their farm operation. This machinery will be group- 
owned and the investment amortized by reasonable charges for their use by each family. 

Social and Educational Advantages : Near the center of this colony will be located a community 
house equipped with a library, reading room, sewing room and assembly room. In this building the 
families of this colony will have the advantage of various social activities under the direction of a 
social and home economics worker. There will also be conducted at this place at various times classes 
or lectures in educational subjects that will be instrumental in the development of the families in 



302 



Emergency Relief in Xorth Carolina 





(i) Stallion belonging to Rural Rehabilitation client. 
Farm, Tyrrell Coimtv. 



Magnolia Farm, Tyrrell County. (2) Part of the beef cattle herd on Magnolia 



EiiERriENCY Relief in North Carolina 303 

this colony. Vocational teachers from the county, and State Agriculture College will be axailable 
for conducting classes in \ocational subjects. 

Recreational Advantages: A portion of the area of this farm bordering on the lake will be set up 
in a park where the members of this colony can congregate and conduct recreational programs that 
they may formulate from time to time. Swimming, bathing, boating and fishing facilities will be 
a\ailable at this park. 

Group Marketing: The entire colony will be operated under the direction and management of a 
competent man experienced in farm operations and marketing, and members of this colony will 
ha\e the advantage of co6perati\'e marketing of their farm products through this manager and the 
ad\'antages of group buying of fertilizer and other supplies needed in the operation of their farms. 

Group Ownership: The work center, park area, heavy equipment, etc., owned by the colony will 
be controlled through a corporation owned by the members of this colony. The work center is 
planned on a self-liquidating basis through a system of tolls, and ownership will therefore eventually 
pass to the co6perati\-ely owned corporation. 

What Is a Community Work Center? 

A Rural Community Work Center is a small cooperative enterprise, mainly industrial in nature, 
for rural communities. It is established on a self-liquidating business basis and upon liquidation 
becomes locally owned and operated. Community Work Centers may be established where com- 
munities are sufficiently interested to furnish building material and necessary donated labor according 
to their ability, all subject to the approval of the North Carolina Rural Rehabilitation Corporation, 
and where a sufficient number of families are being rehabilitated. 

Objectives for Centers 

To pro\ide means and equipment by which rehabilitation and other families can help themselves : 
Making use of raw materials in the community not being utilized ; develop skill in making useful 
articles for themselves ; supplying needs which families could not satisfy otherwise ; exchange services 
and materials by a planned system of barter ; establishing a market for the sale and exchange of 
surplus products which will help provide a cash income ; providing facilities for participation in 
group acti\ities in Health, Education and Recreation ; providing profitable occupation for spare 
time. 

Magnolia Farm 

This farm is located in Tyrrell County, South Fork Township. There are 1,200 acres owned 
by the Corporation in this farm. In addition to this, 10,000 acres adjoining have been deeded to 
the Corporation by Tyrrell County on the condition that this land be cleared and developed. 
Options have been obtained on 1,003 acres of additional lands adjoining this property making a 
grand total of 12,030 acres in this development. This project will provide farms for approximately 
300 famihes with an average of 40 acres each. The estimated gross income from each individual 
farm should average approximately $1,500.00 per annum. In addition to this, these farm families 
should be able to obtain some income from part-time work at the work center. This colony will 
also be provided with a work center, group-owned farming equipment and other ad\antages as 
enumerated abo\'e in connection with the Beale Johnson Project. 

Recreation: Adjoining this property is a large lake known as Lake Phelps that is owned by the 
State of North Carolina. The Department of Conservation and Development contemplates devel- 
oping an area around this lake as a State or National Park. This will aflford excellent recreational 



304 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 




J'-^!%?::!iife'?W( 



(i) Beate Johnson Rural Rehabilitation farm, showing bridge over the dam and the grist mill. Wake County. (2) View of lake, Beale 
Johmon Rural Rehabilitation farm. Wake County, (3) Temporary house built by Rural Rehabilitation Corporation for Rural Rehabilitation 
client, Perquimans County, (4) Part of canned vegetables and fruit grown and canned by Rural Rehabilitation client on Magrwliafarm, Tyrrell 
County, (5) Sweet potato crop of a Rural Rehabilitation client in Durham County, (6) Sweet potato and corn crops of a Rural Rehabilita- 
tion client in Durham County. 



Emebgency Relief in IsTorth Caeolina 305 

advantages to the members of this colony in^the way of fishing, boating and swimming. It will also 
ha\e this and other advantages mentioned in connection with the Beale Johnson Farm. 

TiLLERY Farm Colony 

The Tillery Farm Colony, embracing the Tillery Farm, the Pierce Farm, the Jones Farm and 
the Fenner Farm, located in Halifax County, midway between Scotland Neck and Halifax, is the 
scene of one of the most important enterprises of the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation. This 
farm has 5,047 acres of land, located on the Roanoke River, all of which is leased for three years 
with an option to purchase. 

An organized rural community, under expert supervision, is proposed at Tillery Farm, following 
the same general plans as obtain at the Beale Johnson Farm. Approximately from 200-300 families 
will be cared for at the Tillery Farm. 

At present 8 families have been placed on the Beale Johnson Farm, 40 on the Magnolia Farm, and 
87 on the Tillery Farm. 

The Rural Home Economics Program, With an Indication of the Functions of the Social 
Service Supervisor, the Rural Rehabilitation Supervisor, and the Home Economist 

As an important and integral part of the rural rehabilitation grogram, trained and experienced 
Home Economists have been assigned to each of the 32 ERA districts in North Carolina. These 
persons will have charge of organizing and directing home economics services for all relief and rural 
rehabilitation clients. Each will have a home maker directly in charge of the work in a county 
with perhaps several junior home makers, this depending upon the nature and size of the problem 
in the various localities. 

The work of the Social Service Supervisor, the Home Economist, and the Rural Rehabilitation 
Supervisor is parallel. Each department of activity will have its particular function and will not 
duplicate the activities of the other. As these persons are all working with the same clients, there is 
the necessity for the most complete cooperation and understanding in carrying out plans for the 
families. 

A. Duties of the Social Service Supervisor, the Rural Rehabilitation Supervisor, and the 
Home Economist in relation to rehabilitation families : 

1 . The Social Service Supervisor: It is the responsibility of this officer to direct the activities of 
those case workers having to do with rehabilitation clients, in giving such advances in the form of 
food and clothing, as the budget may indicate ; of working with the family on problems of individual 
and family adjustment ; of helping in the formation and carrying out of family plans of a social 
rehabilitation nature, and in short of performing any advisory, analytical or other services as will 
best assist the family in its social progress. 

2. The Rural Rehabilitation Supervisor: A primary function of this officer is to counsel with the 
case worker and the prospective rehabilitation client, regarding the client's fitness and aptitude for 
rural rehabilitation. After the client is accepted, this Supervisor advises with the case worker and 
client in the matter of the budget, which budget is then sent to the state office for approval. After 
final approval, it becomes the duty of this Supervisor, working with farm foremen to oversee all of 
the agricultural activities of the client, to recommend plans, to transmit state policies, and in general 
to exercise such competent control of the farming done under his supervision, as will guarantee, by 
using the best farming methods, that, all other conditions being favorable, the client will receive the 
maximum return for energy and capital expended. The farm foreman in each county will be 
expected to keep such contact with each cHent, as will allow him to advise the client when the cHent's 

20 



306 Emergency Eelief in ISToeth Carolina 

crop is in proper condition, of opportunities for gainful employment by the day, and will aid the 
client to find such employment. 

3. The Home Economist: It is a primary function of this officer to keep in close contact with the 
Social Service Supervisor, in selecting typical rural rehabilitation clients, and relief clients to be 
visited. Before \'isiting families, the Home Economist will talk with the case worker, and study to 
become familiar with case records and family budget plans of families selected. With the limitations 
in mind as set by the relief subsistence allowance to the family, or set by the subsistence items approved 
on the family's rehabilitation budget, the Home Economist will find out by personal interviews 
whether the families are using their allowances for the best interests of their health and social welfare. 

The Home Economist will demonstrate to clients only those methods of home economy which 
they are reasonably assured the clients are able to carry through. The Home Economist will be 
particularly valuable in discovering means of obtaining the results desired without going outside 
the possibilities of the family budget. The Horne Economist and the Home Demonstration Agents 
in each district will make definite plans for each county, thus utilizing the combined resources of 
both organizations. 

The first and perhaps one of the most important acti\ities of the home economics department 
will lie in the direction of organizing and projecting a comprehensive home canning campaign. 
It is felt that it is more \aluable to teach families to can food in their own homes with equipment 
available there, than to use modernly equipped community canning centers. Where such a program 
does not appear feasible, for example with many urban families, small community canning centers 
may be used. 

As a supplement to the home canning program, eight rather large canneries will be operated in 
areas in which a surplus of truck \egetables or fruit may be expected. Meat canneries used in the 
cattle program are being partially dismantled, and some of the equipment being converted into these 
vegetable or fruit canneries. The typical cannery of this type will consist of two retorts (capacity 
165 No. 3 cans), one large cooking kettle, one power sealer, or three automatic hand sealers, blanching 
vat, etc. 

It is proposed that these canneries preserve \egetable or fruit surpluses of relief or rural rehabilita- 
tion clients, and possibly of farmers in general. They will be operated on a toll basis. Furthermore, 
it may happen that in the event of the frequent collapse of the trucking market, large quantities of 
\egetables or fruit can be obtained by the ERA merely for the picking. The canneries will also be 
used to preserve such a general surplus. 

Rural Rehabilitaiion Projects 

The Rural Rehabilitation Corporation projects must meet the two requirements of all ERA 
projects in that the proposed activity must be socially and economically desirable, and it must be 
needed. In addition to these, however, there is a third requirement for RR projects. They 
must be self-liquidating. Self-liquidating projects are those projects whose cost will be amortized 
within a reasonable length of time. One such project has already repaid the full amount of advances 
for labor and materials, and has brought a profit to the Corporation. This project is the propagation 
of scuppernong \-ines carried on in Beaufort, Bladen, Columbus, Cumberland, Duplin, Hoke, 
Moore, Richmond, Robeson, Sampson, and Scotland counties. 

Propagating Scuppernong Grape Vines 

North Carolina is the original habitat of the scuppernong grape. The counties of the Upper 
Coastal Plain are well adapted to its culture and in these counties there are many home \ineyards. 
In several of these counties there are commercial vineyards most of which have been allowed to 



Emergency Eelief in ISTorth Carolina 307 

deteriorate during the last several years. It is believed that it is possible to levive the grape industry 
and to expand it within this and other Southern States. This will give a considerable section a new 
non-competitive industry which can be used to supplement the income of rehabilitation families. 

Vines leased from individual growers are now being layered, with a view of producing rooted 
cuttings for distribution to relief clients, and to other Southern States which do not have sufficient 
\ines to meet their needs. Forty-six thousand five hundred thirty-three vines have already been 
cut and sold to Georgia, Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana. The income from vines already sold is 
in excess of the cost of propagation. In addition to shoots transported to these states, vines will be 
transplanted to the farms of RR clients in sections where small vineyards will be profitable as a 
means of cash income. 

Seed Project 

This project was set up for the purpose of packing and distributing garden seed to ERA as well 
as RR clients. By packing the seeds, which were bought on a low-bid basis, and tested in the 
State Laboratory, within the state, it was thought possible to secure higher quality seed, better 
adapted \'arieties, while creating at the same time a valuable work project. 

Three hundred twenty-four thousand five hundred sixty-eight pounds of seed were bought at a 
cost (deli\'ered) of $29,358.82. All packing for distribution was done in the ERA cannery building 
in Raleigh, the seed being packed in packages of two sizes, sufficient for one-eighth of an acre (cost 
55 cents) and for one-fourth of an acre (cost 96 cents). 

A total of 49,302 packages was sent out, having a value of $37,480.08. In addition, bulk seed 
to the value of $1,857.63 were shipped. 

Effort is being made to begin growing in the state such of these seed as are practical, for example, 
field peas, and onion sets. This properly developed would give RR clients a good cash crop and 
develop a definite source of seed having better adaptability. 

Sawmill Project 

On property owned by the RR Corporation in Chatham County, a used sawmill equipped 
with a 30 horse-power boiler, 20 horse-power high speed engine, and a 48-inch saw has been erected 
and is ready for operation. The mill is to be supervised by one employee, who will act as logging 
foreman and sawyer. All labor is to be furnished by the Transient Bureau. It will be mid-summer, 
however, before timber can be hauled from the swamp and lowlands. 

It is estimated that the wood to be cut contains a million feet of sawed lumber, which lumber will 
be turned over to the Corporation for use in a state-wide building program. 

Quarrying, Grinding and Disposal of Agricultural Lime 

It is generally recognized that North Carolina farms have a very depleted soil condition, due in 
many instances to the lack of sufficient lime elements in the soil. 

Surveys, conducted by Farm Agents in cooperation with the State College of Agriculture and 
State Extension Service indicate that several million tons of lime are needed on North Carolina soils. 

Another survey was made of lime deposits in western North Carolina. Samples of lime from these 
deposits were collected and analyzed in the College Laboratory. This survey revealed that com- 
mercial agricultural lime is available in sufficient quantities in some eight or ten counties in western 
North Carolina to supply the agricultural lime requirements for that and other sections of the state 

State plans have been prepared for leasing unused lime quarries, acquiring lime grinding equip- 
ment, and projects prepared for the quarrying and grinding of lime in those counties in which 
agricultural lime deposits are found. It is planned that this lime, when ground, be sold first to the 



308 



EMER(iEN"(,'Y EeLIEF IX N'oRTH CaROI.INA 




(i) Farm of Rural Rehabilitation client. Wake County. (2) A Rural Rehabilitation family enjoying their watermelons, Edgecombe 
County. (3) First Rural Rehabilitation colt born on Magnolia farm, Tyrrell County. (4) Wheat field of Rural Rehabilitation client ready 
for harvest. Wake County. (5) Rural Rehabilitation client with his mule and corn crop. Craven County. (6) Rural Rehabilitation client 
with cotton and corn crops on Tillery Farm, Halifax County. (7) Rural Rehabilitation mules in Wilson County. 



Emergency Eelief in N'orth Carolina 309 

Rural Rehabilitation and relief clients, and second to other farmers needing and desiring lime 
through that area of the state. In all cases the lime is to be made available to farmers at exactly 
the cost of quarrying and grinding. 

Housing Construction and Repair 

Every opportunity for adequate housing will be afforded the individual RR clients, as well as 
those in colonies. The securing of houses has been accomplished by three methods ; first, repairing 
or rebuilding on lands owned or controlled by clients ; second, repairing and building on land that 
can be leased with option to buy for clients ; and third, repairing and building in and around work 
centers and in rural industrial communities which will be owned and controlled by the Corporation. 

If the client lives on his own land, or on land secured for him, in a home which can be advan- 
tageously repaired, such repairs will be made up to the limit of what he can repay in 3 years. 

If the client li\'es on his own land but in an unfit home, the RR Corporation will build a home 
up to a certain limit, the client being given from 1-35 years to repay the loan. If the client owns 
neither land nor home, land will be secured on advantageous terms, the existing home repaired if 
possible, or a new home erected. Repairs and painting done on homes will be paid for within 
three years. 

Portable Houses 

Where houses were needed immediately, temporary portable houses are being erected. These 
houses are built in units of two rooms, with detachable porch and kitchen. The one-unit houses 
will be used for the smaller size families, while two such units will be combined for families of larger 
size. These houses are designed to take care of the families during the crop season. 

When land has been purchased by the client, the temporary houses will be taken apart, moved 
to the location selected, and transformed into permanent living quarters for rehabilitation clients. 
The units are so constructed that when taken apart they can be moved on a truck. 

Approving Clients for Rural Rehabilitation 

The ultimate success of a rehabilitation program is to be found not alone in the type of charter 
granted the Corporation, nor is the responsibility wholly that of supervisory personnel. The real 
measure of the program's success lies to a great extent with the quality, the ability, and the determi- 
nation of the clients themselves. 

There is a certain amount of popular misconception relating to the selection of rural rehabilita- 
tion clients. It is sometimes believed that clients are selected indiscriminately, and that after 
acceptance, the clients, who have been granted anything for which they asked, are allowed to follow 
any individual course which seems good to them. Another view is that clients are too heavily 
supervised, that they labor under a great weight of "red tape." 

Both views are equally erroneous. It is obviously the part of wisdom in administering a program 
fraught with such significance, that every elTort should be made to select applicants wisely. It is 
certainly inaccurate to believe that clients are selected indiscriminately. Nor is it true that there is 
an excess of "red tape," so-called. The procedures are as simple as possible in view of the importance 
of the issues involved. A brief resume of the procedure which a client follows will be given here in 
order to clarify the routine. 

All clients are selected from the relief rolls, and are among those regularly investigated by visitors 
in the Social Service Division. It is from this division that the recommendation is first made. 
The cUent then comes before the Rural Rehabilitation Supervisor, who is a member of the district 
staff, and the client's farming history is investigated. 



310 Emergency Relief ix Nokth Carolina 

Each of these officers, the Social Service Supervisor, and the Rural Rehabilitation Super\'isor, 
make every possible effort to ascertain, on the basis of the applicant's credit history, his general 
reputation, his history with the relief agency, his knowledge of farming, the fact that he has made his 
living by farming during the last five years, and other relevant considerations, whether or not it will 
be to the advantage of the applicant and to the Corporation to have the application accepted. 

If it is agreed to recommend the client for acceptance by the Corporation, a budget is prepared, 
countersigned by the District Administrator, and sent to state headquarters for approval. After 
approval by the state office, the budget is returned to the district office, and thenceforward the 
client is party to an agreement made with the Corporation, and works under supervision provided 
by the Corporation. 

It may be repeated here that the final measure of success to be obtained in individual cases will 
be governed to a large extent by the individuals themselves. There is no peculiar insight vouch- 
safed the personnel of the Emergency Relief Administration which permits them to predict with 
complete accuracy the outcome of any particular client's rehabilitation history. When dealing 
with human beings, all activities are governed by the complexities which inhere in human nature. 
The best that can be done is to use the best intelligence available, and to exercise every permissible 
caution in selecting persons and administering the program, with the general assurance that the same 
considerations which affect human conduct in other directions will operate here. Naturally the 
outcome will be guaranteed only in so far as all conditions which are operati\e will allow it to be 
guaranteed. 

Compilation, Approval, and Enforcement of North Carolina Rural Rehabilitation 

Family Budgets 

A. Compiling the Budget 

The Rural Rehabilitation family budget was drawn up by the Assistant Director of Rural 
Rehabilitation in November, 1934. Copies of this form were sent to the Social Service Divisions 
of the several districts of the state where items suggested on the budget form were filled in to meet 
the needs of individual clients. Case workers recommended clients for rehabilitation and itemized 
their subsistence requirements. RR county farm foremen then listed operating expenses, farm 
equipment and livestock necessary for the cultivation of crops planned for the clients. A farm plan 
was also prepared for each client. 

With the complete needs of the family shown on the budget, signatures of the case worker, farm 
foreman, director of relief and that of the applicant were affixed. The budget was then put in the 
hands of the local RR Board for consideration. The signature of the Chairman of this body 
signified the Board's appro\'al of the budget as submitted to the state office. An RR card and 
social worker's case history accompanied each budget. 

B. Adoption of the Budget 
Budgets submitted to the N. C. RR Division for adoption were approved as follows : 

Subsistence Items, Numbers i, 2 and j on the budget: The amount of food and clothing allotted a 
family was determined primarily by the number of persons in the family. A schedule of food and 
clothing needs for rural families of different sizes prepared by a nutrition adviser on the staff of the 
State ERA was useful in approving these items on the budgets. Allowances for fuel, light, medical 
care, and household necessities were determined by the size of the request and the explanation of 
the need as shown in the case history accompanying the budget. The ability of the family to repay — 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 311 

in so far as this ability was shown by the acreage to be planted by the client — was also considered 
in the appro\al of these items for clients. 

Farm Equipment, No. 4: Farm equipment was approved where the short inventory of items 
already a\ailable to clients showed such equipment to be lacking. The total amount approved 
was again limited by the acreage tillable, particularly cash acreages of cotton, tobacco and peanuts. 
Type of soil, distribution of crops, and kind of work stock to be used were other factors considered. 

Farm Supplies, No. j.- A schedule for the different topographical sections of the state showing 
quantity and cost of seed needed, kind, amount and cost of fertilizer was prepared by an agricultural 
consultant connected with the N. C. RR Division staff for the assistance of those approving these 
items on the budgets. 

Livestock, No. 6: Total acreage to be cultivated, and the cropping system as shown on the budget, 
determined the number and value of livestock approved. 

Actual Bridget by the Month, No. j: The budget as approved was then distributed over the six 
months' period. All livestock, farm equipment, farm supplies and household equipment have been 
pro\ided the client during the month in which his budget was accepted. This has been done to 
enable the client to begin farming operations and set up his household establishment immediately. 
Food, clothing and light have been distributed over the full six months' period Medical care and 
small household articles have been placed in the first months of the budget. By placing operating 
expenses and capital goods in January, February and March, as new budgets have been received 
in these months, the average per family for the first three months is almost twice the amount approved 
for the same families for the second three months. 

C. Enforcement of the Budget 

Home economists have been placed in each district to assist RR families in living within the 
subsistence allowances granted them. Home economists are assisted by local home makers in each 
county where the number of RR families justifies their employment. The spending of allowances 
for farm equipment, farm supplies, and livestock is supervised by the RR farm foreman. With 
the consent of the case worker, home economist and farm foreman, the value of any items covered 
by the crop lien — whether subsistence or operating expenses — may be transferred to other approved 
items also covered by the lien, so long as the total of the lien is not exceeded. The value of approved 
capital goods may also be exchanged for other approved capital goods, so long as the total amount 
approved on the budget is not exceeded. Responsibility for staying within the approved budget — 
with such shifting of items as aforementioned — lies with the local case worker, home economist, and 
farm foreman who supervise the home life and farming activities of the client. 

The Outlook for Rural Rehabilitation in North Carolina 

There are certain practical conclusions to which the N. C. ERA has been led after considering 
the results of the study directed by Mr. Blackwell upon which its program was so largely based, and 
after its experience with rural rehabilitation measures over the last three years. 

It would be inappropriate here to engage in an exhaustive treatise in the field of agricultural 
economics. It is proper, however, to direct attention of interested persons to certain findings, which 
findings are based on factors occurring with sufficient frequency to be termed typical. The issues, 
if they can be separated, are in the main two — economic and social. These issues, although they 
may be separated for discussion, must in the last analysis be treated as but two aspects of one problem. 

The rural economic problem is infinitely complex. Suffice it to say that in the economy of farm 
life, two major essentials are long-time credit, and assured markets. As to the first it is a patent truth 
that ordinary commercial credit is of but little value for the farmer. He lacks the ability possessed 



312 Emergency Relief ijst Worth Carolina 

by the manufacturer to control production. And when he has successfully produced a crop, a large 
array of factors enter to disturb the delicate balance which exists between the farm producer and the 
distant consumer. Or if he has contracted for credit, the operation of natural forces over which he 
has but little control at present, prolonged dry or wet spells, destructive storms and blight, enter to 
nullify his efforts. So it would seem quite obvious that if he is to operate at all he must have long- 
time cheap credit. Cheap credit may not yield the return realized from gilt-edged bonds, but its 
deficiency in monetary interest will be compensated by its important function in stabilizing the 
foundation of subsistence on which our national life depends. 

The question of markets is one which cannot be easily settled. Again many factors enter. Crop 
surplusage, resulting in a glutted market ; competition between agricultural areas, with the market 
going to the one most favored by natural conditions ; inability to market (by the small farmer) due 
to preferential transportation rates ; the unsatisfactory experience of many farmers with commission 
men ; variation in demand for certain products ; these and other factors make the problem of market- 
ing a highly complex one. It is quite true however, and here the problem becomes emphatically a 
human one, that there is no lack of a market right in this country if everyone were able to purchase 
what he actually needs for subsistence. Hence the problem of finding adequate markets should 
be largely settled when general economic conditions have become so readjusted that more buying 
power will be put into the hands of millions of Americans now living "on margin." 

The social aspects of our problem have been suggested throughout. No longer can men afford 
to take refuge in the easy solution that "these people have never known any better, have never had 
any more." Nor can we afford in the larger percentage of cases to identify want and poverty with 
some moral lack in the individual. There has been a progressive degeneration of some fine racial 
stocks in this country due to no other reason than either our cupidity or our stupidity, a rigid reluc- 
tance to accept a basic social truth, that there can be no significant progress or prosperity for some 
unless there is progress and prosperity for all. Our preoccupation with material well-being has 
blinded us to the steady drainage on our human resources, a drainage which the people concerned 
did not initiate and were largely powerless to stop. 

Systematic adult education is another objective which must be realized in an adequate rural 
program. That rural life must be made more attractive by the addition of cultural factors is a basic 
consideration in the thought of many rural leaders. All are familiar with pictures drawn of the 
onerous nature of life on the farm, yet it is true that the quality of cultural life which some progressive 
individuals and rural communities have achieved should be made available to the large masses of 
rural dwellers. In many communities, cultural possibilities are almost lacking, the consolidated 
school, and the country church, usually on a circuit, representing the total cultural opportunities. 

A suggestion of what might be done is indicated by the results of the Emergency Education 
Program. Although as a primarily relief program, it had certain fundamental inadequacies, 
nevertheless, it achieved an influence on country life which is difficult to appraise adequately. It 
adopted a pedagogical principle which while simple is fundamental — start where the people are! 
With this principle in mind, and armed with enthusiasm and what was in many cases a real percep- 
tion of rural needs, teachers gathered adult groups in country districts all o\er North Carolina and 
gave types of instruction most needed and desired by the group. A feature of the program, amount- 
ing almost to a campaign, was the systematic attack on illiteracy. Dramatic demonstration of the 
value of this phase of the training has been given all o\er the state. 

Experience with this education program suggests the large field of profitable effort which may be 
developed in the future to the great benefit of people who live in the country. A rich quality of life 
should be as possible to the rural dweller as to his city cousin. Adult instruction, musical instruction, 
group recreational features, teaching people how to play, needed training in home economy, circulat- 



Emergency Eelief in ISToeth Carolina 313 

ing libraries, these and many other benefits are suggested as necessary by the experience of the 
emergency education program in the state and lay down a definite challenge to planners of an ade- 
quate rural North Carolina society. 

Another major problem which must be faced by rural rehabilitation planning is that of dispos- 
sessed tenant farm families now relegated to the status of casual laborers. This situation which is 
serious throughout the South is concentrated in North Carolina in the bright-leaf tobacco region 
where the tenancy rate is the highest. Croppers, displaced in the years 1929, 1930, 1931 and 1932, 
because of the landlord's inability to continue financing them, or because he decided to shift to 
farming with day labor, have found reentry to the agricultural economy effectively blocked by the 
acreage control program of the AAA. It is undoubtedly true, as has been indicated by rural leaders, 
that under the policy of reducing acreage the tenant finds himself in an increasingly disadvantageous 
position. The public is gradually becoming aware of this problem. 

The social and economic conditions under which croppers exist even when times are good are 
below those of any other group in rural America. With the advent of what is vaguely termed 
"agricultural recovery," displaced tenants may be able to get a crop again. But the question is 
whether that eventuality is desirable. Is the whole intent of this program a return to the evils of 
the tenant system, which has been depleting human adequacy and vitality, both of landlord and 
tenant, since the Civil War? A restoration of agricultural exports accompanied by a return to 
uncontrolled agricultural production might encourage the survival of tenancy. But such conditions 
are not likely to occur in the near future. 

What is to become of this large floating population in the South if the policy of economic nation- 
alism is adhered to, along with the then necessary controlled agricultural output? Secretary of 
Agriculture Wallace himself has said that with such a program, "It may be necessary after a time to 
shift part of the Southern population." Quoting him further, "We are sparring with the situation 
until the American people are ready to face the facts." The establishment of widespread proprietor- 
ship, together with a further joining of agriculture and industry as recommended by various leaders 
seems to be the ultimate solution. 

From the above considerations it would appear that there will be of necessity a removal of families 
from areas where there is an overmanned agricultural economy. The present program of rural 
rehabilitation can accomplish but little in the way of permanently rehabilitating people in over- 
crowded agricultural sections. 

With the number of share-crops held at the 1933 level, and actually decreased by the AAA, any 
relief family which gets a crop of its own probably displaces another family. Hence the program 
can make but little progress in permanently solving the problem until more families are moved. 
Work projects, adequate and well-planned, will help. But the continuation of work projects in 
strictly rural sections is unthinkable, save those minor industries absolutely essential to a rural 
economy. Hence, the ultimate objective of rehabilitation eflFort as related to this problem points to 
the gradual selection of families to move to other sections, after preliminary educational work has 
been done showing the ultimate wisdom of such a policy to the client. 

It is into a very complex situation therefore that the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation, with its 
program as heretofore outlined has come. It would seem from a reading of its charter, a knowledge 
of its purposes, and observation of its practical application to rural problems, as they exist, that there 
is much to recommend it as a beginning wedge in the attack on rural economic and social insecurity. 
It must be remembered, however, that this program applies only to persons on relief, and only to 
such of those who qualify for rural rehabilitation. 

But this fact instead of preventing the Corporation's rehabilitation efforts from being used as a 
standard for general rural rehabilitation really enhances its value as a measuring rod for this type 



314 Emergency Relief in ISToeth Carolina 

of rehabilitation. This argument may be made : If this broad program with its long-time credit 
facilities ; its efforts for better housing ; its supplying of necessary farm implements and work stock ; 
its cooperative interest in helping secure more adequate social and cultural life in rural communities ; 
its cooperative buying and marketing ; its substitution of business procedure in advancing this money, 
for an outright dole ; its providing of expert super\ision ; if these work successfully within the present 
group of persons who ha\e had to call on the government for aid ; why should not the same principles 
on which the Corporation's program is built operate with equal success throughout the whole of 
rural North Carolina? 

It is not recommended, however, that the whole rural population call on the government for 
help. The elements in the Corporation's program which are recommended for the consideration of 
those not on relief are the benefits, which accrue from simple cooperation ; cooperation in securing 
credit from credit sources ; cooperation in buying and selling ; cooperation in buying and using heavy 
farm machinery and work stock ; cooperation in securing a satisfactory social and cultural life in 
every community ; cooperation in securing expert supervisory aid and counsel from already con- 
stituted state departments. There is too much common sense in such proposals to believe that they 
will not work. The farmer has always been termed too much of an individualist to want to co- 
operate. But it is unimaginable that this individualism will long exist when it is discovered that the 
only alternative to cooperation by the whole group is economic and social ruin. We are seeing now 
the fruits of a rampant and uninstructed "rugged individualism." 

In his report, Mr. Blackwell finds in the last analysis, using every legimate measuring device, that 
only 60 per cent at most of the persons studied will lend themselves to any degree of rehabilitation. 
Forty per cent, therefore, although this figure is not absolute, are classed through a consideration 
of their past history as bad risks. But this will not dispose of the problem. They cannot be scrapped. 
Through the same type of community cooperation as outlined above ; by the application of every 
intelligent social technique ; by unremitting effort on the part of those who are objectively solicitous 
for the future welfare of the nation ; these persons, and their children must receive such consideration 
as will allow them, although it may take a long time, to achieve the status of independent citizens. 

The outlook for rehabilitation in rural North Carolina, therefore, is more promising than not. 
This conclusion has not been reached by pro\'ing anything, but by indicating, first, the complexity 
of the problem, and secondly, the good sense inherent in the program designed to alleviate these 
conditions. One factor, not yet mentioned which reinforces our optimism, is the demonstrated 
genius of ordinary people for recovery. Our people have inherited, among other racial traits, some 
of the Englishman's persistence, and once a pathway has been blazed, are not reluctant to follow 
on to its satisfactory outcome. 

In conclusion, one more fundamental fact needs to be stressed. In the face of a disturbing and 
widespread tendency on the part of irresponsible people to shift the burden of thinking and acting 
to the government, perhaps no other one thing will aid agricultural reco\ery in this state as much as 
a tremendous revival of self-dependence. No government or state program ; no easy credit ; nothing 
will ever substitute successfully for an inbred and determined persistence in every individual to believe 
in himself and to do his part. It is no overstatement to say that there is no problem which cannot 
be solved by the application of the intelligence of self-reliant men. 

The time has come, therefore, for us to gird ourselves, in North Carolina, for the most concerted 
drive ever made on conditions which militate against the wellbeing of the state. With the use of the 
best intelligence, the utmost determination and industry, qualities intimately associated with thr 
history of the Old North State, the ultimate happy issue will not long be in doubt. 



Emergency Relief in ISTobth Carolina 315 

FARM DEBT ADJUSTMENT COMMISSION 

The North CaroHna Farm Debt Adjustment Commission, consisting of nine members, was 
created by Governor Ehringhaus June 12, 1934, to assist the farmers in this state to adjust and re- 
finance their indebtedness and to prevent unnecessary foreclosures. The work of the Commission 
is a part of a nation-wide effort to solve the farm debt problem which became so acute in all parts 
of the country that Federal action on a large scale seemed imperative. 

The Farm Debt Adjustment Commission organized committees in ninety of the one hundred 
counties in North Carolina. The services of both the State Commission and the County Committees 
are voluntary. Their function is to bring the debtor and creditor into an open discussion of their 
mutual problems for the purpose of determining what can be done in the way of adjustment of the 
debts. Many of the farmers have been hopelessly in debt, or in such condition that governmental 
agencies can be of little or no help. The Commission has been able in a large number of cases to 
arrange an agreement with the creditors whereby the farms may be released to the original owners. 
Because of the importance of this problem among rural relief families, and families who were poten- 
tial relief clients because of probable foreclosures on their farms and homes, the Farm Debt Adjust- 
ment Commission and the Rural Rehabilitation Division of the ERA entered into the following co- 
operative agreement : 

The Farm Debt Adjustment Commission agreed : 

1. To place at the disposal of the Rural Rehabilitation Division its field representatives ; 

2. To furnish such information as may be necessary to a complete understanding of the 
methods used in settling debts ; 

3. To supply creditor and debtor forms to be used in obtaining statements regarding the 
debts of clients and creditor statements ; 

4. To assist personnel of the Rural Rehabilitation Division in presenting cases of clients to 
the local Farm Debt Adjustment Committees ; 

5. To do any and all other things that may be essential to the proper adjustment of Rural 
Rehabilitation clients' debts. 

The ERA agreed to pay salaries and traveling expenses for a limited number of field workers on 
a cooperative project for supervision of this program, and to assign clerical assistance from relief 
rolls to the State Commission and to the local County Committees, and, wherever possible, to arrange 
a meeting place for the committees. In many instances, where only the part-time service of a 
clerical worker was needed, it was possible for the ERA to assign a clerical worker already on the 
staff to give part time to the local Farm Debt Adjustment Committee. 

A number of farm families have been aided by the Farm Debt Adjustment Commission. The 
solution of their debt problems has justified this cooperative agreement. 



316 



Emergency Relief in I^obth Carolina 

















(i) Mr. and Mrs. Dewey learned to write in ten lessotu. (2) Toung mothers in ERE parent-teachers class. (3) Student who says he 
"would not take anything for arithmetic he learned this winter." (4) Henry Treadway and specimen of his writing. He reached three grades 
in ERE school. (5) ERE teachers in training classes at Boone. (6) Student and her baby. (7) Family group of adult students. 
{Specimen of writing—Mrs. Seboch learned to write in ten le.<sons. (8) Toung man who is crippled and could not attend public school. Has 
learned to read and write. (9) Children treated in ERE school clinic. (10) Group in home making class. (11) Group of students with 
their children. 



SPECIAL PROGRAMS 



Emergency Education Program 

November, 1933, to May, 1934 

The Emergency Education Program \vas authorized by memorandum from the Federal Emer- 
gency Relief Administration on August 19, 1933, for the purpose of giving work to needy unemployed 
teachers. The program at this time was limited to two types of projects : 

1. Employment on \\ork relief basis, of needy unemployed teachers in rural elementary schools ; 
only school districts which had prior to August 19, 1933, definitely recognized that because of shortage 
of funds they could not maintain the ordinary school term, could employ emergency relief teachers 
or participate in this program. 

2. Employment on work relief basis, of needy unemployed teachers competent to teach adults 
unable to read and write. 

The regulations pro\-ided that teachers participating in this program be certified by the Emer- 
gency Relief Administration as ehgible for relief. The program, however, was organized and 
directed entirely by the State Department of Education, and monthly reports of obligations, number 
of pupils and number of teachers employed were to be made to the Emergency Relief Administration. 
No division of Education was set up in ERA, but the policy of cooperation with the State Department 
of Education and the procedure of certification were delegated to the Director of the Social Service 
Di\ision. Later, during the winter months, the nursery schools were added under the plan of 
organization. 

L Emergency Teaching 

No\'cmber, 1933, to May, 1934 



Month 


No. Teachers 


Salaries 


1933 






November 


10 


$ 200.00 


December 


191 


5,292.70 


1934 






January 


1,023 


26,477.11 


February 


i>3i3 


45>984-40 


March 


i>432 


57,904-73 


April 


889 


36,402.93 


May 


121 


2,949-79 


Total 


1=432 


§175,211.66 



318 Emergency Relief ix Xokth Carolina 

The work was suspended during the summer of 1934. 

Teachers submitted weekly ser\ice reports to the State Department of Education, but the State 
Department of Education did not submit to the Emergency ReHef Administration analyzed reports 
for total number of individuals. 

The regulations permitted to each teacher five per cent (5%) as much for supplies as the amount 
of her salary in a particular month. The in\oices were sent direct to the state office of the CWA 
and the ERA. 

Approximately $3,000 should be added to above total to cover the item of supplies. 

June, 1934, to December, 1935 

To assume direction of the expanding Educational Program, in May, 1934, a Director of Emer- 
gency Education was added to the State ERA Staff and a Di\ision of Education created. The new 
program, as announced by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration in July, included the 
following : 

1. Literacy classes — to teach adults unable to read and write English, including recreational 
work. 

2. Rural Elementary schools (not used in North Carolina as no rural schools had closed on 
account of funds). 

3. Vocational Rehabilitation — for unemployed adults who are in need of \ocationaI training 
or adjustment to make them employable, in the fields of trade and industry, home economics, 
agriculture, vocational adjustments for unemployed adults, and commercial classes for stenog- 
raphers, typists, bookkeepers, etc.. for unemployed adults on relief to make them reemployable. 

4. Workers' Education — to acquaint laborers in industrial centers with the problems pertaining 
to their occupations and their Ii\ing conditions. 

5. Parent Education — to give instruction to parents of low-wage levels in the care of under- 
privileged children. Parents of nursery school children were required to attend at least one class 
per week in this di\'ision, so that the practices obtaining at the school could be carried on also at 
home. Later in the year (about March, 1935) a broader type of training was employed for the 
benefit of parents in general. 

6. Nursery Schools — to develop the physical and mental well-being of pre-school children in 
needy unemployed families or neglected or underprivileged homes. 

Supervision 

To make the emergency education program more effective, authority was granted during the 
summer of 1934 to employ a staff of education supervisors. At first the sum of two thousand 
dollars ($2,000) per month was allowed for this service and later the sum often dollars ($10) per 
month for office expense was permitted for each of the supervisors. (See Tables II and VII for the 
statistics on supervision.) 

Personnel 

The policy was adopted of giving each race prorata representation and of having the teachers 
directed by a super\isor of their own race — except for Nursery Schools. The one white Supervisor 
of Nursery Schools supervised the teachers for the Negro race also. 

Reports do not show the exact number of Negro teachers employed or of Negro students enrolled. 



Emekgency Relief in North Carolina 319 

Teachers certified by relief administrators and approved by designated educational officials were 
employed on basis of need, regardless of race. 

The monthly salary of each emergency teacher whether white or colored was fifty dollars ($50). 
The only exception to this was the sixty-dollar ($60) monthly salary of head teachers of nursery 
schools. 

Eligibility of Teachers 

The policy of determining eligibility of teachers was modified as follows : 

"Professional and Non-Manual Workers shall be employed by the Works Divisions on the basis 
of need. These persons shall be eligible for relief, but need not be on the relief rolls. The 
method of need determination shall be by means of a questionnaire filed with the Relief Ad- 
ministration, and verified by a professional or technical organization, and by an interview with 
a case worker. This verification may be made monthly or bi-monthly but should not take the 
form of a home investigation. The questionnaire for this purpose has been prepared by this 
office. States wishing to alter this form must receive approval for changes from this office." 

According to this modification, case workers did not follow up the interview with a home in- 
vestigation, but accepted the teacher's own statement, which was verified by any business employer 
or organization. 

Later, in May, 1935, authority was given to re-investigate all teachers on this program according 
to the standards for all persons on relief 



Month 

1934 
September 
October 
November 
December 

1935 
January 
February 
March 
April 
May 
June 
July 
August 

Total 



I. Emergency Teaching* 
September, 1934, to August, 1935 

TABLE NO. II 

No. Teachers No. Pupils Salaries Supplies Supervision Total 



436 


6,453 


$11,487-30 


$ 389-53 


$1,745.76 


$13,622.59 


952 


17,891 


42,792.16 


2,172.05 


2,166.84 


47,131-05 


i>335 


26,512 


68,735-90 


3,137-43 


2,159.64 


74,032-97 


1,310 


26,648 


68,031.70 


1,973-50 


2,082.86 


72,088.06 


1,262 


25,356 


63,030.60 


2,880.90 


2,093.69 


68,005.19 


1,309 


26,210 


65,508.30 


3,826.94 


1,967.06 


71,302.30 


1,763 


35,122 


80,343-70 


3,793-80 


2,168.93 


86,306.43 


1,884 


38,852 


93,984.90 


5,348-32 


2,066.34 


101,399.56 


1,848 


38,599 


93,135-20 


4,424.56 


1,962.34 


99,522.10 


1,321 


25,762 


67,246.50 


3,120.64 


2,102.21 


72,469-35 


1,406 


18,477 


66,104.50 


4,173-50 


2,070.67 


72,348-67 


1,323 


18,624 


48,086.50 


2,051.34 


1,956-96 


52,094.80 






$768,487.26 


$37,292.51 


$24,543.30 


$830,323-07 



*This table shows entire expenditure for actual teaching, but does not include institutes. 



320 



Emebgency Relief in N"oeth Carolina 



TABLE 

Showing Types of Projects, Number of Teachers, 







September 


October 


November 


December 


January 


1. 


LITERACY CLASSES 














No. Persons Working 


66 


127 


157 


160 


162 




Salaries 


$2,249.70 


$6,167.50 


$7,825.70 


$7,608.50 


$8,016.10 




Supplies 


$ 1.00 


108.16 


104.39 


108.49 


87.15 




Total 


$2,250.70 


6,275.66 


8.030.09 


7,716.99 


8,103.25 




No. Pupils 


1,094 


2,312 


3,302 


3,544 


3,642 


3. 


VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION 














No. Persons Working 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 




Salaries 


$ 150.00 


186.66 


200.00 


160.00 


200.00 




Supplies 


$ 226.13 


1,112.13 


1,093.86 


1,139.45 


1,100.00 




Total 


$ 376.13 


1,298.79 


1,293.86 


1,299.45 


1,300.00 




No. Pupils 


29 


33 


42 


49 


57 


4. 


WORKER'S EDUCATION 














No. Persons Working 




5 


5 


6 


6 




Salaries 




$ 222.50 


250.00 


300.00 


297.90 


Supplies (Included in 6) 




Total 




$ 222.50 


250.00 


300.00 


297.90 




No. Pupils 




122 


161 


142 


121 


5. 


PARENT EDUCATION 














No. Persons Working 












Salaries 


Supplies 


Total 


No. Pupils 


6. 


GENERAL ADULT 














No. Persons Working 


368 


740 


1,030 


1,007 


951 




Salaries 


$9,087.60 


34,226.40 


52,649.90 


50,595.60 


46,965.10 




Supplies 


$ 162.40 


920.85 


1,604.80 


718.11 


1,362.65 




Total 


$9,250.00 


35,147.25 


54,254.70 


51,313.71 


48,327.75 




No. Pupils 


5,330 


14,613 


21,382 


21,155 


19,958 


7. 


NURSERY SCHOOLS 














No. Persons Working 




78 


141 


143 


141 




Salaries 




$1,989.10 


7,810.30 


7,367.60 


7,551.50 




Supplies 




$ 50.91 


244.40 


7.45 


331.10 




Total 




.12,040.01 


8,054.70 


7,375.05 


7,882.60 




No. Pupils 




811 


1,631 


1,758 


1,578 



* Table III is a comparative study of the enrollments, costs, and number of teachers employed in the various types of classes 
conducted under the ERE program from September, 1934, to September, 1935, inclusive. 
NOTE : Project No. 2, Rural Education, reopening of closed schools, was not used. 



Emergency Relief in Worth Carolina 321 

NO. Ill* 

Number of Pupils and Amount of Money Involved 



Fehruary 


March 


April 


May 


June 


July 


August 


September 


Total 




229 


288 


333 


336 


237 


410 


375 


1 




10,679.50 


$12,541.60 


S16,956.70 


$16,504.60 


$12,857.40 


$19,365.40 


$13,604.90 


$ 12 . 50 


$134,390.10 


85.93 


96.43 


438.89 


547.90 


499.41 


626.40 


229.91 


7.79 


3,031.85 


10,765.43 


12,638.03 


17,395.59 


17,952.50 


13,356.81 


19,991.80 


13,834.81 


20.29 


137,421.95 


5,111 


6,388 


7,376 


7,868 


5,581 


5,058 


5,015 


20 






3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 




172.50 


172.50 


160.00 


200.00 


160.00 


160.00 


185.00 


210.00 


2,316.66 


1,139.38 


1,126.68 


1,139.50 


1,099.17 


1,138.77 


1,139.68 


1,110.35 


1,116.00 


13,681.10 


1,311.88 


1,299.18 


1,299.50 


1,299.17 


1,298.77 


1,299.68 


1,295.35 


1,326.00 


15,997.76 


48 


35 


38 


42 


47 


45 


48 


52 






6 


7 


7 


7 


9 


11 


15 






276.90 


305.50 


341.30 


292.30 


179.80 


567.80 


474.50 




3,508.00 




276.90 


305.50 


341.30 


292.30 


179.80 


567.80 


474.50 




3,508.00 


141 


149 


145 


123 


160 


202 


212 










27 


32 


35 


31 


9 


7 








$ 1,118.50 


1,541.30 


1,634.60 


856.30 


229.80 


250.00 




5,630.50 






$ 1,118.50 


1,541.30 


1,634.60 


856.30 


229.80 


250.00 




5,630.50 




606 


735 


701 


835 


101 


74 








923 


1,284 


1,356 


1,317 


958 


946 


895 


19 




46,764.40 


58,303.00 


66,671.00 


66,401.00 


48,447.80 


44,369.30 


32,450.10 


472.10 


357,403.30 


2,491.28 


2,325.00 


3,469.98 


2,550.47 


1,213.85 


2,328.81 


711.08 


67.52 


19,927.00 


49,255.68 


60,628.20 


70,140.98 


68,951.47 


49,661.65 


46,698.11 


33,161.18 


539.62 


577,330.30 


19,234 


26,134 


28,769 


28,055 


17,836 


12,820 


12,940 


132 






148 


154 


154 


151 


85 


28 


28 






7,613.00 


7,902.60 


8,314.60 


8,102.70 


4,745.20 


1,412.70 


1,122.00 




63,931.30 


109.35 


245 . 50 


299.95 


227.02 


268.61 


78.63 






1,842.92 


7,722.35 


8,148.10 


8,614.55 


8,329.72 


5,013.81 


1,491.33 


1,122.00 




65,774.22 


1,676 


1,810 


1,789 


1,810 


1,303 


251 


335 







21 



322 



Emergency Eelief in North Carolina 




Typical ERE night school students who received certificates at ERE Commencement Exercises, Asheville, June i, 1335. ( i ) Student and her 
family. This mother received certificate in Group Mo. 3. (2) Group of students in attendarue at graduating exercises. (3) Distinguished 
speakers at Commencement. (4) Two students who attended Commencement. (5) Group of students who attended Commencement. (6) 
Three thousand students in attendarue at Commencement Exercises. 



Emeegency Eelief in ISToRTH Caeolina 323 

Comment on ERE Program 

I. Numbers 

That the emergency education program has found a place of real service is attested by the 
following facts : 

1. In April, 1935, it employed four and three-tenths times as many teachers as in September, 

1934- 

2. These teachers enrolled for the month of April, 1935, more than six times as many pupils 

as in September, 1934. 

3. The average enrollment of pupils per teacher for the whole period was more than twenty (20) , 
whereas the minimum required was ten (10). 

4. The Christmas holidays affected the work to only a slight degree, and other factors such as 
weather, epidemics, etc., seemed to disturb it very slightly. 

II. Quality of Work 

No general statement can be made as to the quality of work done. Much of it was, of course, 
far below satisfactory educational standards. Much, however, was of a very high order. Home 
making, recreation, health work, and many other worthy types of endeavor were noticeably suc- 
cessful. 

Specific Results — ^Adult Education 

1 . One teacher organized a whole rural community, giving instruction in : 

a. Music to thirty high school graduates who could not go on to college. 

b. Home-making to a dozen or more farm women. 

c. Dramatics to a group of unemployed young men and young women. 

So great was her success in dramatics that her pupils presented an original one-act play at the 
state dramatic festival, winning "honorable mention" for the excellence of their work. 

2. Another teacher taught handicrafts to eighty- five women in a cotton-mill village, some of the 
articles made taking prizes at the annual Dogwood Festival, in Chapel Hill, in April. 

3. A third teacher (an unemployed trained nurse) organized a group of underprivileged young 
mothers and carried them through an entire course in the care and feeding of small children. 

4. Five teachers were used at the State's Farm Colony for Women, the instruction being of the 
most practical type. The Superintendent of the institution states that (since she had no funds 
to provide education for her charges) the ERE classes have been a veritable godsend. 

5. Several classes have been organized for the instruction of the blind. Braille being taught in 
some instances and handicrafts in others. This work has had the active support of The Association 
for the Blind and of several fraternal orders. 

6. One class was organized in a home for crippled or physically-handicapped children, where 
no other educational facilities were available. 

But the list is too long and varied to be included here. The policy followed has been to aid all 
groups for which no other educational facilities had been provided. 

Literacy 

The figures given in Table III do not reflect the correct number of people who belong to the lit- 
eracy project. Of necessity a teacher reports a class according to the type of work done by the 
majority of the pupils. It is known that many classes reported as "adult education" contain pupils 
who ought to be classed as illiterate. Approximately ten thousand illiterate people have been 
aided at some time during the year, for in one district four thousand illiterate pupils were given 
certificates testifying that they had completed the first unit of work. 



324 Emebgency Relief in North Carolina 

Education of Prisoners 

For a period of nine weeks — June 13 to August 15, 1935 — an experiment of teaching prisoners 
in three camps was tried. Sixteen different classes were organized, some in recreation, some in visual 
education, and a few in academic subjects. The results were highly gratifying and, it is hoped, may 
point the way to a permanent plan for dealing with this group of the state's population. 

North Carolina Emergency Nursery Schools 

1934— 1935 

On October 19, 1934, fifty emergency nursery schools were opened in North Carolina. Of this 
number fifteen were for Negro and thirty-five for white children. This is in keeping with the per- 
centage of Negroes and Whites since approximately three-tenths of the population is Negro and 
seven-tenths White. 

In each emergency nursery school there were two teachers, a trained nurse and an unskilled 
laborer to do the janitorial work, making a total of at least four persons from relief rolls employed 
in each school. Occasionally an extra heavy teaching load caused extra teachers to be added to 
the staff. 

In order to establish an emergency nursery school a board of sponsors representing the organiza- 
tions of a community sent in a formal request for the school, giving a definite report on the need for 
the school, the number of children to be serviced and the number of parents to attend parent educa- 
tion classes. The community promised to provide equipment, housing and heating facilities in 
keeping with the requirements of the Federal Emergency Education Division. 

The program includes intensive training for the parents of the children, medical examination 
and training in physical, mental and social habits of the children, cod liver oil, tomato juice, a 
hot noon meal and a nap in individual beds was a part of each day's schedule. A total of 2,263 
children received this service, averaging a gain in weight of i o pounds during the first seven months 
of the program. 

The average cost of food, including cod li\'er oil and tomato juice, was nine cents per person 
per day. Cash donations amounting to $3,980.00 were reported while innumerable hours of time 
were given by interested citizens in repairing, cleaning and equipping buildings and grounds for the 
nursery schools. 

The following data compiled at the close of the se\enth month of the Emergency Nursery School 
give interesting facts concerning the program. 

Data Concerning North Carolina Emergency Nursery Schools 

1934— 1935 
I. Number of white units 35 

Number of Negro units 15 



50 

Number of white teachers employed 104 

Number of Negro teachers employed 40 

Number of white nurses employed 35 

Number of Negro nurses employed 15 

Number of white janitors employed 35 

Number of Negro janitors employed 15 



Total number of persons employed 244 



Emeegency Eelief in North Carolina 325 

II. Enrollment 

Number of children under 2 years 36 

Number children 2 years but less than 3 years 376 

Number children 3 years but less than 4 years 561 

Number children 4 years but less than 5 years 658 

Number children 5 years but less than 6 years 580 

Number children o\'er 6 years 52 

Total enrollment 2,263 

III. Health 

Number children given medical examinations 2,056 

Number children \'accinated 488 

Number children immunized 629 

Number tonsils removed 31 

Number children gi\en dental examination 970 

Number children given corrective work 134 

Number pounds gained in state 22,648 

IV. Home Contacts "._ 
Total number parents' meetings held i)546 

Total number parents' visits to school 4;i57 

Number children living in i-room homes 116 

Number children li\ing in 2-room homes 388 

Number children living in 3-room homes 656 

Number children living in 4-room homes 512 

V. Costs 

Average cost of food per person per day $ .09 
Total amount cash donations 3,980.00 

Salary of head teacher per week i5-00 

Salary of assistant teacher per week 12.50 

Salary of nurse 12.50 

VI. Equipment 

Number single cots 857 

Number double cots 118 

Number tables 206 

Number small chairs Ij309 

Number lavatories 62 

Number wash basins 216 

Number flush toilets 163 

Number outdoor toilets 12 

Number lockers 264 

Number of slides 23 

Number sand bo.xes 53 

Number swings no 

Number see-saws 60 

Number ladders 25 



NOTE : There are other pieces of equipment such as hooks for wraps, jungle gyms, turning bars, dolls, balls, trains, hobby 
horses, boats, blocks, paints, easels, crayons, hammers, books, victrolas, pianos, etc. 



326 



Emergency Relief in N^oeth Carolina 




(i) Rest period at nursery school in Dm ham, Durham County. (2) ERE kindergarten in Charlotte, Mecklenburg County. (3) Nurs- 
ery school in Transylvania County. (4) School lurwh room in Durham County. 



Emergency Eelibf in North Carolina 
The nursery school program was directed by a State Supervisor of Nursery Schools. 



327 



Place 
Weaver College 
Chapel Hill 
Little Switzerland 
Salisbury (Negro) 
Chapel Hill (Supervisors) 
Boone (Teachers) 
Chapel Hill (Teachers) 
Cullowhee (Teachers) 
Greenville (Teachers) 
EUzabeth City (Col. Tea.) 
Fayetteville (Col. Tea.) 
Winston-Salem (Col. Tea.) 
Fayetteville (Col. Tea.) 
Raleigh (Teachers) 

Total t 



INSTITUTES*— TABLE NO. IV 



Date 




No Trainees 


Cost 


July- August, 1934 




39 


$2,847.02* 


April-May, 1934 




34 


2,752.98* 


July-August, 1935 




22 


711.75* 


July-August, 1935 




51 


5>758-52* 


August, 1934 




16 


522.00* 


August-September, 


1934 


112 


1,397-10 


August-September, 


1934 


104 


1,300.00 


September, 1934 




164 


2,040.00 


September, 1934 




201 


2,512.00 


August, 1934 




20 


262.50 


August, 1934 




116 


1,450.00 


August, 1934 




49 


612.50 


August-September, 


1935 


404 


12,477.42 


August-September, 


1935 


808 


25>i75-92 



2,140 



^59>8i9-7i 



Place 
New Bern (white) 
Brevard (white) 
Rocky Mount (colored) 



II. CAMPS FOR YOUNG WOMEN— TABLE NO. V 

(16-25 years from Relief Families) 

Date No. Trainees 

August-October, 1935 76 

August-September, 1935 96 



August-September, 1935 



70 



242 



Cost 

54>632-34 
2,690.10 

2,353-20 
59,675-64 



Emergency Education 
GRAND TOTAL (Tables 1-5)** $1,075,030.08 

Youth Camps 

Three Youth Camps for unemployed young women between the ages of 16 and 25 years, were 
established under the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration, one in August, and two in 
September. These camps, two for white women, and one for Negroes were located at Brevard, 
Neuse Forest, near New Bern, and Bricks School (Negro) near Enfield. 

Staffed with competent personnel, the purposes of these camps as stated by the Supervisor 
of Women's Camps were : To provide opportunity for young women to come together, not only 
to find that healthful environment and recreational outlet associated with camp life, but to share 
in cooperative living. Practical instruction of many kinds was combined with the utmost liberty 



*These institutes were for Workers' Education. Trainees came from several states. 

tSince some trainees in the teachers' institutes attended more than one institute, the total is given as though each had been a 
different person. In no other way can the average expense per teacher be determined. 

**Table III is excluded from the grand total given, since the costs shown in Table III are included in Table II. 



328 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 




ERE students and some of the articles they learned to make in liornemaking classes. ( i ) Mother of three children who completed course in 
Group No. 3- (2) Mother and daughter. Mother attended school regularly, completed course in first group. (3) Toung mother u ho com- 
pleted course in Group No. 3. (4) Student who had attended high school before going to night school. (5) Deputy Sheriff oj Buncombe 
County presenting captured copper whiskey still to ERE teacher. (6) Articles made by ERE students from copper still pictured above. 



Emekgency Relief in I^orth Carolina 329 

in creating their own leisure time activities to achieve a well rounded camp life and eminently suc- 
cessful results in shared living. Three hundred girls were invited to the camps. Two hundred 
and forty-two (242) actually were in attendance. These girls left, their individualities not curbed 
but heightened, but with a new realization of the necessity of applied group intelligence in solving 
group problems. 

The story of the camps, however, is told as well in the reactions expressed by the campers as it is 
in the Report of the Director : Here are a few culled from many reactions. 

"I could write a book ; I wouldn't trade the experience for anything in the world." 

"My mother was impressed with the training I got while I was in camp. She said the only thing 

she hated was that we didn't stay longer. Mrs. had quite a hard time to get me to go to 

camp ; finally I decided, and now I'm glad. I don't regret one minute that I spent there." 

And here is an eloquent story. A camper cried so hard as the bus left the campus that it took the 
combined efforts of her friends to console her. She had been President of the Camp Council, and 
had been elected Permanent President as the camp closed. In her home community she was known 
as a "smart" student in school, but the passing years found her failing to live up to her early promise 
of leadership. Also she was a recipient of adult criticism leveled at the group with which she asso- 
ciated. At first she wore the Presidental toga proudly, but carelessly. Soon she began rising to the 
opportunities of her position. So apparent was the change that girls who had doubted the wisdom 
of electing her as President, voted enthusiastically for her as Permanent President. 

III. The College Student Aid Program 

The Federal Relief Administrator, on February 2, 1934, issued a letter authorizing all State 
Relief Administrators to make relief funds available for a program of part-time employment for 
college students attending college or desiring to attend college, but who would without aid be unable 
to continue or attain a college education. 

Colleges and universities of a non-profit making character were eligible to participate in the funds 
to finance the part-time employment program. The allotment of jobs to each college was equal to 
10 per cent of its full-time enrollment as of October 15, 1933. This was raised to 12 per cent in July, 
1935. The average amount of money available per month was $15 per student receiving this aid. 
Each student was limited to 8 hours a day and thirty hours a week at the rate of pay commonly paid 
by the institution for the type of service rendered, but not less than 30c per hour. The institutions 
were at first required to waive all fees, for registration, tuition and laboratory, and other purposes 
for students working on this program. This requirement was later abolished with the recommenda- 
tion that the institutions cooperate as far as possible by granting reductions. 

The types of work performed included library, clerical, museum and research work, reading and 
grading papers, recreational, and other work of social usefulness and educational value in publicly- 
owned institutions, and on buildings and grounds, provided, however, the jobs did not cause displace- 
ments of regular workers who might be doing the same work. 

The determination of eligibility of the students was left entirely to the college president or to a 
committee appointed by him, the requirement being that the student was unable to attend college 
without Federal aid. Students were required to be of good character and capable of doing accept- 
able college work. While students were required to maintain a satisfactory scholastic grade, records 
show that Federal-aided students received in most cases, grades above the institutional average. 

Immediately upon the announcement of this program, colleges gladly accepted the conditions, 
some of them getting the program under way in a few days. 



330 Emergency Relief in ISTokth Carolina 

TABLE NO. VI 

February to June, 1934 

Number of colleges participating: 32 white, 11 colored. Total 43. 

No. Students Aided* Amount Earned 

Male Female Total February to June, 1934 

White 1,041 572 1,613 

Colored 106 131 237 



Total 1,147 703 1,850 $87,060.16 

This program was suspended during the summer months, and resumed for the academic year of 
1 934- 1 935 with added specifications. 

College Student Aid — September, 1934, to June, 1935 

On July 3, 1934, Mr. Hopkins issued letter E-29 in which announcements were made for carrying 
on the student aid program during the college year 1934-35. The provisions of the pre\'ious let- 
ter E-15 were continued, there being only one important change. In the spring of 1934, colleges 
were allowed aid for ten per cent (10%) of the enrollment of October, 1933. This percentage was 
changed to twelve per cent (12%) for the year 1934-35. 

Fifty-two colleges signified a desire to qualify for student aid. Each college was required to 
submit in quadruplicate affidavits showing (a) the total number of students registered October 15, 
1 933, (b) the number of students entitled to receive aid ( 1 2 per cent of the October enrollment, 1 933) , 
and (c) the total monthly allotment requested. All of the copies of the affidavit were approved by the 
State Emergency Relief Administrator and by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, and 
further approved by the Washington office. One approved copy of the affidavit was retained in 
Washington, one copy was sent to the college, and two copies were kept by this office. Throughout 
the year each college was required to keep within its allotment each month and to submit detailed 
information to this office as to how the money was expended. At the close of the year (June, 1935) 
each college was required to submit an annual report. This office audited the reports and filed 
with the Finance Division a complete and accurate summary for each college. This summary is 
given herewith. 

Forty (40) colleges for white students and tweh'e (12) colleges for colored students. 





No. 


Students 


Aided 


Amount Earned 




Male 


Female 


Total 


Male Female Total 


Total White 


1,482 


1,000 


2,482 


$161,267.93 $107,878.43 $269,182.36 


Colored 


141 


232 


373 


15,614-55 21,439.62 37,054-17 


Total 


1,623 


1,232 


2,755 


$176,882.48 $129,318.05 $306,236.53 



*These figures are taken from the report for April, 1934, this month showing the largest number of participants. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 331 

SPECIAL ITEMS— TABLE NO. VII 

Allotment to N. C. Public Schools (May, 1934) $500,000.00 

Instructional Supplies (Spring, 1934) 3,000.00* 

Special Earmarked Fund (Dec. 1935) to operate Emergency Educa- 
tion until taken over by WPA 40,000.00 

Salary, Travel, Office expense and secretarial assistance to Super- 
visors and State Department of Education (Sept.-Dec. 1935) 9;798-37t 



$552,798.37 



Grand Total 



Tables I and II (Emergency Teaching) $1,005,534.73 

Table IV (Institutes) 59,819.71 

Table V (Camps for Young Women) 9,675.64 

Tables VI and VI continued (Student Aid) 393,296.69 

Table VII (Special Items) 552,798.37 



TOTAL (All Purposes) $2,021,125.14 

THE TRANSIENT PROGRAM 

The problem of transiency is national in its scope, although the nature of the problem may vary 
as to regions. The same spirit of independence that motivated our forefathers to seek freedom and 
gainful occupation in a new country motivates the transient who can find no work at home, to seek 
work in a distant community. The urge of new adventure, of new discovery, of travel, of desire to 
work, the inalienable right of every person to live where he will, all apply to equal force to every class 
of people. The distinctive aspect of present day transient movements is that they are movements 
of individuals, not groups. The common bond that brings this group together is search for work. 

Transients are not very different from other people. They are persons and families who, having 
become discouraged and desperate by failure and financial distress, are driven to seek economic 
security in a new place ; persons who are marooned in stranded communities ; and those who have 
formerly found their livelihood in seasonal labor and who follow seasonal work opportunities in 
sections of the state and in sections of the nation, hoping that they will be among those fortunate to 
get a job. There are those, also, who have been away from their place of legal settlement, according 
to our varying state laws, long enough to lose legal residence, and are inhumanly driven from one 
community to another, from one state to another, because "they have not been here sufficient time 
to be a legal resident." Every class and type of persons is found among transients today, the pro- 
fessional man, the educator, the vagrant, the ex-criminal, the hobo. The depression has been no 
respecter of persons — all have been its victims. 

In 1 934, the situation became so acute, as a state and interstate problem, with the provisions for 
aid so inadequate, that the Federal Emergency Relief Administration inaugurated a transient pro- 
gram, making special earmarked grants to the states for establishment of transient centers, or shel- 
ters, in the principal cities through the nation. In these shelters the transients were received, fed, 
and clothed and given medical attention. Later concentration camps were established and the able- 



* This is a mere estimate. (See fourth paragraph of page 318.) 

■f This item was incurred while awaiting approval of WPA Project 65-32-3923. 



332 



Emergency Relief in ISToeth Carolina 




(i) Christmas toys made by transients and Christmas tree for Negro relief children, 
presents at Transient Center. Toys made and tree decorated by transients. 



Raleigh Transient Center. (a) Distributing the 



Emekgency Relief in North Carolina 333 

bodied men were separated from the physically unfit — employable men were given work on useful 
jobs, their board, a nominal sum, deducted from their earnings. 

Contrary to the general opinion of the public that transients in these Intake Centers were loafing, 
they usually welcomed the opportunity to work, as shown by the type of work performed by them 
while stationed in the centers. For instance, the transients at the Raleigh Center constructed a 
dyke on a farm near the city which was rented by the division, built fences and cleared grounds of 
stumps and underbrush at State College, filled in low grounds at colored cemetery, beautified 
Pullen Park, worked 28,331 hours for the city, filling up the old Rock Quarry with city refuse, cleared 
the lake shore at the J. Bealejohnson Farm, and many other such jobs. 

Similar types of work at the other centers were performed. 

Transient Activities in North Carolina 

From April, 1934, to April, 1935, six transient centers were established, located at Asheville, 
Charlotte, Durham, Greensboro, Raleigh, and Salisbury. These were intake centers where tran- 
sients were received and given care temporarily until they could be returned home, to a job, to rela- 
tives, or to a work camp. 

Transient labor has been used on the following types of public projects : sand fixation, the anchor- 
ing of sand to prevent its mass movement by erosion ; mosquito control to help reduce the frequency 
of malaria ; school beautification ; street beautification ; work on recreational grounds ; work on 
highways ; and work on the Penderlea Homesteads Project. The men also did a considerable 
amount of the repair necessary in each of the centers and camps, as well as doing landscaping work 
on grounds surrounding the buildings. 

In April, 1934, the old County Prison Farm in Mecklenburg County was rented by the Charlotte 
Center, and a farm was started to take care of the case load which was rapidly increasing. About 
140 men were sent to this camp. The men who were sent to the farm enjoyed the farm life very 
much. 

Allied with the criticism of the transient program was the objection voiced by many public 
citizens and unemployed persons in sections where it was planned to establish transient camps. 
These persons held the view that using transient labor constituted unfair discrimination against the 
unemployed labor supply in the community. Considerable effort had to be expended to oflfset these 
objections and prepare the way for using transient labor. 

A work camp was built at Nags Head on the coast in April, 1934. Two hundred able-bodied 
men were sent to this camp and were engaged in drift fence construction to combat beach erosion. 
This work was carried out along the lines recommended by War Department Engineers. The work 
that was completed has been well done and has formed an effectual barrier reef or fore dune. After 
the drift had accumulated sufficiently, the work was grassed over, using native grasses. A consider- 
able amount of drainage work has also been done by the Nags Head camp in promoting malaria 
control. This work has been a great help and has materially lessened the presence of mosquitoes. 
This work was done under the direction of the State Board of Health. 

By May, 1934, the case load had increased so much and there were so few experienced case 
workers, that it became necessary to employ a State Case Work Supervisor. In the middle of May, 
the Supervisor reported for duty and started her work throughout the state, training case workers 
who were in the centers. All case work records were brought up to date and new forms introduced 
which helped in keeping a more accurate check on the work. 

Early in 1934, a camp was established at Penderlea, a subsistence homestead project. About 
150 men were engaged in building houses and clearing ground for the homesteaders who were going 
to be quartered there. In July, the director of the homesteads project requested the removal of the 



334 Emergency Relief in North Carolina 

work camp from Penderlea. At that time there was no new project available. Since the work on 
the coast needed additional men, those at this camp were transferred to the camp at Nags Head. 
With these additional men, the existing facilities were not adequate. Therefore, the camp was 
moved further down the beach where land was available for construction of a larger camp. 

As the fall of 1934 approached, the number of men in the transient centers increased rapidly, 
and the camp facilities were inadequate to take care of the load ; therefore it became increasingly 
necessary that some way be found to occupy the leisure time of these men, in order to keep them off 
the streets, and thus allay community criticism. In September a State Recreation Director was 
employed who worked throughout the state getting new programs started and stimulating those 
already in existence. 

To take care of the overflow in Greensboro, the buildings of a closed summer hotel at Dunlap 
Springs, about fifteen miles from Greensboro, were rented to provide needed quarters. Old and 
infirm men were sent there. The men who were able to work repaired and reconditioned the build- 
ings, cleaned up the grounds, consisting of 60 acres, planted shrubbery and trimmed trees. The 
spring at this camp has proved a great help to these older men. Their general health has improved 
and at this time there has been no illness of serious nature. 

An additional camp was established at Weaverville near Asheville to house 150 men, and unused 
college property was secured for this camp. These buildings were also in need of repair and this 
was done in a splendid way by the transient workmen, and the grounds cleaned and planted. An 
educational program was initiated for the younger men, teachers being secured through ERE. The 
classes were well attended. A splendid work program was carried out, sponsored by the town of 
Weaverville. Parks, streets, and playgrounds were developed, and the auditorium, on the college 
property, was repaired, reconditioned, and painted. 

The last camp to be established was the New Hope Farm Camp, located 14 miles south of Dur- 
ham, and 125 Negroes were sent there. This farm, consisting of nearly 2,000 acres, was purchased 
by the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation, a unit of the N. C. ERA, and was leased to the Transient 
Division for improvement and clearing of the land and building houses, barns, etc. in lieu of rent. 
This farm had been untenanted for 10 years, the buildings had fallen down, and all fields had grown 
over by trees, bushes, and weeds. Drainage ditches had filled and all farm roads had disappeared. 
Several buildings were secured from a discontinued CCC Camp, and two 125-feet barracks and a 
mess hall and kitchen 100 x 44 feet were built out of this material. A sawmill was set up on the 
farm and operated by the transients ; lumber was cut and three good 4- and 5-room houses were 
constructed, the old farm home was restored, stock barns, storage barns, poultry and swine houses 
built, and in addition a pump house, smoke house, storage shelters, and a 2^ mile electric line were 
built. 

All existing fields were cleared of over- and undergrowth and planted. Drainage ditches were 
reopened, roads rebuilt, several miles offences constructed, nearly 100 acres of new ground has been 
cleared for pasturage. Sufficient work stock was secured from the Rural Rehabilitation Corporation 
and the War Department to work the farm. A small selected herd of beef cattle was secured, also a 
small dairy herd. Full blooded Hampshire hogs were brought to the farm, and three hundred 
raised in 1935. A flock of more than 1,000 highly bred white leghorn chickens has been added; 
this stock was secured without cost to the ERA. To this have been added three fine bulls secured 
from the best herds in the state without cost, the owners showing a great interest in our program. 
No money crop was planted — only food and feed being raised. The garden supplied practically all 
vegetables used on the farm, and at the Raleigh shelter feeding approximately 750 meals daily. 
Several thousand cans of vegetables were canned ; the farm yielded 800 bushels of sweet potatoes, 
500 bushels Irish potatoes, 65 tons of hay, 850 bushels of corn, nearly 15,000 pounds of pork have 



Emergency Relief in N^oeth Carolina 

been killed and 5,000 pounds of beef ; all milk, butter and eggs that are required are produced on this 
farm. 

By March, 1935, the case load had decreased somewhat due to increased vigilance of the transient 
staff in registering only those persons entitled to aid. More thorough investigations were made of the 
possibility and advisability of returning men to their homes. More intensive efforts were made by 
case workers to find jobs for the men. Since the Durham center was so near Raleigh and Greensboro, 
it was thought advisable to close it to further registrations. The offices were moved to the old Post 
Office building, where they were maintained until the middle of May, when the Durham office was 
closed entirely. 

On September 17, 1935, the FERA wired orders to close all transient centers to new transients 
at midnight, September 20. Notices of this order were posted at all centers and no new transients 
were received after that date. Plans were started to close the centers. Increased efforts were made 
to return men to their homes. Employable persons were certified for work on WPA projects. 

By February i, 1936, all centers were closed except Dunlap Springs, and work camps were aban- 
doned, except Camp Weaver at Nags Head and New Hope Farm. These were transferred to WPA 
projects. The remaining employables at the abandoned camps were transferred to Nags Head. 
The Nags Head Camp has been absorbed by the WPA Beach Erosion Project. 

Orders were received to close Dunlap and New Hope by March 3 1 . The request has been made 
to Washington to grant an extension of time for closing New Hope, so that arrangements can be 
made to provide for livestock and preserve the valuable work and improvements on the farm. 

A total of 122,144 transients was received and cared for from January, 1934, until reception 
closed September 20, 1935. This load consisted of unattached men and women and family groups. 
Men for the camps were selected from these centers, the remainder being given such care as was 
planned for them. Sufficient case workers were maintained at each center to investigate immediately 
each case and determine what was needed by the transients, either prolonged care or return to their 
home communities. 

These men coming from all parts of the country have presented an interesting study, representing 
almost every type, highly educated, skilled men, and totally untrained men of the type who travel 
continually with the seasons. A small percentage of these men came to the shelters and camps to 
weather economic conditions until they could secure work, and many of them have been placed in 
secure positions ; others stopped only for shelter, and almost without exception all adjusted them- 
selves to the wholesome conditions they found in the shelters and camps. Adequate medical care 
and inspection were furnished ; treatment rooms and hospital wards were established in each 
shelter, and trained nurses and orderlies cared for these cases under the supervision of a carefully 
selected local physician. As was to be expected, a great number of these men were afflicted with 
venereal diseases. They had no home, no work and no money. Their condition could only grow 
worse and they were a constant menace to all with whom they came in contact. These men, realizing 
the opportunity for complete restoration to health, cooperated with the doctors in every way. 

The most distressing feature of transiency is the roving family. Very little can be done for them 
in a practical way. However, most families were returned to their home communities after receiving 
temporary aid such as medical aid and clothes. Efforts to place a considerable number of young men 
in CCC camps were successful. Such an arrangement was felt by the Transient Director to be the 
finest accomplishment of the division. 

The experience with the transients in North Carolina has demonstrated the willingness of these 
folks to work. They want work. They have been cooperative in all phases of the program ; only 
a few have created disturbances in the community or in camps. 

A fine community helpfulness was evidenced at the Raleigh center in 1934 when the men re- 



336 



Emergency Relief in North Cakolina 




(i) The poultry yard at the New Hope Transient Farm, Chatham County. (2) Sawmill at New Hope Transient Farm. Cutting lumber 
for construction work. (3) Livestock barns and livestock at New Hope Transient Farm. (4) Clearing underbrush infields at New Hope 
Transient Farm. (5) Farming operations at New Hope Transient Farm. (6) The dining hall and barracks at New Hope Transient Farm. 



Emergency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 



337 



quested that they be permitted to make toys for children of the city and have a Christmas at the 
center. For two months they were busy making toys from old rubber tires, old crates, and every 
kind of material. Hundreds of toys of all description were made, and Christmas Eve was happily 
spent in decoration of an outdoor tree and other preparations for children on Christmas afternooon. 
These transients, men from all walks of life, should be commended for their splendid effort in coop- 
erating with the supervisory personnel of the transient program, and in cooperating with the Safety 
Division of the Emergency Relief Administration. The constant vigilance of the men themselves 
in their concern for safety throughout the whole period of the program has created for them an 
enviable record in the establishment of first aid methods, of fire drills, and the inspection of buildings, 
materials and equipment, for the reduction to a minimum of hazards incident to the close quartering 
of persons, which was necessary in this program. Evidence of this fine record made by the transients 
in emptying buildings during fire drills may be found on page 277, which is a part of the report 
on the Safety Division. 



A List of Transients Cared for Each Month With Current Operation and Permanent 
Plant and Equipment Costs Per Month 







Federal 






State 






Unat- 


Unat- 


Number 


Individ- 


Unat- 


Unat- 


Number 


Individ- 


Month 


tached 


tached 


of 


uals in 


tached 


tached 


of 


uals in 




Males 


Females 


Families 


Families 


Males 


Females 


Families 


Families 


1934 


















April 


2,666 


22 


106 


318 


1,431 


28 


44 


136 


May 


2,376 


22 


lOI 


262 


974 


31 


63 


173 


June' 


2,342 


32 


"3 


288 


991 


24 


57 


156 


July 


3,910 


27 


170 


462 


1,555 


31 


99 


360 


August 


4,850 


32 


166 


443 


1,564 


34 


80 


250 


September 


4,687 


44 


188 


559 


1,374 


24 


61 


200 


October 


4>295 


23 


142 


405 


995 


19 


38 


"5 


November 


3,818 


43 


93 


255 


699 


22 


42 


118 


December 


3,236 


25 


"9 


323 


515 


8 


40 


136 


1935 


















January 


3,626 


31 


152 


401 


616 


12 


33 


III 


February 


2,934 


29 


124 


313 


210 


5 


23 


76 


March 


4,191 


44 


156 


392 


118 


9 


18 


60 


April 


4,722 


58 


254 


669 


170 


8 


40 


154 


May 


4,501 


64 


234 


615 


386 


19 


22 


76 


June 


4,246 


47 


232 


588 


627 


16 


17 


47 


July 


3,969 


49 


274 


779 


674 


22 


34 


92 


August 


3,647 


48 


198 


594 


507 


12 


32 


93 


September 


2,478 


34 


135 


421 


259 


9 


17 


66 


October 


643 


4 


13 


36 


56 


I 


2 


II 


November 


426 


2 


6 


16 


43 




I 


2 


December 


377 








39 




I 


2 



TOTAL 67,940 



680 



2,976 8,139 13,803 



334 



764 



2,434 



338 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



A List of Transients Cared for Each Month With Current Operation and Permanent 
Plant and Equipment Costs Per Month — Continued 







Permanent 






Permanent 


Month 


Current 


Plant 


Month 


Current 


Plant 




Expenses 


Equipment 




Expenses 


Equipment 


1934 






1935 






April 


$32,369.92 


$7,583-39 


March 


S 1,501.48 


S 31,222.29 


May 


33,944-75 


4,732-93 


April 


1,010.14 


29,313-15 


June 


30,334-45 


2,957-42 


May 


1,232.91 


31,759-68 


July 


29,299.64 


4,930-34 


June 


321.42 


27,043.86 


August 


39,697-78 


5,923-68 


July 


853-55 


27,049-77 


September 


35,026.39 


9,724-24 


August 


967.60 


28,406.57 


October 


39,976.82 


5,500.57 


September 


1,006.67 


24,600.37 


November 


45,930-83 


7,991-05 


October 


1,187.57 


22,790.66 


December 


39,421-54 


2,323-43 


November 


2,660.84 


14,372.14 


1935 






December 


2,857.76 


13,310.98 


January 


1,962.86 


43,400.72 












February 


785-03 


34,112.87 


TOTALS 


$68,014.88 


$643,395-18 


The cost per person each month including 


administration was as follows : 






1934 




1935 








April 


«7-03 


January 


S9.05 






May 


8.84 


February 


9-50 






June 


7-47 


March 


6.40 






July 


4.61 


April 


5-07 






August 


5-53 


May 


5.61 






September 


5.08 


June 


4-83 






October 


6.80 


July 


4.84 






November 


9-27 


August 


5-79 






December 


9.06 


September 
October 
November 
December 


7-53 
30.40 

29-39 
31.84 





Emeegenct Eelief in North Carolina 339 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC RELATIONS 

Functions of Departments of Public Relations 

Departments of Public Relations serve various purposes in the organization of modern society. 
Modern industry particularly has such complex ramifications that most of the larger industrial or 
business units maintain departments whose function is \'aried, depending upon which interest the 
department is designed to promote. It is a commonplace of modern knowledge that not only indus- 
tries and businesses give attention to the need for some organized effort to relate them to the public, 
but special groups pursuing particular lines of activity, quite remote from industry or business, 
maintain within themselves an individual or group whose time is devoted to interpreting the activity 
to the public. 

Public Relations and the Relief Program 

The chief purpose of a Department of Public Relations associated with an agency like the 
Emergency Relief Administration is not merely propagandistic, although it may be maintained that 
any such relating effort is in the nature of propaganda. Nor is it mere publicity in the sense of staking 
the whole success of the enterprise on what is released to newspapers or other publications. 

It would seem, in the light of experience with government programs, that the chief purpose 
of a Department of Public Relations in such programs is the fostering of amicable public contacts 
and the creation of an understanding public by the interpretation of the intention, the scope, and the 
significance of the particular program, which in this case, is the North Carolina Emergency Relief 
Administration. Not only is interpretation necessary, but there is a definite obligation to interpret 
the elements of the program to the public. The very nature of the Emergency Relief Administration 
is such that the citizen has every right to know what his government is doing and to what extent 
success is attending that effort. It is up to the Department of Public Relations to so inform the 
general public. 

Methods in ERA Public Relations 

To interpret the program and inform the state of progress, a number of devices are used. News- 
paper publicity is an important medium for the dissemination of information. The newspapers of 
the state, with but few exceptions, are to be heartily commended for the space, and encouraging 
editorial comment which they have given the ERA program. The exceptions are a few newspapers 
which disagreed with the philosophy of public relief upon which the ERA is erected and hence were 
ready to criticise any particular act. Also, and almost necessarily in the nature of things, harm was 
done from time to time by premature comment based on partial or incorrect information. In 
most cases an interview or letter cleared the matter. 

Publication in media other than newspapers has also helped to reach the public with the merits 
of the program. For example. Popular Government, the publication of the North Carolina Institute 
of Government, goes to all governmental officials throughout the state, to business men, schools and 
libraries. The N. C. ERA was offered the privilege of having three articles published in it. The 
first article dealt with the background of the FERA, the second with the administration of relief 
since its inception in this state, and the third with the problems of the N. C. ERA, and the future 
outlook for relief It is felt that these articles have reached a very influential audience. 

Pamphlets have been prepared and distributed from time to time giving the public an idea of 
the nature and accomplishments of N. C. ERA. That these have been valuable is attested by many 
comments which have come in from over the state. 

Public meetings, and joint meetings of ERA staffs and public citizens have proven unusually 
valuable. For example in a series of social service institutes which were held throughout the state, 



340 Emebgenct Relief in North Carolina 

a luncheon meeting, dinner meeting, or afternoon meeting was given over to a discussion of the 
program, interpreting the program to the pubHc, and the ERA staff and visiting citizens to each 
other. These meetings were addressed by a representative of the Department of PubHc Relations, 
and the program usually ended with an open discussion which proved both provocative of dis- 
cussion and instructive. Other public meetings throughout the state were addressed by District 
Administrators, or members of the Social Service Divisions throughout the state. It proved alto- 
gether true that through an understanding of the program, there was less criticism and more support. 

In addition to these other phases of Public Relations, this department was charged with the 
responsibility of editing and preparing all publications issued by N. C. ERA. A consistent effort 
is made to ha\'e such publications of a high standard so that they will have a permanent value as 
chronicles of this particular period in which the N. C. ERA has functioned. Students in the future 
may consult the recorded acts and problems of the N. C. ERA and see reflected there a fairly repre- 
sentati\'e picture of these times when government aid was needed to keep thousands of people from 
want. 

NUTRITION DEPARTMENT 

The Nutrition Department of the Emergency Relief Administration was established September, 
1934. The personnel consisted of one State Nutrition Adviser and one clerical assistant. 

This Department has served in the following ways : 

1. Supplied up-to-date food and nutrition information. 

2. Planned weekly and monthly budgets for families of all sizes. 

3. Furnished menus and recipes for relief families, school lunches, nursery school lunches, and 
for use of surplus commodities. 

School Lunches 

Menus and recipes were furnished to all lunch rooms. Several of the lunch rooms were visited 
by the Nutrition Adviser and information gi\en in regard to placing equipment and serving lunches. 

Nursery Schools 

Supplied menus, market orders and recipes twice monthly. Visited thirty-eight of the Nursery 
Schools and lectured to parents of the Nursery School children on meal planning, buying, prepara- 
tion and serving of low cost foods. Pro\ided educational and illustrative materials on foods appro- 
priate for Nursery Schools. 

Transient Bureaus and Camps 

Visited and inspected several of the shelters and camps kitchens and dining rooms. Provided 
quantity recipes. 

Rural Rehabilitation 

Assisted in approving and filing of Rural Rehabilitation budgets. Outlined a plan for Home 
Economists of Rural Rehabilitation to follow in their demonstrations to the clients. 

Surplus Products 

Circulated recipes to be used with the different surplus products as they are ready for distribution ; 
for use by relief families, school lunches and Nursery Schools. 



Emergency Eelief in ISTokth Carolina 341 

THE FISHERMEN'S SELF-HELP COOPERATIVE IN NORTH CAROLINA 

The coastal area of North Carohna is a distinct section, both culturally and geographically. 
Settled originally by hardy English stock, it has kept its racial purity to an unusual degree. Its 
culture is that of a homogeneous group, remote from the rest of the state — living the vigorous life 
of those who wrest a living from the sea. And the possibilities of making an adequate livelihood 
from the sea are unlimited — pro\ided that the bountiful catches of the fishermen can find their way 
to a satisfactory market. 

The de\'elopment of fishing with regard to regulating, conserving and marketing the catches of 
fish has not kept pace with other developments. The fisherman is at the mercy of wind and weather, 
of lean years and fat years, of transportation facilities, middlemen, and markets. If he makes a 
good catch ; if there is a brisk demand ; if there is a good price, he makes expenses plus a profit. If 
these elements are not present he does not. 

Another factor which has operated to keep the fisherman living on margin has been the disor- 
ganization of the industry. With but few exceptions, fishermen fish either singly or in small crews. 
Loss of gear, bad seasons, etc., instead of being borne by a large number of participants, fall heavily 
on the few. 

Accordingly the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration delegated the then Public 
Relations Director to make a survey to determine the extent and nature of the problem. A ques- 
tionnaire was prepared, calling for detailed information about the person's fishing history, his apti- 
tude, the extent to which he had depended on fishing, his earnings and catches over a five-year 
period, etc., etc. These questionnaires were circulated among relief clients and those eligible 
for relief. The results of this survey were tabulated, and on the basis of the number of approved 
applicants, and the estimated amount necessary for their rehabilitation, further plans were made. 

Following this survey of the fishermen, oflScials of the Emergency Relief Administration sought 
some means for aiding fishermen in this state and after various plans had been considered, decision 
was reached to adopt the Self-Help Cooperative program. Under this plan, the ERA, fishing 
communities, and Self-Help Division of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration cooperated 
to establish modern facilities for handling, processing and marketing seafood products. These 
facilities became the property of the fishermen members of the organization. Some of these mem- 
bers were on relief, some were classified as eligible for relief, and others as potential relief clients. 

In December, 1934, the State Relief Administrator detailed the Public Relations Director for 
the ERA as Cooperative Specialist to organize the fishermen into cooperative groups. These 
organization methods were adopted to give the fishermen themselves the opportunity either to 
approve or reject the plans. It was found that the fishermen looked with favor upon the self-help 
co6perati\'e plan with the result that over 3,000 of them were interviewed by visitors and indicated 
their desire to become associated with the organization. After various eliminations, 1,571 fisher- 
men actually made application for membership. 

A survey was next made to determine marketing possibilities. No effort was made to enter 
competition with pri\ate enterprise, since there would be no virtue in displacing one set of sellers 
in favor of another. But there is a potential market in the state that has not been touched, due to 
inability to preserve fish, and regularize shipments. 

On the basis, therefore, of the number of persons involved, the amount needed to begin re- 
habilitation, and the extent of available market, a corporation was formed, and an application made 
to Washington. There is a parent corporation, The North Carolina Self-Help Corporation which 
was created to receive and disburse grants from the government, pass on the establishment of new 
subsidiary cooperative corporations, and to act generally in an advisory capacity. 



342 Emergency Relief in ]S!'obth Carolina 

The North CaroHna Fisheries, Incorporated, is the name of the Fishermen's Cooperative, the 
first corporation to be organized under the parent corporation. Its directorate is drawn from the 
participants. 

This corporation will process and market products of its members who will receixe in the form 
of a dividend money gained resulting from such operation. These divdends will be paid in direct 
proportion to the amount of production of each member. A separate grant from the Self-Help 
Cooperative Division of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration was made for operating 
capital for the fisheries. This grant was made to the North Carolina Self-Help Corporation which 
in turn loaned the fund to the North Carolina Fisheries. This loan will be amortized over a period 
of 30 years and such payments will be used by the North Carolina Self-Help Corporation for the 
establishment of other cooperatives within the state. 

With this favorable reaction from among those to be benefited, and potential markets shown by 
the survey, application was made to Mr. Harry L. Hopkins, FERA Administrator, Washington, 
D. C, who is empowered by provision of the Federal Emergency Relief Act to make grants for the 
establishment of such organizations, for operating capital for the Fisheries in the sum of $129,000. 

Meantime, the N. C. Self-Help Corporation was organized as a business agency to receive 
grants from the ERA and gifts from other sources, to be loaned to cooperatives. This corporation 
is separate and distinct from the Emergency Relief Administration in North Carolina and is in 
effect the bank for the N. C. Fisheries, Inc., and any other cooperatives which may be formed in 
the state. 

While the application for the operating capital was being prepared and acted upon, the N. C. 
ERA, aided by the towns and counties in which the plants were to be established, moved forward 
with its building program to provide the facilities necessary for the operation of the Fisheries. At 
Morehead City, where is located the main plant, a fish freezing plant with a daily freezing capacity 
in excess of 10,000 pounds and storage capacity of 800,000 pounds was built. Included in these 
plans were also modern facilities, approved by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries for filleting, pan dress- 
ing, canning, salting, and smoking fish. This plant also has all modern facilities for handling crabs, 
clams, escallops, oysters, shrimp, and all types of edible seafood products. The City of Morehead 
City contributed the site and $11,000 in cash or materials for this plant. Under the terms of the 
agreement between the Emergency Relief Administration and Morehead City, the ERA furnished 
the labor for building the plant and such additional materials as were needed. 

Upon completion, the plant was transferred to Morehead City which in turn leased it to the 
N. C. Fisheries, Inc., for a 23-year period for Si. 00 per year. Also, the City of Morehead City in 
its agreement with the N. C. Emergency Relief Administration exempted or agreed to pay all 
county and state taxes which might be incurred by the Fisheries during the lease period. It further 
agreed to pay all fire and storm insurance for the plant. 

Similar arrangements were worked with Southport, Manteo, and Belhaven. At Southport 
the city contributed $3,000 in cash and the site. Agreement with the City of Southport also carried 
the clauses covering insurance and city and county taxes. At Manteo, the county of Dare con- 
tributed a site and $1,500.00. The City of Belhaven turned over to the Fisheries a building already 
equipped, on a lease arrangement of five years for $1.00 per year. 

Total cost of all the plants was approximately $132,605.00. 

The freezing plant at Morehead City supplies a long-felt need. Hitherto there were no facilities 
for conserving large quantities offish. With the freezer, during periods when the market is glutted, 
seafood products can be frozen and held in storage until there is a scarcity of these products. As 



Ei[EEGENCY EeLIEF IN NoRTH CAROLINA 343 

an example, during January and February of this year, North Carohna's fishing season, from the 
standpoint of production, was the poorest in perhaps 25 years. The Fisheries had frozen approxi- 
mately 75,000 pounds of seafood products in the previous November and was able to supply the 
markets with these products during the lean production period of January and February. It is 
believed the freezer will conserve large quantities of fish during the summer when prices drop 
below a living wage range to the fishermen and when supply is much greater than demand. These 
will be frozen during the summer and sold during the winter months when weather prevents fishing 
on a large scale. 

The Southport, Manteo, and Belhaven plants do not have freezing facilities, but they do have 
electrically refrigerated rooms for holding seafood products. 

The ear-marked sum of $129,000.00, approved by Mr. Hopkins, was made in the form of a 
grant to the North Carolina ERA, for the N. C. Fisheries Cooperative. This sum was transferred 
to the N. C. Self-Help Cooperative, to be loaned to the Fisheries. In turn, the N. C. Self-Help 
Corporation made an original loan to the Fisheries in the amount of $42,000. Later, another 
loan of $10,000 for operating expenses and one for $5,000 for a loan fund was made to the Fisheries 
by the Self-Help Corporation. This loan is amortized by the Fisheries over a 30-year period in 
semi-annual installments at a rate of i per cent interest. 

The Fisheries, chartered under the laws of the State of North Carolina, is controlled by a Board 
of Directors composed of from five to seven members. Under the by-laws of the organization, 
this Board is elected annually by the fishermen members of the organization. At the present time, 
members of this Board are, John H. Sikes, President, Morehead City ; Marion A. Cowell, Vice 
President, Morehead City ; Mrs. Thomas O'Berry, Raleigh ; Roy L. Davis, Manteo ; Ivy Gaskill, 
Harker's Island ; Charles E. Cause, Southport ; and John G. Piner, Morehead City. 

Fishermen members of the organization, about 400, sell their products through the organiza- 
tion at prevailing market prices and participate on a pro rata basis in all profits of the organiza- 
tion. Aid in the purchase of gear and equipment has been extended fishermen members out of a 
$5,000 loan fund established for this purpose. The organization holds members' notes and chattel 
mortgages on their equipment covering most of this sum and members repay these loans with cer- 
tain percentages of their catches. 

The North Carolina Fisheries, Inc., began operations in the Morehead City, Southport, and 
Belhaven plants on October 7, 1935. The Manteo plant began November, 1935. Up until Feb- 
ruary 15, 1936, the Fisheries had handled approximately 1,300,000 pounds of seafood products. 
These were all sold in a wide variety of markets over an area including the states of New York, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South CaroHna, Georgia, Ten- 
nessee, Alabama, Missouri, Ohio, Illinois, and the District of Columbia. 

One of the main purposes of the Fisheries is the development of new preserving processes for 
the types of seafood caught in North Carolina waters. The most successful of these thus far has 
been the processing and marketing of channel bass and sea mullets. These two types of fish, 
particularly the former, were slow-moving products. The Fisheries began filleting both these 
types and packing them in one-pound tins. Comparatively large volumes of trout have been sold, 
dressed, and other types of processed goods include flounder fillets, bluefish fillets, speckled trout 
fillets, Spanish mackerel fillets, salt mullet fillets, and other types of dressed or filleted fish. As in- 
dicated, the Fisheries also handles oysters, which are cleaned with modern machinery, shrimp, both 
cooked and green ; escallops, and clams. In the Fisheries laboratory, there have been developed 
crab gumbo, oyster juice, deviled crab, minced clams, clam chowder and pet food. These products 
are still in the experimental stage and have not been placed on the market. The Fisheries is also 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 




Ice Plant 



Refrigerating and Cold Storage 



Processing — Offices- 



developing various types of smoked fish and is experimenting with a smoked fish fillet which, it is 
planned, eventually will be placed on the market for sale in fish shops, cafes, and hot dog stands. 

Much of the equipment, such as trucks and canneries, was transferred by the ERA to the Self- 
Help Corporation which in turn sold it to the Fisheries. Under this arrangement, the Fisheries 
acquired a fleet of 1 2 trucks and two trailers ; canneries at Southport and Morehead City ; and 
various other types of equipment that had been previously used in the ERA's program. 

Although the Fisheries has been in operation slightly less than five months, it has been given 
credit variously for increasing prices which the fishermen received for their products. As an ex- 
ample, channel bass had seldom ever brought more than ic or i^c per pound, to the fishermen. 
With new methods adopted for processing this product, the price now being paid is 4c per pound. 
The general effect, as indicated by those familiar with the 
industry, has been an increase of prices to the fishermen 
all along the line. Among the 400 members of the or- 
ganization there is a general feeling of proprietorship in 
the new organization and the belief that the Fisheries will 
help to solve many of the problems which have beset the 
members particularly over the past five years. During 
this fi\'e-year period fish markets have been demoralized 
chiefly because there was no orderly marketing of prod- 
ucts. Statistics show that o\er a two-year period, previous 
to 1935, the fisherman's average income was approxi- 
mately $168.00 per year. Over this period, the average 
price for all types offish sold by the fishermen was slightly 
above 2C per pound. Since beginning operations, the 




Docks at Rear oj 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



345 



■T:m--tmm: 







m' Recreation Rooms 



Warehouse 



Garages 



u iigs 



average price paid by the Fisheries to the fishermen is estimated at from 3 I2C to 4 }4c per pound. 
While there are no definite figures yet available, there is a strong indication that the establish- 
ment of the Fisheries has either directly or indirectly reduced the need for relief along the North 
Carolina coast. Direct and permanent employment has been given in the plants to approximately 
75 people. Those benefited by increased prices probably number as high as 1,500 persons, con- 
sidering that of the 400 members, most of them are heads of crews of from 2 to 3 people, and most 
of them are heads of families. In addition to this, it is the express belief of persons familiar with 
the fishing industry that the fact that the Fisheries has strengthened the general price structure of 
the seafood products has reflected benefit to hundreds of other fishermen and fishermen's families 
who are not directly associated with the Fisheries. The Fisheries has made itself felt in virtually 

every community in North Carolina. In addition to the 
plants already enumerated, the Fisheries maintains agen- 
cies or houses in such widely scattered points as Wanchese, 
Stumpy Point, Engelhard, Hatteras, Ocracoke, South 
Creek, Marshallburg and Swansboro. Merchants and 
business men in all communities touched by the Fisheries 
have volunteered statements that Fisheries payrolls and 
Fisheries members have perceptibly aided business at 
these points. 

It should be pointed out in any paper dealing with 
the Fisheries that the Fisheries is a permanent organiza- 
tion whose benefits should, and by all indications will, be 
increased with each succeeding year and that it is by no 
means and emergency measure. 




346 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 




vmvmuiiuiiiiiiijiiiiiiiiuiuii 



wmmmimmimmh 






(i) Stockyards built for handling drought cattle in Raleigh. (2) Drought cattle in ERA stockyards, Goldsboro. (3) Meat cannery 
in New Bern, Craven County . (4) Workers processing meat in Mew Bern cannery. (5) Cans of meat prepared from drought cattle. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 347 

THE DROUGHT CATTLE PROGRAM 

The most difficult service that the State Rehef Administration was called on to render was using 
the facilities of its organization to aid the Federal Government in its effort to help thousands of 
farmers in drought areas through the purchase of millions of cattle, and the utilization of these 
cattle as food for relief clients, thus giving work to thousands of relief clients in various activities of 
the program. 

This very complex program involved building stockyards, fencing pastures, recei\ing and testing 
101,466 cows and calves — transporting to pastures, slaughtering and processing cattle, distribution 
of fresh meat to relief clients, salting, storing, and processing hides, in a state unaccustomed to 
handling cattle on such a large scale — all within a period of six months. 

The program was handled jointly by three divisions of the relief organization. The Rural 
Rehabilitation Division was in charge of selection of pastures and care of cows in the pastures. The 
Works Division was responsible for all constructions of abattoirs, fencing, and canneries, operation 
of canneries, storing and processing of hides. The Commodities Director was in charge of distribu- 
tion of fresh meat and canned goods. 

In June, 1934, the State Administrator was requested to wire the estimated number of cattle 
up to 100,000 that could be pastured in the state. With the aid of the Animal and Husbandry Divi- 
sion of State College in estimating available pasturage, the State Administration offered to care for 
75,000 cows. In July, authorization was received for rental of pastures and building stockyards in 
preparation for receiving the cattle. Within sixty days, 101,466 cows had been received in the 
state. The number was increased as available pasturage exceeded estimates. 

A primary consideration was safeguarding native cattle from probable infection from any 
diseased cattle that might come into the state, as the cattle were to be shipped without health certif- 
icates. The State Administration entered into an agreement with the State Veterinarian to employ 
available veterinarians in the state for testing the cattle, and to have all cattle found to be diseased 
killed and cremated. A member of the staff of the State Veterinary Division was taken over by 
ERA for supervision of testing, treatment, and enforcement of quarantine. 

Holding and testing pens were constructed at Goldsboro, Raleigh, Monroe, Clyde, Asheville, 
and West Jefferson — all equipped with laboratory facilities for testing and treatment. With the 
cooperation of the Animal and Husbandry Division of North Carolina State College, pastures were 
selected in every section of the state, and as rapidly as rental contracts could be made, construction 
of pasture fences was begun. 

Numerous handicaps were encountered at the stockyards, as men experienced for such work 
were not available. Due to the efficiency of the railroads and of the local administrations, the 
unloading of cattle was accomplished in remarkably short time and with little loss of cattle, although 
numbers of cows were too weak to stand when the trains arrived and many died in transit. In Golds- 
boro on one occasion 4,000 cows were unloaded between i a.m. and 7 a.m. As the extreme weakness 
of the cows required holding them in the pens until they were in condition to be transferred to 
pastures, it was necessary to enlarge the stockyards, constructed to hold approximately 2,500 cows, 
to accommodate 7,500. Incinerators adjacent to stockyards were built for burning diseased cattle. 
The inspection and testing for TB, Bangs, and other diseases were under the direction of the State 
Veterinarian. As only fifty-three veterinarians were available, they frequently worked more than 
twenty-four hours on a stretch to relieve conjested conditions. The cost of inspection, testing, and 
treatment in the stockyards was .1355 cents per head. 

In addition to inspection by the State Veterinary Department of cattle at stockyards and abat- 
toirs, inspection of cattle was necessary in pastures, and of native herds in proximity to drought 



348 



Emergency Relief in ISToeth Carolina 




(i) ERA ahalloir at Mew Bern, Craven County. (2) ERA abattoir at Hamlet, Richmond County. 



Emercency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 349 

cattle, in order to guard against development of probable disease. A follow-up inspection of 
native herds is in process duringj^ liquidation of ERA. The administration has exercised every 
precaution to prevent lowering of health standards already attained by the state. 

The item of pasturage involved considerable difficulty, including rental, fencing, herding, and, 
in time, due to the type of available pasture in season, supplemental feeding. 

The original plan of the drought cattle program was that selected cattle were to be pastured and 
put in condition for use in the Rural Rehabilitation program, but changes in the Federal program 
required that all cattle be disposed of by January, 1935. With this in view, abattoirs, canneries, 
and processing plants were rushed to completion by the Works Division of the Emergency Relief 
Administration. 

Modern abattoirs were constructed at Hamlet and New Bern. Also repairs were made at 
existing abattoirs in Raleigh, Greensboro, and Wilson. At the same time, construction was rushed 
on canning plants at Wilson, Raleigh, New Bern, Asheville, Waynesville, Greensboro, Rockingham, 
and Troy. The modern equipment and size of these plants can be illustrated by the fact that at the 
plant in Greensboro the normal production per day was 15,000 one-pound cans. The equipment 
installed in the canneries was purchased on specifications which would enable same to be utilized 
in the general relief vegetable and fruit canneries. After completion of the meat canning, practi- 
cally all equipment was put to use in the Emergency Relief canning program in the summer of 1935. 

The operation of the abattoirs was under the supervision of the State Veterinary Division, the 
cost of this slaughter inspection was .20>^ per head. These abattoirs were equipped with refrigera- 
tion rooms, and the slaughtered beef was transferred to operating canneries and refrigerated storage 
by refrigerated trucks owned and operated by the Emergency Relief 

In the latter part of November and December when cold weather arrived, in towns having 
slaughtering facilities approved by the State Veterinarian, cows were slaughtered and distributed 
as fresh meat to relief clients. The slaughter of all cattle was completed by January, 1935, with 
exception of the cattle held for conditioning and the cattle lost in the pastures, which required some 
time to find. This carried the program on a small scale into April. 

The cities, in which meat canneries were installed, furnished buildings, material for repairs, 
water and lights for operation, and the Emergency Relief Administration furnished labor and 
equipment. 

The actual operation of the canneries was started in September, 1934. The supervision of the 
meat processing was placed under the State Home Demonstration Agent. The Extension Economist 
in Marketing and Food Conservation and canning specialist was loaned full time to the ERA for 
supervision of the canning program, selection and training of supervisory personnel in the canning 
plants. A trained home economist was placed in charge of canning operations at each plant. All 
relief clients and other labor accepted for work in the plants were required to secure a health certifi- 
cate from the Board of Health. The average number of persons employed in these eight canneries 
was 3,185 per week, and operation was on a twenty-four hour basis per day. The most strict regu- 
lations of sanitation and cleanliness in these plants were rigidly enforced. The canneries were most 
noteworthy for this feature as well as for efficiency and production. 

Each plant was equipped with a first aid station, in charge of a registered nurse working with each 
shift of workers. An experienced butcher was in charge of each shift of meat cutters. The neces- 
sity of using inexperienced persons in butchering occasioned risk of cuts and danger of infections. 
Immediate treatment of cuts prevented infections. As an evidence of the thorough supervision of 
these places by the Safety Department, the following is given : 



350 



Emergency Eelief ix N"orth Caeolina 




(i) Cutting meat for canning in ERA cannery. (2) Interior ERA meat cannery. 



Emergency Relief in N'orth Carolina 351 

Accidents in Abattoirs and Meat Canning Plants 



CANNERY 


Man-Hours 


'S 
i4 


Q 

V 

6 


3 
c 



m 


1 




ho 

~^ 
fa 


if 




u 


1 


bo 
C 

c?5 


c 
3 
m 


5 


1; 
3 

c 
a. 


s 

X 

V 


11 

cq 

" S 

3 


3 





c/3 
< 

H 

H 


c 
.0 



•a 

c 


bo 

P 


6 
H 





c 

V 
3 
O* 

a 
fa 


Asheville 


159.812 


541 


84 


33 


4 


3 


4 


14 


32 


105 


3 


3 





8 


85 


919 


2 


1.953 


2 


12.5 


Charlotte 


17,216 


51 


9 


19 


I 


9 


I 


I 


I 








12 





9 


6 


119 


I 


409 


2 


1 16.2 


Greensboro 


353.593 


939 


179 


104 


1 1 


14 


10 


10 


23 


74 


■5 


7 





23 < 


571 


2,080 





16,143 


4 


"•3 


Hamlet 


188,690 


473 


1 1 


144 


3 


7 


8 


4 


7 


13 


4 


17 


2 


3 


20 


7.6 





2,336 


6 


31-7 


New Bern 


110,046 


289 


69 


7 








I 


4 


3 


50 





2 





6 


4 


435 


9 


i,i6g 


4 


36.3 


Raleigh 


233.302 


488 


138 


34 


3 


8 


6 


I 


21 


lOI 





5 





15 


24 


844 





961 


5 


24.0 


Rockingham 


71,480 


177 


30 


I 


I 











5 


83 





3 


3 


5 


39 


347 





556 








Troy 


77.318 


148 


98 





I 





2 


5 


67 


76 





3 





8 


66 


474 


4 


1.150 








WaynesN'ille 


98.573 


458 


90 


28 





3 


I 


2 


7 


73 


4 


I 





7 


14 


688 


3 


1,947 








Wilmington 


25.421 


66 





34 





I 





8 


4 




















"3 





45 


12 


472.0 


Wilson 


146,311 


897 


TOO 


89 


4 


6 


6 


8 


4 


■ 76 


4 


3 





3 


42 


'.342 


2 


1,484 


I 


7-3 


TOTALS 


1,481,762 


4.527 


808 


493 


28 


51 


39 


57 


'74 


751 


30 


56 


5 


87 


97' 


8,077 


21 


28,153 


36 


24-3 



The above analysis is very interesting. Out of 1,481,762 hours of work, there was a total of 
8,077 accidents. This includes every type of injury from minor scratches to cuts received from 
bones, which are likely to become infected — yet there were only twenty-one infections. The Safety 
Director attributed the low percentage of infections to the fact that a trained nurse was on duty 
with each shift. 

There were only thirty-four lost-time accidents. The accident frequency of 24.3 hours is higher 
than frequency of the general relief work program, which was eleven. However, it should be 
remembered that the majority of people employed in the abattoirs and canneries had had little, 
if any, previous training in this particular work. 

From September, 1934, until February, 1935, the completion of the canning program, there 
were 6,431,792 cans of one-pound net produced, which consisted of stew beef, hamburger, soup 
stock, tongue and liver. 

A total of 57,765 cattle was slaughtered for consumption and canning. Due to change of plans 
to complete the program by January i, at the direction of the FERA, 26,635 cows were shipped 
from pastures to designated points out of the state. Pasture leases were made on a flat per-head 
basis, the pasture owner making certain provisions for housing and care, on the consideration of 
fencing by ERA in lieu of rent, the ERA furnishing labor, or materials, or both according to the 
\'alue of the pasture, etc. Pasture owners constructed barns, planted feed crops, or withheld sale 
of feed, for grazing of drought cattle, expecting to rent the pastures for three years. The sudden 
removal of the cattle left dissatisfied owners and hundreds of claims to be settled by the adminis- 
trators. 

The State Relief Administration was permitted to keep the hides for the establishment of a 
Tannery at Old Fort. All hides were salted and stored. 

The total cost of the cattle program was $3,167,646.00. 

There were 762 pastures rented, comprising 270,670 acres, at a total cost of 58 cents per acre, 
including rentals, fencing, and repairs. 



352 Emeegency Relief in North Carolina 

The average cost of the canned meats (hamburger, soup, liver, and tongue) was 17.5 cents 
per pound can. This cost includes the total expenditures of the cattle program, the construction of 
stockyards, abattoirs, canneries, transporting and handling cows in stockyards, pastures, etc. 

If a market value were placed on the by-products of the cattle program, such as hides, tankage, 
bones, and manure used in the rural rehabilitation program, deducted from the unit cost, the 
average cost per can would be considerably lowered. 

The program was handled as economically as possible under prevalent conditions. In spite of 
all precautions, there was a large loss of cattle, due to the poor condition of cows, high waters in 
eastern pasture areas, and other conditions beyond control of the administration. A large force of 
investigators was employed to protect the cattle. 

From the above, one can see the difficulties encountered in handling so large a program in such 
a short time, a program which involved so many difficult stages of operation, but which, neverthe- 
less, was accomplished by the ERA in the specified time limit, using its personnel of relief labor 
and supervision. 

The Relief Administration is indebted to the State Veterinary Division of the Agricultural De- 
partment, the Home Demonstration Service of State College, the Animal and Husbandry Division 
of State College, the local health departments, and local governmental officials for their fine coop- 
eration throughout the duration of this program. 

COMMODITY DISTRIBUTION 

Although the shipment of surplus commodities into the state was begun in October, 1933, it was 
not until the spring of 1 934 that shipments of these commodities assumed such large proportions, 
requiring the full time of a director to arrange freight shipments, storage warehouses, allocations, and 
distribution of products, purchases, accounting and reporting. Accordingly a member of the staflf, 
familiar with these transactions, was appointed to the position of State Director of Commodity 
Distribution. Surplus commodities were shipped by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration 
to the receiving and storage warehouse located at central points ; there they were unloaded, repacked, 
and shipped, by trucks, to the county or district ERA storerooms. 

Each county or district storeroom was in charge of a storeroom keeper, whose responsibility it 
was to see that all requisitions made by the case worker were filled — that commodities were properly 
protected and distributed, records properly kept, and accurate reporting made for all goods under 
his care. When the counties were consolidated, a District Commodities Director was added to the 
district staff to properly supervise the distribution in the district. 

In addition to surplus commodities, all commodities produced in the state, such as canned and 
dried fruits and vegetables, mattresses, bed linens, and garments made in women's work rooms, were 
distributed from these storerooms. The production and distribution of commodities grew into an 
extensive business amounting in value to millions of dollars. 

There were two classifications of commodities : 

(i) Federal Surplus Commodities — those commodities furnished the state by the Federal 

Surplus Relief Corporation ; 
(2) Relief Commodities — those commodities produced or purchased in the state from the 

funds granted to the state for general relief purposes. 

An important distinction between these two was that Federal Surplus Commodities were given 
to clients over and above their budget with no money value placed on the goods. Relief Commodities 
were given as relief and charged to the budgets of the clients. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 353 

Federal Surplus Commodities 

The Federal Surplus Relief Corporation was created as an instrument through which price- 
depressing surplus products might be removed from the open market, processed, and distributed in 
such forms as food and clothing to relief clients. It is a non-profit corporation, having as its Board 
of Directors the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States, the Federal Administrator of Public 
Works, and the Federal Emergency Relief Administrator. Sources from which the FSRC received 
the commodities were : 

(i) The AAA which donated to the FSRC large quantities of commodities purchased under 
its crop and price adjustment program ; also cattle, sheep, and goats, purchased from its 
drought relief program from drought areas. 

(2) The FSRC, which acted as agent for State Administrations, purchased large quantities 
of surplus commodities from funds granted to the States, but transferred directly by 
FERA to the FSRC. 

(3) Local crop purchases which were made directly by the State Relief Administrations, 
acting as agents for the FSRC, in areas where there were crop surpluses. The purchas- 
ing was supervised by the FERA and paid for from funds granted to the States for that 
purpose. For instance, in June, July and August, 1934, when the market for white 
potatoes in North Carolina was depressed because of the surplus, the State Administra- 
tor, authorized by the FSRC, purchased potatoes in the amount of S 11 8, 86 1.80. These 
were shipped to other State Relief Administrations and to County Relief Administra- 
tions in North Carolina in areas where potatoes were not ready for harvesting. 

Eggs in the amount of $36,825.00 were purchased by the North Carolina Relief 
Administration and distributed to relief clients within the state. 

Cotton and cotton ticking in the amount of $99,330.00 were purchased also by the 
Administration from textile mills in North Carolina and made up in women's work rooms. 
In addition to the goods purchased by the North Carolina Relief Administration, the 
FSRC also purchased large amounts of cloth, by yardage, from North Carolina mills and 
distributed it in North Carolina and other states to be made into garments for clients in 
ERA work rooms. 

Thus, in addition to removing the products from the open markets, employment in private 
industry was stimulated through these purchases, and work furnished relief clients in the ERA 
work rooms, providing clothing, mattresses, bed linens, and towels for clients. 

The surplus commodities were allocated to the state by the FERA on the basis of relief loads 
and the ability of the district administrations to reach clients with distribution, referred to as cov- 
erage. The extent of coverage varies from practically 1 00 per cent in some of our urban centers 
and well organized districts, to less than 25 per cent in rural districts, the average coverage being 
approximately 50 per cent of relief clients, in addition to commodities furnished other eligible clients. 

As stated above, surplus commodities were given over and above the budget of the relief client and 
never in lieu of relief. Violation of this policy would offset the purpose for which the commodities 
were purchased, which purpose was to prevent the competition of surplus commodities with the 
commodities purchased and sold through regular business channels. 

In addition to relief clients. Rural Rehabilitation clients ; transient centers, and county poor 
lists ; public institutions, supported wholly or in part by the state, county or city ; and private insti- 
tutions rendering care and service to the needy and the destitute, received surplus commodities. 

23 



354 



Emehoency Relief in North Caholitj-a 




(l) Packed dried milk, Forsyth County. (2) Prepared dried milk for shipment. Forsyth County. (3) Sealing hags of dried milk, 
Forsyth County. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 355 

Institutions receiA'ing surplus commodities were required to file an affidavit with the ERA that 
commodities used by them will be in addition to the usual consumption and not as substitution for 
regular purchases. Distribution of surplus commodities was on a unit basis. Money value was not 
expressed and no amount was charged against the budget of the recipient. 

Surplus commodities made possible an increase in the variety of foods for relief clients. 

Table on page 356 shows the amount and kinds of commodities received and distributed in the 
state. 

In addition to these commodities, 101,596 cows were shipped into the state by the Federal Surplus 
Relief Corporation, report of which will be found under the cattle program. 

Relief Commodities 

Relief Commodities were those commodities produced or purchased from general relief funds 
granted to the state. These were distributed to clients and charged against the budget. 

The local or district administrations produced on community farms and gardens quantities of 
\egetables, which were dried or canned, sugar cane which was made into syrup, and other products, 
and stored them to be distributed in the winter months to clients. This provided work for men and 
women on relief rolls in cultivating and har\esting the crops and work in canning and conserving. 
Costs of seed, planting, etc., were paid for from funds granted to the county or district for general 
relief Local communities usually cooperated by furnishing, free of cost, land to be used for the 
gardens. The value of the foods harvested in the state was far greater than the amount of money 
expended. 

Clothing materials were also purchased locally, when Federal surplus materials were not sufficient 
or available, and made into garments in the women's work rooms. 

Surplus products which farmers were unable to sell were purchased frequently by the district 
administrators. 

In 1934, when a heavy surplus of string beans in eastern North Carolina was depressing the 
market, the State Administration purchased through the District Administrations string beans in 
the amount of $2,553.63. Although this was not a large quantity, it had the effect of improving 
the market. 

In 1935, the farmers of Watauga and surrounding counties were unable to sell their cabbage and 
faced a heavy loss. The Winston-Salem Administration purchased large quantities of surplus 
cabbage from these counties and made it into sauerkraut. This was distributed through District 
Administrations in other sections. 

In 1933, $496,086.17 was expended in fertilizer, seeds, jars, and labor in individual and com- 
munity gardens. The value of the yield was over $12,000,000. 

The Works Division had an important part in processing both surplus and relief commodities. 
The abattoirs and meat canneries were operated by the Works Divisions. The women's work 
rooms, repacking surplus commodities, such as dried milk, prunes, etc., were directed by the Works 
Di\asion. The finished products were deli\'ered by the Works Di\ision to the storerooms and there 
inventoried and, upon requisition by the case worker, distributed by the commodities director to 
relief clients. 



356 



Emergency Relief in Noeth Carolina 

Distribution of Federal Surplus Commodities 
April I, 1934 to January i, 1936 
Food Recipients — Institutions 



Meats: 

Dry Salt Pork 
Smoked Pork 
Fresh Beef* 



Distributed 
{Pounds) 


Relief 
Cases 


Clients 
Persons 


and Others 
Cases 


r Eligible 
Persons 


398, 453 
1,652,773 
1, 327, 659 


53, 333 
143, 752 
128, 231 


201, 979 
620, 872 
565, 337 


3 

37 

4,723 


19 

160 

18, 208 



Quantity On 

Hand 
^e^- 31, 1935 



Total 3, 378, 885 



Canned Meats: 



Canned Mutton 


251, 120 


64, 497 


318,411 


1,484 


5,980 




Canned Veal 


292, 304 


72, 033 


342, 118 


3, 377 


11, 822 




Canned Beef* 


7, 073, 404 


855, 779 


3, 915, 977 


36, 513 


177, 561 


376, 696 


Total 


7, 616,828^ 










376, 696 


ERA Canned Meats: 














Soup Stock* 


814, 557 


189, 140 


911,148 


12, 172 


52, 515 


240, 831 


Brains* 


7, 650 


3,581 


16, 651 


105 


262 




Liver* 


66, 055 


16, 872 


77, 344 


631 


3, 021 




Hearts* 


23, 186 


6,506 


29, 446 


377 


1, 615 




Total 


911,448 










242, 346 


Dairy Products: 














Butter 


314,287 


127,419 


559, 752 


1,023 


3,569 




Cheese 


151,958 


62, 756 


252, 244 


968 


3, 185 




Evaporated Milkf 


716, 973 


123, 523 


283, 264 


3,926 


17, 042 




Eggs 


4,340 


2,909 


3,908 









Total 



1,187,558 



Other Food Products: 



Flour 


4, 472, 797 


152,419 


694, 541 


13, 908 


56, 738 


1, 748, 531 


Rice 


1, 532, 596 


211, 132 


954, 714 


3,288 


12, 731 




Milk Wheato 


359, 277 


73, 498 


315, 573 


170 


618 




Sugar 


161,492 


24, 649 


113,011 


132 


568 




Syrup 


518, 860 


35, 090 


160, 028 


166 


612 




Irish Potatoes 


3, 230, 978 


127, 251 


566, 324 


1,810 


5, 438 




Dr^- Skim Milk 


389, 760 


130, 862 


609, 910 


9,066 


33, 647 


10, 851 


Prunes 


262, 786 


223, 535 


299, 061 


8,224 


33, 205 


60, 195 


Wheat, bushels§ 















Total 10,928,546 1,819,577 

Total FSRC Food 24,023,265 lbs. or 600 carloads of approximatively 40,000 lbs. each. 



Note. All footnotes referred to above appear on page 357. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 
Distribution of Federal Surplus Commodities — Ccntinued 



557 





Food 


Recipients — 


Institutions 


Qjiantitji On 




Distributed 


Relief 


Clients 


and Others Eligible 


^ Hand 




{Pounds) 


Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons 


Dec. 31, 1935 


Textile Goods and Cotton: 














Mattresses, Number 


28, 061 


22, 195 


110,041 


674 


2,919 


71 


Comforts, Number 


66, 857 


40, 865 


180, 532 


1,835 


70, 702 


2,514 


Double Sheets, Number 


58, 406 


19, 140 


87, 514 


240 


1, 073 


27 


Single Sheets, Number 


7,073 


2,277 


9,792 


24 


73 




Pillow Cases, Number 


87, 105 


24, 574 


115,818 


590 


2,741 


300 


Huck Towels, Number 


302, 833 


56, 078 


263, 671 


1,287 


5,171 


5, 930 


Terry Towels, Number 


91, 176 


21, 522 


97, 147 


638 


2,421 


229 


Work Garments, Number 


163, 647 


82, 847 


334, 673 


2,058 


9,222 


18,810 



Total 



805, 158 



27, 881 



All commodities, both Federal Surplus and Relief produced, on hand December 31, 1935 were 
transferred to State Department of Public Welfare. 



Method of Distribution 

The Federal Emergency Relief Administration determined matters of policy governing the 
distribution of surplus commodities in the state. The amount of commodities allowed each relief 
client per month was limited according to the size of the family. All orders for commodities were 
signed by the case workers and receipted by the clients. 

The amount of relief commodities allowed each family was determined by the case worker 
according to the relief budget of the client. 

In most of the cities and towns, the clients called at the storerooms for their commodities. 

In rural areas the commodities were carried by truck to designated points where the clients 
called for them. In many areas rural merchants cooperated by using their stores as distributing 
centers where clients called for their orders. In other areas commodities were carried by case 
workers on their visits to clients. Distribution of commodities in rural areas was difficult, and the 
State Administration did not require uniform methods of delivery. This was left to the discretion 
of District Administrations, who used their own methods of getting commodities to clients. 



* Drought cattle which were slaughtered in ERA abattoirs and distributed as fresh meat, or canned by the ERA canneries, 
using relief labor. 

t Received in bulk and packed in bags in the Womens' Work Rooms. 

J In addition to 4,202,160 lbs. meats canned in ERA canneries and shipped to Federal Surplus Relief Corporation for distribu- 
tion in other states. 

§ 132,455.52 bushels wheat received from Federal Surplus Relief Corporation, transferred to N. C. Commercial Plants for 
processing into flour for distribution. 



3B8 



Emekgency Relief in ^oeth Carolina 




(i) Relief clients at work in beet field. (2) Relief clients at work in okra field. (3-4) Preparing vegetables for canning. (5) Canned 
products and food products ready for distribution to relief clients. (6) ERA commodity storeroom. 



THE CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS 

Foreword 

Emergency Conservation Work was originally authorized in the United States under the provi- 
sions of an Act of the 73rd Congress and approved March 31, 1933. The name Civilian Conser- 
vation Corps was adopted by Executive order of April 5, 1933. 

The objectives of the Civilian Conservation Corps, as the words indicate, were two-fold, namely. 
The Conservation of the Country's Human Resources, and The Conservation of the Country's 
Physical Resources. The first of these objectives was to be realized in the giving of employment to 
thousands of unemployed young men between the ages of 18 and 25, later changed to 17-28, thus 
upbuilding in them health, morale, confidence, and self-respect, in addition to bringing financial 
relief to distressed families. The second objective was to be realized in the conservation, restoration 
and protection of the forests, in soil erosion and flood control, in the development of public parks, 
recreational and historical areas, in wild life conservation, and in the performance of other useful 
public works. 

Organization 

The original Congressional Act authorizing the Civilian Conservation Corps gave the President 
authority to appoint a Director of Conservation Work, and Mr. Robert Fechner has held this position 
since the beginning of the enterprise. Cooperating with, and working under, Mr. Fechner in carry- 
ing out the Emergency Conservation Program, are the United States Departments of War, Agri- 
culture, Interior, and Labor. 

The Department of War is responsible for the physical examination, enrollment, equipping and 
conditioning of the men, and for transportation of enrollees, camp construction, command, supply, 
administration, sanitation, medical care, hospitalization, pay, welfare, and education at camps. 

The Departments of Agriculture and Interior are responsible for the selection and planning of 
work projects on national forests, parks, monuments, soil erosion control, and the supervision of all 
projects on state and private lands and state parks. 

The Department of Labor is responsible for the selection of all men to be enrolled at the regular 
minimum cash allowance of S30 per month plus maintenance, except the veterans, who are selected 
by the Veterans'Administration. The Department of Labor is, therefore, responsible for publishing 
junior quotas, determining eligibility standards and selection policies, initiating the selection process, 
etc. This department, of course, does not select the CCC men directly, but promulgates the general 
policies and eligibility standards which have been established, and invites the officially recognized 
Emergency Relief Administrations in the various States to become the State Selecting Agencies fof 
the Civilian Conservation Corps. 

Thus, from the outset, the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration became the North 
Carolina Selecting Agency of all CCC juniors with the power and authority to designate local 
selecting agencies throughout the state to execute the details necessary to placing the men in camps. 
The local relief administrations naturally became these local CCC Selecting Agencies to work under 
the direction and supervision of the State Agency. 

Operations 

It became the responsibility of the State and Local Selecting Agencies to work out the details of 
selecting the CCC juniors, establish the need of the allotees, to work out local quotas from the 
announced state quotas, and to transport the selectees to the initial acceptance stations for examina- 
tion by the Army, etc. 



360 Emergency Eelief in North Cakolhsta 

The necessary details and plans were accomplished and ready for operations when the basic 
state quota for North Carolina was first announced by the United States Department of Labor in 
April, 1933. A synopsis of Eligibility Rules of Selection from the outset were that all junior CCC 
selectees must be : 

1. Citizens of the United States. 

2. Between the ages of 18 and 25 (later changed to 17-28). 

3. Physically fit. 

4. Unmarried. 

5. Unemployed. 

6. Obligated to, and willing to make an allotment (usually of S25.00 per month) to some 

dependent who was on the relief rolls, or in extreme need of financial assistance. 

7. Be willing to remain in camp for the minimum period of six months unless called home for 

some valid reason unforeseen at the time of enrollment. 

The state's quota was accepted by the State Selecting Agency ; local quotas were worked out and 
given to the local agencies ; social service departments received applications, made selections, and 
certified the eligibility of allottees, and the CCC enrollment in North Carolina began on April 
26, 1933. 

From April 26, 1933, on, as rapidly as CCC camps could be constructed and equipped by the 
Army, the men were selected and enrolled until July 28, at which time the state's basic quota of 
6,061 had been placed in camps. Further enrollments ceased until the following October. 

In accordance with eligibility rule No. 7, it would appear that replacements would be necessary 
only every six months. Howe\er, for various reasons, the men were continuously leaving the camps 
— some because they could not adjust themselves to camp life and would desert ; some were 
discharged for misconduct, refusal to work, etc. ; others were called back home because of sickness 
or death in the family, or to accept better jobs, etc. Thus the number of men in the camps became 
depleted to such an extent that the policy of replacements every three months was adopted by the 
authorities. The first replacement period was begun October 27, 1933, and extended through 
December 5, 1933, during which time the local agencies selected and the Army enrolled an ad- 
ditional 2,935 men. 

During 1 934 replacements were made as follows : , 

April 1,835 

May 235 

July 1,317 

October 2,078 



Total 5,465 
Replacements were made early in 1935 : 

January 1,921 

April 1,825 



Total 3,746 

On April 25, 1935, the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administration was notified by the 
Department of Labor that the President had approved an increase in the Civilian Conservation 
Corps, and that North Carolina's new basic quota was 1 1,080 men, not quite double its former quota, 
and that the expansion program would be accomplished between the dates June 15 and August 31, 
1935. During the months of June, July, and August, therefore, it became necessary that the local 



Emergency Eelief in North Carolina 



361 



agencies select and send'forward 4,698 juniors to replace the normal depletion in the state's previous 
basic quota and to add the numbers necessary to increase this quota to the new basic strength. 

The CCC selection process began again on June 15, 1935, at a more rapid rate, and with greater 
enthusiasm than had been the case for any previous enrollment period. Late in July, the N. C. ERA 
was notified from Washington that some other southern states were unable to fill their quotas and, 
that North Carolina was asked, if possible, to furnish additional men. An estimate of the number 
of men available was made immediately, and N. C. ERA agreed to send forward an additional 2,593 
CCC juniors, and the work continued at high speed until August 31, at which time North Carolina's 
basic and replacement quotas had been more than filled. During this period, June 15 to August 
31, 7,291 juniors between the ages of 18 and 28 were sent to camps, and a like number of relief cases 
were taken from the rolls in North Carolina because of the S25.00 monthly allotments sent to them 
from the wages of these enrollees. 

It is interesting to note the distribution by age groups of these 7,291 enrollees. This distribution, 
which is typical of all enrollment periods, is shown below : 



^ge 


No. of Enrollees 


18 


2,780 


19 


i>374 


20 


888 


21 


708 


22 


477 


23 


374 



Per Cent of Total Age 

38.1 24 
18.9 25 

12.2 26 
9-7 27 
6.6 28 

5-1 



No. of Enrollees Per Cent of Total 



272 

187 

112 

90 

29 

7,291 



3-7 
2.6 

1-5 
1.2 

•4 



100. o 



The last replacement period for 1935 took place from October 19 to October 31. Between these 
dates a total of 1,379 '^^^ were selected and enrolled. For this period, the lower age limit was 
reduced to 17 years, and, of the 1,379 enrolled, 208 were in the lower age group. Also for this 
period, the rule that enrollees may not serve more than 13 months was rescinded. The result of 
this change was that 243, or 17.6 per cent of the 1,379 enrolled in October, were reenrollees who had 
previously served an average of 9.9 months. 

The State CCC Selecting Agency had nothing to do with the number or location of the CCC 
camps in North Carolina, but the records show that boys have been placed in 81 different camps 
in the state. During the two-year-and-a-half period that the CCC has been in operation, an 
average of 43 camps have been maintained. This average however was increased by 23 late in 
1935, with one or more camps located in the following North Carolina Counties : 



Alamance 


Craven 


Jones 


Richmond 


Anson 


Cumberland 


McDowell 


Rockingham 


Beaufort 


Dare 


Macon 


Rowan 


Bladen 


Davidson 


Madison 


Rutherford 


Brunswick 


Durham 


Mecklenburg 


Stanly 


Buncombe 


Forsyth 


Mitchell 


Stokes 


Burke 


Frankhn 


Harnett 


Surry 


Caldwell 


Gaston 


Haywood 


Swain 


Caswell 


Graham 


Hyde 


Transylvania 


Catawba 


Granville 


Montgomery 


Union 


Clay 


Guilford 


Onslow 


Wilkes 


Cleveland 


IredeU 


Randolph 





362 Emebgency Relief in North Carolina 

Of this total of 66 camps, 28 are assigned to forest protection and preser\ation, 22 to soil erosion 
control, 9 to park projects, 3 to military reservations, i to wild life conser\'ation, and 3 to Tennessee 
Valley Authority projects. North Carolina boys have also been sent from enrollment centers 
directly to 2 1 CCC camps in other states, including South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Tennessee. 

A summary of the number of CCC juniors enrolled, for basic quotas and replacements, in North 
Carolina, is given herewith, by months and years : 



Dates of Enrollment 



April, 


1933 


May, 


1933 


June, 


1933 


July, 


1933 


October, 


1933 


November, 


1933 


December, 


1933 


April, 


1934 


May, 


1934 


July, 


1934 


October, 


1934 


January, 


1935 


April, 


1935 


June, 


1935 


July, 


1935 


August, 


1935 


October, 


1935 





Numbers Enrolled 




Vhite 


Colored 


Total 


498 


63 


561 


3,222 


582 


3,804 


1,063 


391 


1,454 


203 


39 


242 


551 


21 


572 


2,014 


315 


2,329 


30 


4 


34 


1,546 


289 


1,835 


235 





235 


1,132 


185 


1,317 


2,078 





2,078 


1,808 


113 


1,921 


1,680 


145 


1,825 


1,552 


209 


1,761 


1,891 


884 


2,775 


1,388 


1,367 


2,755 


1,379 





1,379 



Totals 



22,270 



4,607 



26,877 



CCC Surveys 

A series of surveys for securing first-hand information about the boys who had left the Civilian 
Conservation Corps camps during or at the end of enrolling terms, and who had failed to reenroll, 
was made by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration through the state and local relief offices. 

The first sur\'ey of the summer enrollment period of 1933 was undertaken in the months of 
November, 1933, to March, 1934. The second survey of the winter enrollment period of 1933 and 
1934 was made during July, August, and September of 1934. The third sur\-ey of the summer 
enrollment period of 1934 was made during December, January, and February, 1935. 

Questionnaires were designed by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration in cooperation 
with the officials of the Ci\ilian Conservation Corps, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Bureau of 
Farm and Domestic Commerce, and other interested Federal agencies, and sent to the state ERA. 
The objective of the survey was to secure information as to the age, education, the past and present 
occupations of each individual, the reasons for leaving camp, as well as the present attitude toward 
the camp, and the employment status of the boys after lea\ing camp. These schedules were then 
distributed through the State Administration to each local administration where the data were 
secured by case workers with all possible speed. 



Emeegency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 363 

The findings given in the tables below with regard to the former members of the CCC are 
interesting. The first survey was made within a few months following the first enrollment in the 
summer of 1933, and reveals the fact that 9.6 per cent of these boys could not be traced, which 
indicates the extent of mobility and restlessness among this group of young men. Ninety and four 
tenths per cent were traced. Only 31.9 per cent of the traced boys was found to be employed. 
The unemployment among this group, which was 61.5 per cent was probably due to some extent to 
the fact that the investigation or survey was made during the winter months when there is less 
seasonal work available than in the summer months. 

The classification of "otherwise engaged" includes those boys who had died, had enlisted in 
military service, returned to school, who had been sick and required hospital attention, or mis- 
demeanors which resulted in commitment to jail. Only 7.1 per cent falls within this classification. 

The average number of untraced boys for the whole country was higher than 16 per cent, while 
the average for North Carolina was only 9.6 per cent. The national average of the number working 
represented 19.2 per cent of the former members of the CCC. North Carolina and the other states 
in the South Atlantic group were above the general average for the country. 

The second sur\'ey reveals that 12.2 per cent was untraced and 87.8 per cent traced. Of the 
traced members of the second, or winter, period, 49.9 per cent was employed at the time the investi- 
gation was made, a substantial increase over the first term. This increase in employment is partly 
due to the fact that the survey was made during harvesting season when there was more seasonal 
work. Of the second group, 3.3 per cent was otherwise engaged. 

The third survey revealed 9.2 per cent untraced and 90.8 per cent traced. Of the traced group, 
35.2 per cent was found to be employed, 56.9 per cent unemployed, and 7.9 per cent otherwise 
engaged. Over 50 per cent of the employed was unskilled workers. 

In all three periods, the number of untraced boys varied only 3 per cent which indicates a fairly 
static condition of mobility. 

The percentage comparison of the number of untraced boys reveals that North Carolina is well 
below the national average, while the employment status of the untraced group is well above the 
the national average, almost doubling it. North Carolina ranked fifth from the top of all the states 
for the third term in the number of relief cases closed due to enrollment of boys in camp. The 
actual percentage for North Carolina was 65.1 per cent cases closed per 100 enrollees. The highest 
percentage was 79.3 per cent. It was found that 314 boys of the third enrollment period were in 
the "otherwise employed group." Of this number, 153 were found in school, 36 were reenrolled in 
CCC, 52 were enrolled in the army or navy, 50 were sick or dead, and 23 in jail. The fact that only 
23 boys of the 3,987 boys traced were found in jail supports the opinion expressed by the United 
States Department of Justice and the North Carolina Commissioner of Paroles that the decrease in 
the ranks of young criminals has been due to the constructive work and the educational advantages 
of the CCC. The above surveys indicate the social value of the CCC in conserving youth, but do 
not deal with the economic value of their work in conserving the national resources of the country. 

COMPARISON OF TRACED AND UNTRACED FORMER MEMBERS OF THE FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD PERIODS OF THE 

CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS 







FIRST PERIOD 






SECOND PERIOD 






THIRD PERIOD 






TOTAL 


TRACED 


UNTRACED 


TOTAL 


TRACED 


UNTRACED 


TOTAL 


TRACED 


UNI 


PRACEE 


NUMBER 


2,503 


2,263 




240 


2,878 


2,526 




352 


4,390 


3,987 




403 


PER CENT 


100 


SO. 4 




a. I) 


lOU 


S7.8 




12.2 


100 


9U.8 




9.2 



364 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



EMPLOYMENT STATUS OF TRACED FORMER MEMBERS OF THE FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD PERIODS OF THE CIVILIAN 
CONSERVATION CORPS, CLASSIFIED AS TO TIME OF DEPARTURE FROM CAMPS 



FIRST PERIOD NUMBER 

(Summer 1933) PERCENT 



SECOND PERIOD NUMBER 

{Winter 1933-34) PERCENT 



THIRD PERIOD NUMBER 

(Summer 1934) PER CENT 





TOTAL TRACED 




TRACED MEMBERS EMPLOYED 




LEFT 






LEFT 




TOTAL 


CAMP 


COMPLETED 


TOTAL 


CAMP 


COMPLETED 




EARLY 


PERIOD 




EARLY 


PERIOD 


2,263 


1,196 


1,067 


730 


431 


299 


100 


52.8 


47.2 


32.3 


19.0 


13.3 


2,526 


1,565 


961 


1,260 


808 


462 


100 


62.0 


38.0 


49.9 


31.9 


IS.O 


3,987 


1,596 


2,391 


1,404 


534 


870 


100 


40.0 


60.0 


35.2 


13.4 


21.8 



TRACED MEMBERS UNEMPLOYED TRACED MEMBERS OTHERWISE ENGAGED 



FIRST PERIOD NUMBER 

(Summer 1933) PER CENT 



SECOND PERIOD NUMBER 

(Winter 1933-34) PER CENT 



THIRD PERIOD NUMBER 

(Summer 1934) PER CENT 



TOTAL 


LEFT 
CAMP 
EARLY 


COMPLETED 
PERIOD 


TOTAL 


LEFT 
CAMP 
EARLY 


COMPLETED 
PERIOD 


1,478 
65.3 


731 
32.3 


747 
33.0 


55 

2.5 


34 

1.5 


21 
1.0 


1,183 
46.8 


705 
27.8 


478 
19.0 


83 
3.3 


52 

2.1 


31 

1.2 


2,269 
56.9 


896 
22.5 


1,373 
34.4 


314 
7.9 


166 
4.2 


148 
3.7 




Observations 









The North Carolina Emergency Rehef Administration accepted the appointment as North 
Carolina CCC Selecting Agency with pleasure, knowing at the time that such acceptance meant 
added responsibilities that necessarily accompany such tasks. The certification alone, of a total 
of 26,877 accepted applicants, and the determination of the eligibility of their allottees by the 
Social Service Division has been no small job. The ERA has enjoyed the work immensely, 
feeling all the time that the Civilian Conservation Corps program was one of the best tasks under- 
taken by our government during the days of national depression. The program has not only reduced 
the financial strain of the families receiving allotments, but it has offered a wholesome type of work 
to thousands of boys just entering the period of manhood and added responsibility who had no 
opportunity of making a livelihood either for themsehes or their relatives. The figures shown in 
paragraph 3, page 361, show that between 60 per cent and 70 per cent of the men enrolled were with- 
in the ages of 18 to 21, and that this group are eager and anxious, when given an opportunity, to do 
something for themselves, their relatives, and their state. The camp life has been of an acceptable 
type — furnishing to the men shelter, clothing, three meals, with good food each day, acceptable types 
of work, recreation, music, education, and religious training. The work undertaken by the Ci\ilian 
Conservation Corps will, it is believed, be permanent and lasting for years to come. 



SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPONSORED BY THE STATE OF NORTH 

CAROLINA 



RURAL ELECTRIFICATION 

Although North CaroHna possesses great natural resources and has developed its water power 
extensively, \ery little benefit had been derived by the rural population. In 1926, the state ranked 
as 40th in the United States in the number of farms in electric service. In 1934, North Carolina 
tied with South Dakota in rank as 37th place. 

It was through the efforts of Go\'ernor Ehringhaus, who has long been intensely interested in 
Rural Electrification for North Carolina, that the General Assembly of 1934 passed a bill authorizing 
the Go\ernor to appoint a State Rural Electrification Commission. 

For several years the State Grange and other leading farm organizations had urged the inaugu- 
ration of a state-wide Rural Electrification program. The Governor appointed a state commis- 
sion of fourteen men and women in 1934 among whom were the Master, two past Masters of 
the State Grange, and other outstanding people officially connected with state agencies or state 
associations interested in rural standards of living. 

The General Assembly made no provision to finance a Rural Electrification survey or program, 
therefore the Governor requested and received the cooperation of the State Emergency Relief 
Administration in conducting and financing a state-wide Rural Electrification Survey under the 
supervision of the Rural Electrification Commission. 

Having already constructed two rural lines as CWA work projects, the ERA was interested in 
the survey as a means of providing work for unemployed technical and professional persons on a 
project that should be of great value to the development of rural life, and of providing information 
for use in building additional lines as work relief. The ERA considers the Rural Electrification 
Survey one of the most constructive and valuable projects that has been executed during the program. 

On July 24, the State ERA received instructions to discontinue the survey as an ERA project 
since this authority was transferred to the new Rural Electrification Authority. Through the efforts 
of the State Rural Electrification Authority, the Federal Rural Electrification Authority made 
special request of the FERA to grant authority to N. C. ERA to complete the survey in the state 
which was granted on September 17, and work on the survey was resumed. 

The total cost of the survey, including supervision and professional labor, travel, supplies and 
equipment, amounted to $25,637.01. 

On August 9, 1934, D. S. Weaver, Professor of Agricultural Engineering at State College, was 
appointed Project Director, and served in this capacity without compensation. An experienced 
Electrical Engineer, C. W. Burton, was appointed Assistant Director. On August 10, 1934, these 
two and one stenographer started active work on the survey. 



366 Emergency Eelief ik ISTorth Carolixa 

Due to the state- wide newspaper publicity concerning the appointment of the commission, 137 
applications were received from individuals who were interested in a survey for their communities. 
With these applications as a basis, the program was built for a survey of 150 communities. Before 
a month had parsed, however, it was c\ident that the whole problem had been underestimated, so 
the survey was finally extended to cover 1,011 communities. Except for the factors of time and 
facilities, there is ample exidence that well over 1,500 communities could ha\'e been included. 
The major consideration for a survey project of this nature laid on the possibility of using relief 
workers, both in the survey and also in construction work on those lines which it was considered 
feasible to extend. Clearance of right-of-way, felling and transporting of poles, and line erection 
were all considered as types of work well suited to the employment of relief labor. 

Men selected for field work were approved by the local Relief Administrations as eligible for 
relief — a few were furnished by the Reemployment Office — and fortunately very competent men 
were a\ailable in general. Although about 85 per cent of these men had no experience in this 
particular type of work, nearly all the field men had had electrical experience, while a number were 
graduate engineers. 

All lines, transmission, distribution and proposed, as well as substations and generating plants 
were shown in difi^erent colors on county maps. Each proposed customer was indicated by the 
proper symbol and all measurements were shown. In many cases, thickly populated areas had to 
be shown on an enlarged scale. 

In addition to the information obtained from the maps, data on existing transmission and dis- 
tribution lines were collected as follows : voltage, phase, frequency, estimated power factor, specifi- 
cations as to transmission line, size and material, effecti\e spacing of conductors, together with 
length of transmissions. In existing substations the following information was obtained for the year 
1934: \oltages, primary and secondary; total KVA capacity and estimated maximum demand in 
KVA. Other data included right-of-way, cleared or timbered, title donated, and amount the com- 
munity would contribute in cash toward the cost of a line. Some information on the possibility of 
rural telephones was collected, but was not included entirely in the total estimates. 

Proposed customers' data were obtained on the following items : Name of proposed customer; 
distance in feet from beginning of line ; the owner or tenant, white or colored ; number of rooms 
and regular occupants of home ; and other buildings to be serviced. It was ascertained whether 
the following equipment and appliances would be used : refrigerators, electric ranges, washing 
machines, electric irons, radios, water systems for family, livestock or miscellaneous uses, miscel- 
laneous household appliances, number of head of dairy cattle, stock hogs and poultry. In addition, 
the field men from obser\-ation rated the condition of the premises and the rehability of the interview. 

Almost without exception, Farm and Home Demonstration Agents and Teachers of Vocational 
Agriculture gave liberally of their time to assisting field men in securing data for their counties. 
Community meetings were held and the purposes of the survey explained. One county. Orange, 
has used the data obtained to outline an independent project, in extending lines built under CWA. 
It appears that the experience in this instance might be used as a "yardstick" for other counties. 

The privately owned power companies operating in North Carolina gave very excellent co- 
operation in the way of supplying data on existing lines. This spirit of cooperation still exists as 
may be seen from the following table which gi\'es data on rural lines which have been approved 
for construction since June 15, 1935. 



Number of Miles Constructed, 




under Construction, or Approved 


Number of 


for Construction, between June 


Customers 


i5> i935> and April i, 1936 


Served 


972-56 


6,729 


251.04 


1,246 


22.60 


97 


4.40 


16 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 367 



Agency 

Power Companies 

Municipalities 

FERA 

Lees McRae College 

Totals 1,250.02 8,088 

The major power companies of the state ha\e gone so far as to agree to build any line on which 
the Federal Rural Electrification Administration will loan money. In addition, there are some 
65 municipally owned distribution systems in the state, quite a few of which generate their own 
electric power. Some outstanding examples of the possibilities of municipal ownership are to be 
found here. In most of these instances these municipalities are willing to extend lines to surround- 
ing rural sections if satisfactory financial plans can be developed. 

The re\ised summary of the North Carolina Rural Electrification Survey re\'eals the following 
data for the state as a whole : 

Number of Lines Sur\eyed 1,011 

Length of all Surveyed Lines in Miles 6,001.59 

Total Number of Interested Prospects Inter\'iewed 32,058 

Interested Prospects per Mile 5-34 

Estimated Connected Load in KW 104,939 

Estimated Connected Load in KW per Mile 17.5 
Estimated Cost of All Lines Sur\-eyed $ 9,912,888.00 

Estimated Line Cost in Dollars per Mile 1,651.71 

Estimated Line Cost per Prospect 309.22 

Estimated Annual Re\'enue 1,058,572.00 

Estimated Annual Re\-enue in Dollars per Mile 176.38 

Estimated Annual Revenue in Dollars per Prospect 33-02 

Estimated Annual Consumption in KWH 15,810,177 

Estimated Annual Consumption in KWH per Mile 2,634 

Estimated Annual Consumption in KWH per Prospect 493 

Ratio of Estimated Cost of Line to Estimated Annual Re\enue : 

^Average for County 9.36 

For 100 counties { Maximum in County 66.84 

' Minimum in County 0.63 

The entire Rural Electrification Commission as well as the Director and Assistant Director of 
the Survey worked diligently in preparation of bills for the 1935 General Assembly, which would 



368 Emergency Eelief in North Carolina 

enable the extension of many of these Hnes. Two bills, S. B. 426 and 427, were passed by the 1935 
General Assembly of North Carolina. 

The first, S. B. 426, is a BILL TO BE ENTITLED AN ACT CREATING THE RURAL 
ELECTRIFICATION AUTHORITY OF NORTH CAROLINA FOR THE PURPOSE OF 
PROMOTING THE FULLEST POSSIBLE USE OF ELECTRIC ENERGY IN THE STATE 
BY MAKING ELECTRIC ENERGY AVAILABLE TO SAID INHABITANTS OF THE STATE 
AT THE LOWEST COST CONSISTENT WITH SOUND ECONOMY AND PRUDENT 
MANAGEMENT, AND DEFINING SOME OF ITS POWERS AND DUTIES. 

The second bill, S. B. 427, is a BILL TO BE ENTITLED AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE 
FORMATION OF NON-PROFIT MEMBERSHIP CORPORATIONS TO BE KNOWN AS 
ELECTRIC MEMBERSHIP CORPORATIONS FOR THE PURPOSE OF PROMOTING 
AND ENCOURAGING THE FULLEST POSSIBLE USE OF ELECTRIC ENERGY IN THE 
STATE MAKING ELECTRIC ENERGY AVAILABLE TO THE INHABITANTS OF THE 
STATE AT THE LOWEST COST CONSISTENT WITH SOUND ECONOMY AND PRU- 
DENT MANAGEMENT OF THE BUSINESS OF SUCH CORPORATIONS ; PROVIDING 
FOR THE RIGHTS, POWERS, AND DUTIES OF SUCH CORPORATIONS ; AUTHORIZ- 
ING AND REGULATING THE ISSUANCE OF BONDS BY SUCH CORPORATIONS, AND 
PROVIDING FOR THE PAYMENT OF SUCH BONDS. 

Although utility companies have held that a line is not profitable to them unless it is on a so- 
called three-to-one basis, or better, that is, the cost of the line should not be over three times the 
annual gross re\'enue, the plan is as contemplated in the program to change this to a figure as low 
as even 5 or 6 to one. 

The furtherance and successful completion of a comprehensive program of rural electrification 
in the rural sections of the state will be perhaps one of the most significant additions to rural life. 

A tabulation of the results of a survey indicated that 32,058 prospective customers have expressed 
their desire to secure electric power as soon as possible, under the machinery prepared by the Gen- 
eral Assembly. In addition, 3,832 prospective customers may become interested in rural electrifi- 
cation as soon as they see their way clear to obtain it. The number of letters coming into the office 
of the REA since the completion of the survey indicate there is a possibility twice as many more 
worthwhile lines in the state as are indicated in this survey. 

Figures tabulated from the survey indicated further that in the community survey the immedi- 
ate prospective customers included : 

Breakdown of Data Secured 



Counties in State 


100 


Counties Surveyed 


97 


Number of Personal Interviews 


35.890 


Interested 


Not Interested 


Residences 28,074 


3>7i2 


Total Rooms in Residences 180,902 


12,446 


Filling Stations 1,438 


28 


Schools 398 


15 


Churches i ,075 


28 


Miscellaneous i ,073 


49 



Total Population 127,825 8,531 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 369 

Number of Buildings to be Wired 

Barns 8,308 

Poultry Houses 1,287 

Garages 2,544 

Miscellaneous 2,910 

Number of Large Appliances in Which Prospective Customers Displayed an 

Active Interest 

Refrigerators 9,202 

Washing Machines 4,616 

Ranges 1,375 

I Family 6,389 

Water Systems \ Livestock i ,890 

(, Miscellaneous 992 

Other Motors H. P. 12,936 

Number of Small Appliances in Which Prospective Customers Displayed an 

Active Interest 

Miscellaneous Heating Appliances ii)294 

Miscellaneous Motor Driven Appliances 3,081 

Data on Existing Home and Farm Lighting Plants Owned by People Interviewed 

ON the Survey 

Interested Not Interested 

Electric Plants 2,728 42 

Gas Plants 1,034 49 

With electric power furnished at low cost, serving labor-saving devices, light, heat, and running 
machinery on the farms, a tremendous boon will accrue to rural dwellers, bringing the utmost in 
conveniences, in combination with the eminently valuable aspects of life in the country. It is to 
be hoped, therefore, that such a comprehensive program of rural electrification will be undertaken 
on a state-wide basis, and that its eminently practical benefits will take their place in the whole 
program of thorough rural rehabilitation. 

To conform with the Federal Administration, the Governor of North Carolina on June 6 created 
the North Carolina Rural Electrification Authority composed of six outstanding men and women, 
with Dudley Bagley as Director. The purpose of the Authority is to promote and encourage the 
fullest possible use of electric energy in the state by making electrical energy available to the inhab- 
itants of the state at the lowest cost consistent with sound economy and prudent management. 

The ERA Rural Electrification Survey provides the necessary information for making possible 
the fulfillment of this purpose. 



370 Emergency Eelief in Noeth Carolina 

THE NORTH CAROLINA COMMISSION ON UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE 

The North Carolina Commission on Unemployment Insurance, with W. O. Burgin as Chairman, 
was appointed June 27, 1934, by Go\ernor J. C. B. Ehringhaus, pursuant to Resolution No. 38, 
General Assembly, 1933. The Commission was instructed to ". . . investigate the practicability 
and advisability of requiring the establishment of unemployment reser\'es or an unemployment 
insurance system to provide against the hazard of unemployment, and to recommend what for a 
legislation, if any, may be best adapted to this end in North Carolina, and to compile such other 
information and make such other analyses as may be useful in enabling the General Assembly to 
to plan constructively for meeting future periods of unemployment." At its organizational meeting 
the Commission elected H. D. Wolf, Executive Secretary, and agreed upon the procedure to be 
followed in carrying out the instructions set forth in the Resolution. 

Since no appropriation was made by the General Assembly to finance the undertaking, an 
appeal was made to the Federal Emergency Relief Administration to establish it as a state project. 
This was done, and a budget of $8,765 was approved and set up for its use. An office was established 
in Raleigh and a staff was engaged, all of whom, with the exception of the director and one research 
worker, were taken from the relief rolls. The maximum number of persons employed at any one 
time was seventeen, and the total payroll for the period covered by the study, which extended from 
the week ending August 23, 1934, to January 10, 1935, was $5,157.05. Other expenses included 
$98.65 for traveling expenses, and $200.00 for office supplies, a total expenditure of $5,255.70. 

The Commission made every effort to determine the magnitude and nature of unemployment 
in this state, and to find suitable means of coping with it. All available data were sought. The 
reports of similar commissions in other states were consulted. Unemployment insurance systems 
of other countries, and the more important plans which had been proposed in this country were 
carefully studied. Hearings were held in four cities, Greensboro, Winston-Salem, Charlotte, and 
Raleigh, in order that the Commission might learn first-hand the facts of unemployment, and the 
sentiment of employers, employees, and the public toward unemployment insurance. Information 
secured in these ways was supplemented by questionnaires, and by personal interviews. 

As a result of its studies and findings, the Commission was unanimously of the opinion that the 
problem of unemployment in North Carolina was sufficiently wide-spread and serious as to warrant 
positive action toward its prevention and amelioration ; and that some form of unemployment 
compensation was feasible and desirable. These findings and conclusions, together with a bill 
which was drawn up by the Commission, and which it recommended be enacted into law, were 
presented to Governor Ehringhaus in January, 1935, in a report of approximately 125 typed pages. 
The bill recommended by the Commission followed the general lines of the so-called "Ohio Plan" 
calling for a pooled fund, for employee as well as employer contributions, and conformed to the 
requirements of the Federal Social Security Act as it was finally enacted, August 14, 1935. 



Emergency Relief in ITorth Carolina 371 

THE ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING DEPARTMENT OF THE N. C. ERA 

In September, 1933, a Chief Auditor, who was a certified public accountant, was appointed 
by the State Administrator to supervise all ERA expenditures. A uniform system of accounting and 
auditing was installed in the state and local administrative offices. Nine Field Auditors, directly 
responsible to the Chief Auditor, were added to the state staff to supervise the expenditures of 
the county offices. From the beginning of the relief program in 1932 under RFC, the funds allocated 
to the counties were disbursed through the County Government Treasuries without additional cost 
to the ERA. With the expansion of the ERA program in 1934, the volume of work increased to the 
extent that it was necessary to employ full-time disbursing officers to relieve the over-worked county 
officials who had given their full cooperation in handling all moneys of the local ERA's. The ERA 
accounts were transferred from the County Government Treasuries to the ERA Assistant Disbursing 
Officers, and deposited by them to ERA accounts. 

Following the reorganization of the ERA in 1934, all divisions responsible for financial and 
statistical work were coordinated under a Finance Division. The Chief Auditor was appointed 
Assistant State Administrator and Director of Finance, with an Assistant State Auditor and an 
Assistant Director of Finance. The Assistant State Auditor was in charge of bookkeeping and 
accounting ; the Assistant Director of Finance was in charge of payrolls. The State Disbursing 
Officer made all disbursements for the state officers and supervised the assistant disbursing officers 
of the local units. The State Statistician was in charge of all social and financial statistics. A 
Supervisor of Field Auditors was appointed in charge of the Field Auditors. 

The ERA used a decentralized system of bookkeeping and disbursing. The funds allocated by 
the state office to the local offices were disbursed by the Assistant Disbursing Officers. 

The Assistant Disbursing Officer of each county, who was a bonded officer, was Director of Fi- 
nance of the county office. He made all payments, was responsible for financial reports, and was the 
chief consultant of the Administrator in cases dealing with finances. In the smaller counties, the Assist- 
ant Disbursing Officer, with the aid of one or two typists, was able to do the bookkeeping and report- 
ing but in the large offices, a bookkeeper and a payroll clerk were employed. When the counties were 
consolidated into districts, the County Assistant Disbursing Officers were discontinued, and the 
Assistant District Disbursing Officer was responsible for this work in all the counties of the district. 

The field audit section was made up of approximately fifteen Field Auditors at the time 107 local 
administrations were in operation. Each Field Auditor was in charge of approximately ten county 
offices with one auditor in charge of transient bureaus and one or two used at large on investigations 
of claims and complaints. The auditors kept in regular contact with local offices and had general 
supervision o\er the disbursing, bookkeeping and reporting procedures. With the consolidation of 
counties into districts, reducing the number of administrative units from 107 to 33, the number of 
Field Auditors was cut down and each was given an assistant to do the detail work in connection with 
the regular monthly audit reports. 



373 Emergency Relief in I^obth 

Federal Funds Made Available 
Statement of Receipts and Expenditures by Funds, 

June i, 1933, through May 



Carolina 

by the fera 

Including Authorized Transfers 

3i> 1936 











Unobligated 






Total 


Total 


Balanced 






Available 


Expenditures 


May 31, 1936 


General Relief 




$27,603,032.44 


827,530,727.45 


^ 72,304-99 


Transients 




819,580.46 


818,961.03 


619.43 


Education 




1,124,859.51 


I, "3,875-97 


10,983.54 


Student Aid 




399>950.64 


399,950.64 




Rural Rehabilitation* 




3r575>447-02 


3,548,043.05 


27,403-97 


Materials and Skilled Labor 




727=235-29 


727,235-29 




Rural School Continuation 




500,000.00 


500,000.00 




Self-Help Cooperative 




129,797.00 


129,797.00 




Relief Research 




20,135.78 


20,133.19 


2-59 


National Reemployment Serxice 


27,885.31 


27,885.31 




Social Workers Training 




20,060.00 


19,740.47 


319-53 


Cattle Program 




3,125,239.07 


3,125,239.07 




Resident Camp, Unemployed 


Women 


1,912.59 


1,912.59 




Teachers Training 




6,800.00 


6,625.53 


174.47 


Professional Fund 




86,998.89 


86,998.89 




Vocational Rehabilitation 




3,250.00 


2,902.44 


347-56 


WPA Acti\ities 




120,000.00 


117,707.01 


2,292.99 


Transferred to Public Welfare 


Department 


225,000.00 


225,000.00 




Women's Camp 




7,000.00 




7,000.00 


Surplus Commodities (cash \a 


.lue) 


1,374,000.00 


1,374,000.00 




TOTAL 


539,898,184.00 


539,776,734-93 


$121,449.07 



Local Funds Made Available by Political Subdivisions 

Statement of Receipts and Expenditures 

June i, 1933, through May 31, 1936 



General Relief| 



Total 
Available 

5664,975.31 



Total 
Expenditures 

5664,975.31 



Unobligated 

Balance 
May 31, 1936 



* Expenditures includes funds transferred tu the N. C. Rural Rehabilitation Corporation. 

t Does not include local contributions to projects made in the forms of materials and cash. See projects listed by counties in appendix. 

J Unobligated balance includes funds to complete liquidation. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 373 

Accounting forms were drawn up for the use of the state office and the county offices. Direct 

supervision was given the county offices both through bulletins and written instructions as well as 
through contact with the field auditors. 

The Statistical Division had charge of all reports from the counties which were of a statistical 
nature. The monthly reports were summarized and sent to Washington over the signature of the 
Statistician and the State Administrator. 

The charts and statistical tabulations comprise the reports of the Statistical Division. 

The Accounting Division had charge of all bookkeeping and financial reports as well as the 
preparation of all vouchers for payment. The financial reports from the counties, consolidated with 
the state office reports, were prepared under the direct supervision of the Assistant Chief Auditor. 
There were two head bookkeepers in the Accounting Division, the one having charge of project 
bookkeeping and the other in charge of the general ledger of the state office. In the project book- 
keeping department, a record of all expenditures under the Works Division was kept by projects. 
This gives a record of each project operated in the state, with the expenditures broken down into the 
different types of labor and materials. A machine bookkeeping system was installed for this purpose 
during the Ci\il Works Administration. 

The report of the Bookkeeping Division is found on page 424. 

In the general Bookkeeping Division, controls were kept on all types of expenditures for all 
funds handled. 

The Payroll Division handled all payrolls for the state and county offices. During the operation 
of the CWA and afterwards, when the Works Division of the ERA was operating at full force, the 
volume of payrolls clearing through this office was tremendous. Registers were kept by counties, 
breaking down the total expenditures into the different types of labor. Under the supervision of the 
Chief Payroll Clerk, the number of errors on payrolls was reduced to an absolute minimum. 
Copies of aU payrolls in the state and county units were sent to the FERA. 

The State Disbursing Officer was the Treasurer of the ERA. All funds were deposited by him 
upon receipt from the Go\'ernor's Office and disbursed upon the approval of the State Administrator 
and the Chief Auditor. Allotment checks for the counties went out from the State Disbursing Officer 
to the Assistant Disbursing Officers. 

The Chief Auditor worked in close cooperation with the Purchasing Division and the Works 
Division in order to keep the general financial policy of the administration uniform throughout the 
various departments. 



374 Emergency Relief in N^orth Carolina 

SUPPLY DEPARTMENT 

April I, 1934-December 31, 1935 

This department employed an average of nineteen people, including two janitors and one maid. 

Printing: A total of $106,901.85 worth of printed forms was distributed through this office, 
exclusive of all Standard Government Forms received from Washington, D. C. 

Supplies: Approximately seventy-five standard items of office supplies costing $52,753.68 were 
distributed to the local units throughout the state. 

Mail: The mail and express dispatched by this office includes : 

First Class Registered Special Third Parcel Express 

Delivery Class Post 

342,397 426 3,380 37>973 ">407 8,116 

A grand total of 403,699 pieces of mail and express was handled, using postage to the amount 
of $21,052.94. This does not include express charges. The above mail in all cases were addressed 
to the same office were packaged in one master envelope and dispatched for the actual amount of 
postage necessary with an estimated saving of 2 1 per cent in postage costs. The above does not 
include franked mail or express shipped on Government Bill of Lading. 

Mimeograph: With one mimeograph machine, one operator has made 5,752,500 reproduc- 
tions. Approximately 60 per cent of these reproductions was standard ERA forms carried in 
stock for distribution to the local units to eliminate printing. The remaining 40 per cent was 
circular letters, bulletins, booklets, monthly reports, etc. All booklets being stitched, bound, and 
dispatched by this office. 

Other: An average of four girls has numbered with hand numbering machines 4,404,272 direct 
relief orders (in quadruplicate) for distribution to the local units. A total of 15,414,952 sheets 
was numbered by hand. 

By purchasing printing and office supplies centrally and distributing from this office, an estimated 
saving of 43 per cent was effected. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 375 

SOCIAL SECURITY SURVEY 

(A brief explanation of the Social Security Act is included in the Appendix on page 418) 

The several tables and charts which follow are taken from a recent publication of the North 
Carolina Emergency Relief Administration, "Social Security Survey of Emergency Relief Cases 
CoN'ered by the Federal Social Security Act." 

This bulletin represents the result of an extensive survey of relief families under care from Janu- 
ary I, 1934, through September i, 1935. Included in this group of families are ten thousand unem- 
ployable cases which were turned over to the local governments in North Carolina about January 
I, 1935. All cases under care since January i, 1935, in addition, have been covered by this survey 
to determine the need and the extent of need of all cases who may be covered by the provisions of 
the Federal Social Security Act, that is provisions of grants-in-aid to States. 

The Act is divided, in its essential provisions, into two parts : in the first division are provisions 
for Old Age Benefits (pensions) administered entirely by the Federal Government and provided 
for by Federal taxes to be paid by all employers and employees based on wages received in employ- 
ment with the exception of certain types of employment, and Unemployment Compensation (in- 
urance) administered by the States and provided for by Federal taxes on employers of eight or 
more employees with the exception of certain types of employment ; and in the latter are sections 
dealing with Old-Age Assistance, aid to Dependent Children, Maternal and Child Health, Crippled 
Children, Child Welfare, Public Health, and aid to the Blind. This survey, therefore, considered 
only those cases who may be covered by the latter provisions of the Federal Act which carry special 
and immediate aid to the States in caring for the dependent unemployed. 

The Social Service Division in each of the local administrations examined in detail the individual 
records of over 105,000 relief families in North Carolina. In many instances visits to families were 
made when written records were inadequate or incomplete. Transcriptions of these records and in- 
terviews were made on printed survey schedules which were forwarded to the state office for tabu- 
lation and analysis. These 29,372 schedules revealed a total of 65,026 persons, representing 29,372 
families who by interpretation of the provisions of the Federal Act may be eligible for its "grants-in- 
aid", benefits. 

The analyses which follow are only a partial representation of those which have been tabulated 
in detail in the aforementioned bulletin : 

The first is a tabulation of the schedules for the State as a whole as to cases covered by the Act 
classified by problem, emplqyability, place of residence, and color or race. (In these analyses, employable 
and unemployable cases, respectively, are taken to mean families or cases wherein there are able- 
bodied persons of an employable age, and families where there is no one who is either able-bodied 
or of an employable age.) 

The second table is a classification according to age and family status of the total number 1,046 blind 
persons found to be eligible. 

The third and fourth are tabulations and graphical representations of the total of 39,816 depend- 
ent children, classified according to reason for dependency , and per cent distribution as to reasons for dependency. 

The fifth is a tabulation of the total of 16,313 eligible aged persons classified according to number 
in relief family , etc. 

The sixth is a tabulation of the same group of 16,313 eligible aged persons classified according to 
their living arrangements or residence. 

The last tabulation shown is similar in construction to the first — showing, however, by counties, 
the totals of the cases covered by the Act classified by problem, employ ability, place of residence, and color 
or race. 



376 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



NORTH CAROLINA EMERGENCY RELIEF CASES COVERED BY THE 

OF RESIDENCE, STATUS OF 



State Total 


NetT 


3tal 


Aged 




All Counties 


Undupli 


cated 


Persons 






Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons 


Total All Cases 


29,372 


65,206 


13,629 


16,313 


White 


16,011 


34,569 


7,484 


9,171 


Negro 


13,212 


30,242 


6,076 


7,060 


Other 


„ 149 


395 


69 


82 


Total employable cases 


22,454 


54,029 


8,035 


9,4" 


Rural employable cases 


13,199 


33,144 


5,484 


6,502 


White 


8,535 


20,088 


3,490 


4,169 


Negro 


4,546 


12,721 


1,944 


2,275 


Other 


118 


335 


50 


58 


Urban employable cases 


9,255 


20,885 


2,551 


2,909 


White 


4,086 


8,888 


1,295 


1,496 


Negro 


5,164 


11,981 


1,254 


1,411 


Other 


5 


16 


2 


2 


Total unemployable cases 


6,918 


11,177 


5,594 


6,902 


Rural unemployable cases 


4,798 


7,877 


4,002 


5,034 


White 


2,192 


4,305 


2,107 


2,784 


Negro 


2,581 


3,529 


1,879 


2,229 


Other 


25 


43 


16 


21 


Urban unemployable cases 


2,120 


3,300 


1,592 


1,868 


White 


811 


1,288 


592 


722 


Negro 


1,308 


2,011 


999 


1,145 


Other 


I 


I 


I 


I 


Total rural cases 


17,997 


41,021 


9,486 


",536 


White 


11,1x6 


24,393 


5,597 


6,953 


Negro 


6,738 


16,250 


3,823 


4,504 


Other 


143 


378 


66 


79 


Total urban cases 


",375 


24,185 


4,143 


4,777 


White 


4,897 


10,176 


1,887 


2,218 


Negro 


6,472 


13,992 


2,253 


2,556 


Other 


6 


17 


3 


3 



Emeeoency Relief in North Carolina 3Y7 

FEDERAL SOCIAL SECURITY ACT CLASSIFIED BY PROBLEM, PLACE 
EMPLOYABILITY, AND COLOR OR RACE 

Dependent 

Dependent Crippled Delinquent Disabled Blind 

Children Children Children Persons Persons 

Cases Persons Cases Persons Cases Persons Cases Persons Cases Person 



15,429 



39,816 



558 617 1,930 5,446 1,907 1,968 992 1,046 



7,914 


20,099 


409 


440 


1,051 


3,038 


1,231 


1,277 


508 


544 


7,426 


19,427 


142 


170 


878 


2,405 


668 


683 


479 


497 


89 


290 


7 


7 


I 


3 


8 


8 


5 


5 


4,002 


36,723 


526 


582 


1,742 


5,071 


1,560 


1,612 


599 


630 


7,726 


21,910 


389 


428 


907 


2,840 


1,025 


1,052 


390 


412 


4,769 


12,902 


294 


317 


558 


1,680 


747 


771 


232 


249 


2,877 


8,747 


89 


105 


348 


1,157 


273 


276 


156 


161 


80 


261 


6 


6 


I 


3 


5 


5 


2 


2 


6,276 


14,813 


137 


154 


835 


2,231 


535 


560 


209 


218 


2,483 


5,698 


97 


104 


404 


1,152 


305 


321 


no 


117 


3,790 


9,103 


39 


49 


431 


1,079 


230 


239 


98 


100 


3 


12 


I 


I 














I 


I 


1,427 


3,093 


32 


35 


188 


375 


347 


356 


393 


416 


921 


2,077 


16 


18 


no 


241 


220 


224 


268 


283 


476 


1,108 


9 


10 


57 


138 


131 


134 


120 


131 


439 


952 


7 


8 


53 


103 


86 


87 


146 


150 


6 


17 














3 


3 


2 


2 


506 


1,016 


16 


17 


78 


134 


127 


132 


125 


133 


186 


391 


9 


9 


32 


68 


48 


51 


46 


47 


320 


625 


7 


8 


46 


66 


79 


81 


79 


86 
































8,647 


23,987 


405 


446 


1,017 


3,081 


1,245 


1,276 


658 


695 


5,245 


14,010 


303 


327 


615 


1,818 


878 


905 


352 


380 


3,316 


9,699 


96 


"3 


401 


1,260 


359 


363 


302 


3" 


86 


278 


6 


6 


I 


3 


8 


8 


4 


4 


6,782 


15,829 


153 


171 


913 


2,365 


662 


692 


334 


351 


2,669 


6,089 


106 


"3 


436 


1,220 


353 


372 


156 


164 


4,110 


9,728 


46 


57 


477 


1,145 


309 


320 


177 


186 


3 


12 


I 


I 














I 


I 



378 



Emeegency Relief in North Carolina 



EMERGENCY RELIEF CASES 
COVERED BY THE FEDERAL SOCIAL SECURITY ACT 

State Total — Blind Persons Classified According to Age and Family Status 





Head of 


Not Head of 


Total 


Per Cent 


Age 


Family 


Family 


Number 


Distribution 


(i) Under i6 




82 


82 


7.8 


(2) 16-20 


3 


45 


48 


4.6 


(3) 21-29 


23 


54 


77 


7.4 


(4) 30-39 


88 


54 


142 


13.6 


(5) 40-49 


89 


39 


128 


12.2 


(6) 50-59 


144 


' 26 


170 


16.3 


(7) 60-69 


154 


31 


185 


17.7 


(8) 70 and over 


144 


70 


214 


20.4 


Total 


645 


401 


1,046 


1 00.0 


State Total- 


-Families with 


Dependent Children 


Classified According to 



Reason for Dependency 



Reason for Dependency 



No. Families 

with 

Dependent 

Children 



No. Depend- 
ent Children 
in these 
Families 



Per Cent 

Distribution 

of Dependent 

Children 



A. Father dead 5)i44 i3;8io 

B. Mother dead 709 2,070 

C. Both dead 25 87 

D. Father physically, or mentally incapacitated i)274 4)044 

E. Mother physically, or mentally incapacitated 186 615 

F. Both physically, or mentally incapacitated 421 i)234 

G. Father dead and mother incapacitated o o 
H. Mother dead and father incapacitated 5 9 
I. Continued absence from home of father 3,402 8,785 
J. Continued absence from home of mother no 258 
K. Continued absence from home of both i i 
L. Father incapacitated and mother absent from home 25 73 
M. Mother incapacitated and father absent from home 233 556 
N. Father dead and mother absent from home o o 
O. Mother dead and father absent from home 4 1 1 
P. Parents unknown — living with near relatives 2,720 5,686 
Q,. Father unknown — living with mother 1,170 2,577 



34-7 
5.20 

0.219 

10.20 

1-55 
3.10 

0.0 

0.023 

22.10 
0.647 
0.003 
0.183 
1.40 
0.0 
0.028 

14.30 
6.48 



Total 



15429 



39=816 



100.00 



Emergency Relief in Worth Carolina 



379 



SOCIAL SECURITY SURVEY 

OF 

EMERGENCY RELIEF CASES 

COVERED BY THE FEDERAL SOCIAL SECURITY ACT 

State Total 

Families with Dependent Children 

Classified According to Reason for Dependency 



No. 


Per 










Dep. 

Chil- 


Di:."L '"Cent 


Reason for Dependency dren 


ID 20 30 40 


A. Father dead 13,810 


1 1 1 


I Continued Absence from 


1 1 1 




home of father 8,785 






P Parents unknown — Hving 


\ 1 






with near relatives 5,686 


14-30 ■■i^^^H 






D Father physically, or men- 


1 1 






tally incapacitated 4,044 


W^^^^^^M 






Q_ Father unknown — living 


1 








with mother 2,577 


6.48 ■■1 








B. Mother dead 2,070 


5-20 ■■ 








F. Both physically, or men- 


c^ 








tally incapacitated 1,234 


3-10 !■ 








E. Mother physically, or 




. 








mentally incapacitated 615 


1-55 


■ 








M. Mother incapacitated and 












fatherabsentfromhome 556 


1.40 


I 








J. Continued absence from 












home of mother 258 


0.647 


1 








C. Both dead 87 


0.219 










L. Father incapacitated and 












mother absent from home 73 


0.183 










0. Mother dead and father 












absent from home 1 1 


0.028 










H. Mother dead and father 












incapacitated 9 


0.023 










K. Continued absence from 












home of both i 


0.003 










G. Father dead and mother 












incapacitated 


0.0 










N. Father dead and mother 












absent from home 


0.0 











NCERA Social Service Division 



Percentages Less than 0.5 Omitted 



380 



Emergency Relief ix North CAROLI^fA 



EMERGENCY RELIEF CASES 
COVERED BY THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT 

State Total — Dependent Persons 65 Years of Age and Over Classified According to Num- 
ber IN Relief Family 







Number 


Number 




Number 


Number 


Persons 


Aged 


Per Cent 


in 


Families 


Represented 


Persons 


Distribution 


Relief 


in Each 


by these 


in Each 


of Aged 


Family 


Category 


Families 


Category 


Persons 



I 


3>044 


3,044 


3,044 


18.7 


2 


3,513 


7,026 


4,733 


29.0 


3 


2,160 


6,480 


2,747 


16.8 


4 


1,560 


6,240 


1,883 


"■5 


5 


1,130 


5,650 


1,342 


8.23 


6 


784 


4,704 


908 


5-57 


7 


554 


3,878 


646 


3-96 


8 


341 


2,728 


393 


2.41 


9 


238 


2,142 


273 


1.67 


10 


139 


1,390 


154 


•944 


II 


84 


924 


95 


.582 


12 


40 


480 


43 


.264 


13 


22 


286 


25 


•153 


14 


12 


168 


16 


.098 


15 


5 


75 


7 


•043 


16 


2 


32 


2 


.012 


17 










18 


I 


18 


2 


.012 


Total 


13,629 


45,265 


16,313 


1 00.00 



State Total — Living Arrangements of Dependent Persons 65 Years of Age and Over 



With Whom Li\ing 



Number 



Per Cent 
Distribution 



A. Living alone 

B. Living with spouse 

C. Living with children, with or without 

spouse 

D. Living with other relatives, or friends 

with or without spouse 



3,044 
7,058 

4,508 

1,703 



18.66 
43-27 

27.63 
10.44 



Total 



16,313 



100.00 



Emergency Relief in Korth Carolina 



381 



SOCIAL SECURITY SURVEY 

North Carolina Emergency Relief Cases Covered By the Federal Social Security Act 
Classified By Problem, County of Residence, and Color or Race 



county 



Dependent, 
Net Total Aged Dependent Crippled Delinquent Disabled Blind 

Unditplicated Persons Children Children Children Persons Persons 



Cases Persons Cases Persons Cases Persons Cases Persons Cases Persons Cases Persons Cases Persons 



ALAMANCE 



total 


I7S 


333 


White 


9S 


191 


Negro, etc. 


SO 


142 



139 


67 


153 








6 


14 


17 


17 


9 


10 


61 


47 


116 








1 


2 


10 


10 


2 


2 


78 


20 


37 








5 


12 


7 


7 


7 


S 



ALEXANDER 


TOTAL 


148 


346 


69 


S3 


76 


210 


4 


4 


10 


37 


8 


8 


4 


4 




White 


124 


293 


59 


71 


62 


177 


4 


4 


9 


33 


7 


7 


1 


1 




Negro, etc. 


24 


53 


10 


12 


14 


33 








1 


4 


1 


1 


3 


3 


ALLEGHANY 


TOTAL 


122 


276 


66 


74 


54 


146 


1 


1 


11 


46 


5 


5 


4 


4 




White 


105 


242 


64 


61 


60 


135 


1 


1 


9 


36 


5 


5 


4 


4 




Negro, etc. 


17 


34 


12 


13 


4 


11 








2 


10 














ANSON 


TOTAL 


250 


577 


134 


155 


147 


396 


2 


2 








9 


9 


14 


16 




White 


67 


147 


32 


36 


38 


102 














3 


3 


5 


6 




Negro, etc. 


183 


430 


102 


119 


109 


294 


2 


2 








6 


6 


9 


9 


ASHE 


TOTAL 


205 


438 


84 


138 


79 


220 


6 


7 


14 


39 


28 


29 


5 


5 




White 


194 


420 


76 


129 


77 


216 


5 


6 


14 


39 


25 


26 


5 


5 




Negro, etc. 


11 


IS 


8 


9 


2 


5 


1 


1 








3 


3 








AVERY 


TOTAL 


207 


477 


104 


128 


109 


302 


11 


12 


3 


9 


17 


IS 


6 


8 




White 


205 


473 


102 


126 


108 


300 


11 


12 


3 


9 


17 


18 


6 


8 




Negro, etc. 


2 


4 


2 


2 


1 


2 


























BEAUFORT 


TOTAL 


249 


506 


149 


176 


109 


292 


1 


1 


4 


8 


22 


23 


6 


6 




White 


133 


268 


75 


SS 


62 


147 


1 


1 


4 


8 


11 


12 


2 


2 




Negro, etc. 


116 


248 


74 


88 


47 


145 














11 


11 


4 


4 


BERTIE 


TOTAL 


249 


494 


175 


196 


87 


247 


2 


2 


14 


26 


12 


12 


11 


11 




White 


72 


142 


43 


62 


32 


76 


1 


I 


2 


3 


5 


5 


5 


6 




Negro, etc. 


177 


352 


132 


144 


66 


171 


1 


1 


12 


23 


7 


7 


6 


6 


BLADEN 


TOTAL 


236 


589 


lis 


139 


126 


394 


3 


3 


3 


13 


28 


29 


11 


11 




White 


134 


350 


54 


66 


81 


256 








1 


3 


20 


21 


4 


4 




.\egro, etc. 


102 


239 


64 


73 


44 


138 


3 


3 


2 


10 


8 


8 


7 


7 


BRUNSWICK 


TOTAL 


161 


346 


82 


96 


S7 


221 


4 


5 


6 


11 


12 


12 


2 


2 




White 


S3 


164 


38 


43 


41 


103 


1 


1 


4 


6 


9 


9 


2 


2 




Negro, etc. 


78 


182 


44 


52 


46 


118 


3 


4 


1 


5 


3 


3 








BUNCO BE 


TOTAL 


1.375 


2,872 


496 


6S0 


920 


2,105 


10 


10 


44 


90 


65 


57 


30 


30 




White 


843 


1.841 


361 


430 


525 


1,298 


9 


9 


25 


56 


33 


34 


14 


14 




Negro, etc. 


532 


1,031 


135 


150 


396 


807 


1 


1 


19 


34 


22 


23 


16 


16 


BURKE 


TOTAL 


261 


677 


121 


153 


149 


442 


7 


7 


15 


47 


21 


22 


5 


6 




White 


179 


485 


78 


101 


109 


319 


5 


5 


12 


42 


14 


15 


2 


3 




Negro, etc. 


82 


192 


43 


52 


40 


123 


2 


2 


3 


5 


7 


7 


3 


3 


CABARRUS 


TOTAL 


37S 


802 


171 


197 


197 


503 


10 


11 


IS 


62 


19 


22 


7 


7 




White 


201 


408 


92 


107 


101 


239 


8 


9 


11 


37 


11 


13 


3 






Negro, etc. 


177 


394 


79 


90 


96 


264 


2 


2 


7 


25 


8 


9 


4 




CALDWELL 


TOTAL 


131 


366 


63 


68 


76 


231 


4 


8 


8 


25 


13 


13 


6 


U 




White 


105 


284 


43 


65 


60 


1S4 


3 


3 


7 


21 


11 


11 


5 


10 




Negro, etc. 


26 


72 


10 


13 


16 


47 


1 


6 


1 


4 


2 


2 


1 




CAMDEN 


TOTAL 


102 


234 


68 


81 


42 


125 


1 


1 


10 


15 


6 


6 


6 






White 


43 


IDS 


27 


31 


21 


63 


1 


1 


6 


8 


3 


4 


1 






Negro, etc. 


59 


126 


41 


50 


21 


62 








4 


7 


2 


2 


5 


5 



382 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 
SOCIAL SECURITY SVRVEY—Continued 



Dependent, 







Net 


Total 


Aged 


Dependent 


Crippled 


Delinquent 


Disab: 


LED 


Blind 








Unduplicated 


Persons 


Children 


Children 


Children 


Persons 


Persons 


COUNTY 


































Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons Cases Persons Cases Persons 


CARTERET 


TOTAL 


414 


714 


236 


277 


177 


378 


7 


7 


2 


3 


35 


37 


12 


12 




White 


324 


543 


181 


217 


138 


278 


5 


5 


1 


2 


30 


32 


9 


9 




Negro, etc. 


90 


171 


55 


60 


39 


100 


2 


2 


1 


1 


5 


5 


3 


3 


CASWELL 


TOTAL 


128 


341 


80 


102 


49 


161 


1 


1 


16 


66 


6 


6 


4 


5 




White 


61 


164 


34 


45 


26 


S3 


1 


1 


8 


29 


3 


3 


2 


3 




Negro, etc. 


67 


177 


46 


57 


23 


78 








8 


37 


3 


3 


2 


2 


CATAWBA 


TOTAL 


267 


640 


101 


118 


157 


460 


3 


3 


11 


25 


24 


25 


9 


9 




White 


210 


503 


75 


90 


131 


371 


3 


3 


6 


12 


19 


20 


7 


7 




Negro, etc. 


57 


137 


26 


28 


-26 


89 








5 


13 


5 


5 


2 


2 


CHATHAM 


TOTAL 


230 


561 


112 


138 


94 


230 


10 


11 


35 


155 


22 


22 


5 


5 




White 


105 


194 


50 


64 


38 


85 


3 


3 


7 


25 


16 


16 


1 


1 




Negro, etc. 


126 


367 


62 


74 


56 


145 


7 


8 


28 


130 


6 


6 


4 


4 


CHEROKEE 


TOTAL 


285 


582 


147 


182 


149 


350 


14 


14 


8 


11 


16 


17 


7 


8 




White 


274 


558 


137 


171 


144 


338 


13 


13 


8 


11 


16 


17 


7 


8 




Negro, etc. 


11 


24 


10 


11 


5 


12 


1 


1 




















CHOWAN 


TOTAL 


306 


650 


120 


142 


160 


389 


6 


6 


37 


88 


19 


19 


6 


6 




White 


52 


89 


26 


33 


22 


44 


1 


1 


3 


7 


4 


4 










Negro, etc. 


254 


561 


94 


109 


138 


345 


5 


5 


34 


81 


15 


15 


6 


6 


CLAY 


TOTAL 


133 


275 


86 


111 


46 


139 


6 


6 


5 


15 


2 


2 


2 


2 




White 


131 


273 


84 


109 


46 


139 


6 


6 


5 


15 


2 


2 


2 


2 




Negro, etc. 


2 


2 


2 


2 
































CLEVELAND 


TOTAL 


253 


667 


64 


68 


164 


457 


11 


14 


38 


120 


5 


5 


3 


3 




White 


163 


420 


42 


45 


106 


288 


10 


11 


20 


70 


3 


3 


3 


3 




Negro, etc. 


90 


247 


22 


23 


58 


169 


1 


3 


18 


50 


2 


2 








COLUMBUS 


TOTAL 


246 


595 


100 


120 


137 


420 


4 


5 


5 


10 


30 


32 


8 


8 




White 


167 


408 


68 


83 


89 


283 


3 


3 


5 


10 


22 


24 


5 


6 




Negro, etc. 


79 


1S7 


32 


37 


48 


137 


1 


2 








8 


8 


3 


3 


CRAVEN 


TOTAL 


424 


909 


225 


257 


157 


351 


6 


6 


75 


250 


30 


30 


15 


15 




White 


230 


479 


105 


119 


89 


176 


5 


6 


41 


153 


15 


15 


10 


10 




Negro, etc. 


194 


430 


120 


138 


68 


175 








34 


97 


15 


15 


6 


6 


CUMBERLAND 


TOTAL 


504 


1,157 


194 


235 


288 


755 


7 


7 


30 


8S 


49 


49 


22 


23 




White 


247 


539 


93 


114 


120 


304 


6 


6 


23 


74 


35 


35 


6 


6 




Negro, etc. 


257 


618 


101 


121 


168 


451 


1 


1 


7 


14 


14 


14 


16 


17 


CURRITUCK 


TOTAL 


128 


230 


89 


102 


42 


101 


3 


4 


4 


16 








7 


7 




White 


70 


116 


49 


58 


20 


40 


1 


1 


3 


12 








5 


6 




Negro, etc. 


58 


114 


40 


44 


22 


61 


2 


3 


1 


4 








2 


2 


DARE 


TOTAL 


154 


251 


111 


124 


51 


109 


2 


2 


2 


5 


5 


6 


5 


6 




White 


137 


209 


102 


114 


41 


79 


2 


2 


1 


3 


5 


6 


5 


6 




Negro, etc. 


17 


42 


9 


10 


10 


30 








1 


2 














DAVIDSON 


TOTAL 


268 


604 


107 


123 


134 


374 


6 


6 


28 


72 


10 


10 


19 


19 




White 


201 


436 


77 


86 


100 


280 


6 


6 


18 


42 


8 


8 


14 


14 




Negro, etc. 


67 


168 


30 


37 


34 


94 








10 


30 


2 


2 


6 


6 


DAVIE 


TOTAL 


129 


321 


71 


91 


71 


198 


3 


3 


5 


16 


8 


8 


5 


5 




White 


73 


156 


41 


55 


33 


83 


2 


2 


2 


8 


5 


6 


3 


3 




Negro, etc. 


56 


165 


30 


36 


38 


115 


1 


1 


3 


8 


3 


3 


2 


2 


DUPLIN 


TOTAL 


378 


763 


190 


239 


176 


432 


9 


9 


5 


16 


48 


49 


17 


18 




White 


209 


400 


100 


126 


90 


219 


6 


6 


3 


9 


30 


31 


8 


9 




Negro, etc. 


169 


363 


90 


113 


86 


213 


3 


3 


2 


7 


18 


18 


9 


9 


DURHAM 


TOTAL 


1,020 


2,071 


320 


386 


705 


1,492 


12 


13 


37 


90 


41 


42 


44 


48 




White 


326 


646 


134 


166 


185 


390 


8 


8 


11 


33 


16 


16 


31 


33 




Negro, etc. 


694 


1,426 


186 


220 


520 


1,102 


4 


5 


26 


57 


26 


26 


13 


15 



Emergency Eelief in I^oeth Carolina 
SOCIAL SECURITY SURVEY— Continued 



383 



Dependent, 







Net Total 


Aged 


Dependent 


Crippled 


Delinquent 


Disabled 


Blind 








Undtjplicated 


Persons 


Children 


Children 


Children 


Persons 


Persons 




COUNTY 




































Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons 


EDGECOMB 


E TOTAL 


464 


1,141 


181 


208 


294 


772 


4 


7 


41 


121 


27 


27 


6 




6 




White 


164 


376 


63 


74 


94 


226 


1 


1 


22 


62 


13 


13 












Negro, etc. 


300 


765 


118 


134 


200 


546 


3 


6 


19 


59 


14 


14 


6 




6 


FORSYTH 


TOTAL 


9S6 


2,097 


299 


365 


581 


1,281 


17 


18 


136 


289 


109 


118 


21 




26 




White 


4S9 


1,032 


162 


207 


276 


597 


14 


15 


51 


119 


69 


75 


14 




19 




Negro, etc. 


497 


1,065 


137 


158 


305 


684 


3 


3 


85 


170 


40 


43 


7 




7 


FRANKLIN 


TOTAL 


91 


224 


42 


44 


65 


161 


1 


1 


3 


14 


2 


3 


1 




1 




White 


42 


87 


23 


23 


24 


61 














1 


2 


1 




1 




Negro, etc. 


49 


137 


19 


21 


31 


100 


1 


1 


3 


14 


1 


1 










GASTON 


TOTAL 


427 


981 


127 


155 


243 


615 


18 


19 


61 


152 


26 


27 


13 




13 




White 


284 


634 


79 


95 


164 


402 


16 


17 


41 


92 


18 


19 


9 




9 




Negro, etc. 


143 


347 


48 


60 


79 


213 


2 


2 


20 


60 


8 


8 


4 




4 


GATES 


TOTAL 


202 


408 


103 


123 


86 


213 


3 


3 


19 


42 


19 


20 


7 




7 




White 


50 


81 


24 


27 


18 


43 


3 


3 


1 


1 


6 


6 


1 




1 




Negro, etc. 


152 


327 


79 


96 


68 


170 








18 


41 


13 


14 


6 




6 



GRAHAM 



TOTAL 
White 



102 
102 



203 
203 



58 

68 



74 
74 



43 
43 



102 
102 



11 
11 



GRANVILLE 


TOTAL 


95 


268 


37 


44 


66 


196 


2 


2 


4 


21 


2 


2 


3 


3 




White 


47 


114 


25 


30 


24 


62 


2 


2 


3 


17 


1 


1 


2 


2 




Negro, etc. 


48 


164 


12 


14 


42 


134 








1 


4 


1 


1 


1 


1 


GREENE 


TOTAL 


114 


263 


45 


50 


55 


191 


3 


3 








16 


16 


3 


3 




White 


41 


87 


16 


18 


18 


61 


2 


2 








6 


6 










Negro, etc. 


73 


176 


29 


32 


37 


130 


1 


1 








10 


10 


3 


3 


GUILFORD 


TOTAL 


1,161 


2,337 


378 


446 


723 


1,597 


18 


22 


43 


111 


89 


94 


63 


67 




White 


624 


1,011 


185 


232 


300 


620 


13 


16 


18 


57 


54 


57 


27 


29 




Negro, etc. 


637 


1,326 


193 


214 


423 


977 


6 


6 


25 


54 


35 


37 


36 


38 


HALIFAX 


TOTAL 


658 


1,427 


376 


439 


216 


526 


11 


11 


137 


400 


30 


30 


22 


22 




White 


236 


491 


109 


122 


91 


207 


4 


4 


48 


134 


20 


20 


4 


4 




Negro, etc. 


422 


936 


267 


317 


125 


318 


7 


7 


89 


266 


10 


10 


18 


18 


HARNETT 


TOTAL 


224 


490 


159 


198 


86 


243 


3 


3 


6 


14 


12 


12 


16 


20 




White 


108 


219 


78 


102 


33 


82 


2 


2 


4 


12 


10 


10 


8 


11 




Negro, etc. 


116 


271 


81 


96 


53 


161 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


8 


9 


HAYWOOD 


TOTAL 


336 


827 


155 


193 


166 


463 


13 


14 


43 


127 


15 


16 


14 


15 




White 


314 


784 


140 


176 


169 


446 


11 


12 


40 


121 


15 


15 


13 


14 




Negro, etc. 


22 


43 


15 


17 


7 


17 


2 


2 


3 


6 








1 


1 


HENDERSON 


TOTAL 


243 


583 


105 


124 


109 


272 


5 


5 


53 


163 


13 


13 


6 


6 




White 


191 


456 


82 


100 


81 


195 


5 


5 


44 


143 


9 


9 


4 


4 




Negro, etc. 


52 


127 


23 


24 


28 


77 








9 


20 


4 


4 


2 


2 


HERTFORD 


TOTAL 


190 


386 


114 


125 


71 


190 


1 


1 


19 


53 


9 


9 


S 


8 




White 


54 


105 


31 


36 


22 


61 








2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 




Negro, etc. 


136 


281 


83 


89 


49 


129 


1 


1 


17 


61 


6 


6 


6 


5 


HOKE 


TOTAL 


214 


504 


123 


161 


90 


270 


7 


9 


10 


39 


19 


20 


15 


16 




White 


68 


133 


43 


64 


24 


56 


4 


4 


3 


12 


3 


3 


4 


4 




Negro, etc. 


146 


371 


80 


97 


66 


214 


3 


5 


7 


27 


16 


17 


11 


11 


HYDE 


TOTAL 


175 


304 


126 


165 


47 


114 


6 


6 


1 


5 


10 


10 


14 


14 




White 


97 


140 


74 


92 


15 


23 


6 


6 


1 


6 


7 


7 


8 


8 




Negro, etc. 


78 


164 


52 


63 


32 


91 


1 


1 








3 


3 


6 


6 


IREDELL 


TOTAL 


363 


854 


173 


210 


174 


492 


5 


5 


34 


107 


22 


23 


17 


17 




White 


217 


655 


93 


116 


114 


340 


2 


2 


22 


69 


16 


17 


11 


11 




Negro, etc. 


146 


299 


80 


94 


60 


162 


3 


3 


12 


38 


6 


6 


6 


6 



3'84 



Emergency Relief in IN^orth Carolina 
SOCIAL SECURITY SXJRVEY— Continued 



Dependent, 







Net' 


rOT.\L 


Aged 


Depe.vdent 


Crippled 


Delinquent 


Disabled 


Blind 






Unduplicated 


Persons 


Children 


Children 


Children 


Persons 


Persons 


COUNTY 


































Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons 


Cises P 


ersons 


JACKSON 


TOTAL 


271 


676 


127 


157 


150 


452 


12 


14 


7 


27 


22 


22 


3 


3 




White 


25,S 


633 


125 


154 


140 


419 


11 


13 


6 


23 


21 


21 


3 


3 




Negro, etc. 


13 


42 


2 


3 


10 


33 


1 


1 


1 


4 


1 


1 








JOHNSTON 


TOTAL 


325 


789 


122 


147 


216 


598 


5 


6 


7 


17 


10 


11 


10 


10 




White 


196 


469 


68 


86 


132 


351 


3 


3 


6 


16 


7 


8 


5 


5 




Negro, etc. 


129 


320 


54 


61 


84 


247 


2 


3 


1 


1 


3 


3 


5 


5 


JONES 


TOTAL 


175 


386 


103 


119 


82 


237 


3 


3 


2 


9 


16 


16 


2 


2 




White 


78 


142 


46 


55 


30 


73 


2 


2 








10 


10 


2 


2 




Negro, etc. 


97 


244 


57 


64 


52 


164 


1 


1 


2 


9 


6 


6 








LEE 


TOTAL 


220 


503 


101 


119 


94 


258 


3 


3 


34 


101 


14 


15 


7 


7 




White 


80 


179 


39 


50 


35 


97 








5 


20 


8 


8 


4 


4 




Negro, etc. 


140 


324 


62 


69 


59 


161 


3 


3 


29 


81 


6 


7 


3 


3 


LENOIR 


TOTAL 


257 


503 


137 


154 


116 


297 


5 


5 


4 


5 


32 


33 


9 


9 




White 


111 


194 


60 


65 


42 


105 


5 


5 


1 


2 


15 


15 


2 


2 




Negro, etc. 


146 


309 


76 


89 


74 


192 








3 


3 


17 


IS 


7 


7 


LINCOLN 


TOTAL 


122 


276 


40 


51 


46 


131 


2 


2 


23 


68 


14 


14 


10 


10 




White 


95 


215 


26 


34 


38 


102 


2 


2 


19 


56 


12 


12 


9 


9 




Negro, etc. 


27 


61 


14 


17 


8 


29 








4 


12 


2 


2 


1 


1 


MACON 


TOTAL 


219 


463 


144 


189 


85 


207 


4 


4 


10 


37 


15 


17 


8 


9 




White 


205 


434 


133 


172 


SO 


197 


3 


3 


10 


37 


15 


17 


7 


8 




Negro, etc. 


14 


29 


11 


17 


5 


10 


1 


1 














1 


1 


MADISON 


TOTAL 


186 


402 


104 


132 


77 


240 


8 


10 


3 


10 


5 


5 


5 


5 




White 


184 


395 


103 


131 


76 


234 


8 


10 


3 


10 


5 


5 


5 


5 




Negro, etc. 


2 


7 


1 


1 


1 


6 


























MARTIN 


TOTAL 


188 


582 


68 


80 


142 


468 


3 


3 


3 


13 


12 


12 


6 


6 




White 


60 


154 


16 


17 


45 


125 


2 


2 


1 


6 


4 


4 










Negro, etc. 


128 


428 


52 


63 


97 


343 


1 


1 


2 


7 


8 


8 


6 


6 


MeDOWELL 


TOTAL 


205 


473 


110 


134 


99 


261 


3 


3 


23 


57 


9 


10 


7 


8 




White 


148 


353 


74 


88 


72 


194 


3 


3 


21 


53 


7 


8 


6 


7 




Negro, etc. 


57 


120 


36 


46 


27 


67 








2 


4 


2 


2 


1 


1 


MECKLENBURG 


TOTAL 


725 


1,644 


164 


182 


393 


998 


19 


20 


130 


336 


97 


97 


11 


11 




White 


255 


537 


62 


69 


120 


282 


9 


10 


47 


129 


42 


42 


5 


5 




Negro, etc. 


470 


1,107 


102 


113 


273 


716 


10 


10 


83 


207 


54 


55 


6 


6 


MITCHELL 


TOTAL 


145 


331 


71 


89 


61 


160 


13 


15 


15 


53 


5 


5 


8 


9 




White 


145 


331 


71 


S9 


61 


160 


13 


15 


15 


53 


5 


5 


S 


9 


MONTGOMERY 


TOTAL 


185 


355 


122 


142 


67 


177 


2 


2 


8 


17 


4 


4 


13 


13 




White 


115 


214 


75 


91 


42 


103 








5 


11 


3 


3 


6 


6 




Negro, etc. 


70 


141 


47 


51 


25 


74 


2 


2 


3 


6 


1 


1 


7 


7 


MOORE 


TOTAL 


318 


742 


1S2 


218 


169 


461 


4 


8 


8 


25 


14 


16 


13 


14 




White 


134 


288 


75 


96 


66 


160 


3 


7 


2 


9 


9 


11 


5 


5 




Negro, etc. 


184 


454 


107 


122 


103 


301 


1 


1 


6 


16 


5 


5 


8 


9 


NASH 


TOTAL 


284 


699 


139 


170 


175 


499 


3 


3 


5 


7 


8 


8 


12 


12 




White 


119 


274 


47 


54 


78 


209 


2 


2 


1 


1 


6 


6 


2 


2 




Negro, etc. 


165 


425 


92 


116 


97 


290 


1 


1 


4 


6 


2 


2 


10 


10 


NEW HANOVER 


TOTAL 


862 


1,769 


317 


338 


603 


1.353 


7 


7 


19 


36 


15 


16 


19 


19 




White 


250 


473 


116 


124 


146 


315 


4 


4 


4 


8 


12 


13 


9 


9 




Negro, etc. 


612 


1,296 


201 


214 


457 


1,038 


3 


3 


15 


28 


3 


3 


10 


10 


NORTHAMPTON 


TOTAL 


357 


816 


186 


224 


148 


408 


8 


13 


41 


115 


35 


35 


19 


21 




White 


124 


223 


60 


70 


51 


109 


3 


7 


4 


11 


20 


20 


6 


6 




Negro, etc. 


233 


593 


126 


154 


97 


299 


5 


6 


37 


104 


15 


15 


13 


15 



COUNTY 



Emergency Relief in Worth Carolina 
SOCIAL SECURITY SURVEY— Continued 

Dependent, 
Net Total Aged Dependent Cpippled Delinquent Disabled 

Unduplicated Persons Children Children Children Persons 



385 



Blind 

Feb SONS 



Cases Persons Cases Persons Cases Persons Cases Persons Cases Persons Cases Persons Cases Persons 



ONSLOW 



TOTAL 


257 


574 


133 


152 


124 


319 


5 


5 


10 


41 


39 


40 


14 


17 


White 


165 


35S 


83 


96 


68 


177 


3 


3 


10 


41 


29 


30 


8 


11 


Negro, etc. 


92 


216 


50 


56 


56 


142 


2 


2 








10 


10 


6 


6 



ORANGE 


TOTAL 


167 


384 


75 


83 


100 


282 


1 


1 


2 


4 


12 


13 


1 


1 




White 


72 


150 


27 


30 


47 


113 


1 


1 


1 


1 


4 


5 










Negro, etc. 


95 


234 


48 


53 


53 


169 








1 


3 


8 


8 


1 


1 


PAMLICO 


TOTAL 


168 


406 


92 


105 


86 


242 


2 


2 


9 


34 


18 


18 


5 


5 




White 


83 


161 


47 


56 


35 


85 


2 


2 


2 


5 


10 


10 


3 


3 




Negro, etc. 


85 


245 


45 


49 


51 


157 








7 


29 


8 


8 


2 


2 


PASQUOTANK 


TOTAL 


242 


497 


149 


181 


103 


237 


2 


2 


20 


56 


9 


10 


9 


11 




White 


80 


142 


44 


56 


31 


64 


1 


1 


6 


16 


3 


3 


2 


2 




Negro, etc. 


162 


355 


105 


125 


72 


173 


1 


1 


14 


40 


6 


7 


7 


9 


PENDER 


TOTAL 


137 


273 


69 


78 


56 


151 


7 


7 


7 


10 


17 


17 


10 . 


10 




White 


69 


132 


35 


38 


29 


68 


4 


4 


7 


10 


9 


9 


3 


3 




Negro, etc. 


68 


141 


34 


40 


27 


83 


3 


3 








8 


8 


7 


7 


PERQUIMANS 


TOTAL 


186 


410 


115 


141 


79 


213 


1 


2 


12 


39 


3 


4 


11 


11 




White 


64 


114 


42 


52 


20 


47 








5 


11 


1 


2 


2 


2 




Negro, etc. 


122 


296 


73 


89 


59 


166 


1 


2 


7 


28 


2 


2 


9 


9 


PERSON 


TOTAL 


168 


371 


98 


117 


75 


211 


1 


2 


10 


33 


6 


7 


1 


1 




White 


62 


126 


37 


45 


27 


73 


1 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 










Negro, etc. 


106 


245 


61 


72 


48 


138 








8 


30 


4 


4 


1 


1 


PITT 


TOTAL 


347 


680 


223 


269 


131 


374 


3 


3 


5 


8 


19 


20 


6 


6 




White 


158 


308 


86 


105 


66 


179 


2 


2 


3 


6 


12 


13 


3 


3 




Negro, etc. 


189 


372 


137 


164 


65 


195 


1 


1 


2 


2 


7 


7 


3 


3 


POLK 


TOTAL 


92 


191 


48 


63 


28 


87 


5 


6 


15 


29 


3 


3 


3 


3 




White 


74 


153 


37 


49 


23 


69 


4 


5 


13 


26 


2 


2 


2 


2 




Negro, etc. 


18 


38 


11 


14 


5 


IS 


1 


1 


2 


3 


1 


1 


1 


1 


RANDOLPH 


TOTAL 


138 


299 


76 


97 


58 


161 


2 


2 


10 


31 


4 


4 


4 


4 




White 


106 


230 


56 


76 


47 


125 


2 


2 


7 


21 


3 


3 


3 


3 




Negro, etc. 


32 


69 


20 


21 


11 


36 








3 


10 


1 


1 


1 


1 



RICHMOND 


TOTAL 


333 


896 


115 


135 


223 


637 


16 


16 


16 


62 


28 


28 


18 


18 




White 


126 


354 


38 


49 


78 


242 


9 


9 


10 


34 


15 


15 


5 


5 




Negro, etc. 


207 


542 


77 


86 


145 


395 


7 


7 


6 


28 


13 


13 


13 


13 



ROBESON 


TOTAL 


650 


1,530 


371 


451 


354 


975 


8 


3 13 


42 


25 


25 


24 


29 




White 


267 


570 


157 


201 


129 


311 




1 11 


35 


12 


12 


10 


10 




Negro, etc. 


386 


960 


214 


250 


225 


664 




7 2 


7 


13 


13 


14 


19 


ROCKINGHAM 


TOTAL 


146 


340 


65 


75 


77 


226 




2 3 


11 


16 


17 


9 


9 




White 


97 


209 


39 


47 


45 


131 




2 


10 


11 


12 


8 


8 




Negro, etc. 


49 


131 


26 


28 


32 


95 




1 


1 


5 


5 


1 


1 


ROWAN 


TOTAL 


279 


576 


124 


140 


132 


301 




1 35 


108 


15 


16 


7 


7 




White 


133 


289 


53 


60 


56 


123 




29 


92 


8 


9 


2 


2 




Negro, etc. 


146 


287 


71 


80 


76 


178 


1 


6 


16 


7 


7 


5 


5 


RUTHERFORD 


TOTAL 


276 


741 


79 


101 


151 


452 


8 f 


67 


157 


17 


17 


6 


6 




White 


235 


606 


65 


85 


128 


358 


7 


52 


142 


11 


11 


3 


3 




Negro, etc. 


41 


135 


14 


16 


23 


94 


1 


5 


15 


6 


6 


3 


3 


SAMPSON 


TOTAL 


175 


402 


92 


114 


89 


246 




1 


1 


19 


19 


16 


17 




White 


106 


232 


51 


69 


54 


141 


4 4 


1 


1 


11 


11 


5 


6 




Negro, etc. 


69 


170 


41 


45 


35 


105 


1 1 








8 


8 


11 


11 



SCOTLAND 


TOTAL 


310 


721 


149 


174 


192 


516 


3 


3 


2 


6 


14 


14 


8 


8 




White 


115 


215 


59 


72 


62 


127 


2 


2 


1 


1 


9 


9 


4 


4 




Negro, etc. 


195 


506 


90 


102 


130 


389 


1 


1 


1 


6 


5 


5 


4 


4 



38&' 



EiiEHGENCT Relief in ISToeth Carolina 
SOCIAL SECURITY SURVEY— Continued 























Dependent, 
















Net 


rOTAL 


Ag 


ED 


Dependent 


Crippled 


Delinquent 


Disabled 


Blind 








"Unduplicated 


Persons 


Children 


Children 


Childrbn 


Persons 


Person 


s 


CO 


UNTY 


































Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons 


Cases 


Persons 


STANLY 


TOTAL 


174 


365 


106 


131 


78 


182 








14 


41 


3 


3 


6 




8 




White 


135 


274 


83 


101 


59 


128 








12 


36 


2 


2 


5 




7 




Negro, etc. 


39 


91 


23 


30 


19 


54 








2 


5 


1 


1 


1 




1 


STOKES ■ 


TOTAL 


187 


400 


97 


121 


92 


234 


5 


5 


9 


24 


11 


11 


5 




5 




White 


131 


265 


69 


90 


61 


154 


5 


5 


5 


7 


7 


7 


2 




2 




Negro, etc. 


56 


135 


28 


31 


31 


80 








4 


17 


4 


4 


3 




3 


SUREY 


TOTAL 


329 


758 


188 


229 


157 


467 


5 


5 


4 


17 


28 


29 


10 




11 




White 


292 


677 


159 


194 


145 


424 


5 


5 


4 


n 


26 


27 


9 




10 




Negro, etc. 


37 


81 


29 


35 


•. 12 


43 














2 


2 


1 




1 


SWAIN 


TOTAL 


161 


412 


67 


77 


91 


268 




8 


17 


56 


3 


3 












White 


15S 


403 


66 


76 


89 


260 




S 


17 


56 


3 


3 












Negro, etc. 


3 


9 


1 


1 


2 


8 



























TRANSYLVANIA TOTAL 


130 


360 


56 


68 


74 


220 




5 


15 


47 


13 


14 


6 




6 




White 


117 


329 


50 


61 


68 


206 




5 


13 


39 


13 


14 


4 




4 




Negro, etc 


13 


31 


6 


7 


6 


14 







2 


8 








2 




2 


TYRRELL 


TOTAL 


145 


340 


77 


89 


66 


179 




4 


17 


55 


9 


9 


4 




4 




White 


68 


132 


42 


50 


24 


54 




4 


4 


16 


7 


7 


1 




1 




Negro, etc. 


77 


208 


35 


39 


42 


125 








13 


39 


2 


2 


3 




3 


UNION 


TOTAL 


305 


630 


148 


170 


134 


363 








31 


75 


9 


9 


13 




13 




White 


150 


303 


77 


90 


59 


159 








IS 


45 


4 


4 


5 




5 




Negro, etc. 


155 


327 


71 


80 


75 


204 








13 


30 


5 


5 


8 




8 


VANCE 


TOTAL 


145 


378 


47 


56 


83 


222 


4 


4 


23 


SO 


15 


15 


1 




1 




White 


88 


209 


34 


40 


49 


122 


3 


3 


11 


30 


13 


13 


1 




1 




Negro, etc. 


57 


169 


13 


16 


34 


100 


1 


1 


12 


50 


2 


2 











WAKE 


TOTAL 


880 


1,726 


457 


534 


489 


1,123 5 13 


6 


7 


17 


18 


30 


31 




White 


318 


565 


165 


196 


166 


344 


1 


4 


5 


7 


8 


11 


11 




Negro, etc. 


562 


1,161 


292 


338 


323 


779 


t 12 


2 


2 


10 


10 


19 


20 


WARREN 


TOTAL 


257 


544 


147 


183 


125 


324 


! 2 


2 


3 


25 


25 


7 


7 




White 


74 


136 


40 


50 


28 


69 


1 


1 


2 


11 


U 


3 


3 




Negro, etc. 


183 


408 


107 


1.33 


97 


255 


1 


1 


1 


14 


U 


4 


4 


WASHINGTON 


TOTAL 


196 


537 


95 


119 


124 


354 


> 3 


16 


49 


3 


3 


9 


9 




White 


62 


16S 


27 


35 


36 


112 


2 


5 


17 


2 


2 










Negro, etc. 


134 


369 


68 


S4 


SS 


242 


1 


11 


32 


1 


1 


9 


9 



WATAUGA 


TOTAL 


231 


438 


134 


170 


92 


223 


12 


12 


6 


7 


24 


24 


2 


2 




White 


223 


419 


127 


163 


SS 


211 


12 


12 


6 


7 


24 


24 


2 


2 




Negro, etc. 


8 


19 


7 


7 


4 


12 


























WAYNE 


TOTAL 


370 


857 


155 


186 


225 


589 


15 


15 


12 


35 


20 


21 


11 


11 




White 


173 


378 


84 


107 


84 


218 


10 


10 


7 


23 


13 


13 


7 


7 




Negro, etc. 


197 


479 


71 


79 


141 


371 


5 


5 


5 


12 


7 


8 


4 


4 


WILIvES 


TOTAL 


360 


822 


229 


290 


138 


382 


1 


1 


29 


101 


32 


32 


16 


16 




White 


311 


702 


201 


253 


115 


320 


1 


1 


24 


85 


28 


28 


15 


15 




Negro, etc. 


49 


120 


28 


37 


23 


62 








5 


16 


4 


4 


1 


1 


WILSON 


TOTAL 


433 


1,012 


176 


215 


279 


740 


3 


3 


19 


37 


15 


15 


2 


2 




White 


194 


422 


81 


95 


111 


287 


3 


3 


13 


29 


8 


8 










Negro, etc. 


239 


590 


95 


120 


16S 


453 








6 


S 


7 


7 


2 


2 


YADKIN 


TOTAL 


151 


352 


72 


92 


79 


230 


2 


2 


3 


7 


16 


17 


4 


4 




White 


125 


283 


59 


77 


68 


182 


1 


1 


3 


7 


13 


14 


2 


2 




Negro, etc. 


26 


69 


13 


15 


11 


48 


1 


1 








3 


3 


2 


2 


YANCEY 


TOTAL 


239 


625 


lOS 


141 


136 


401 


9 


9 


14 


43 


25 


25 


6 


6 




White 


231 


600 


102 


132 


133 


387 


9 


9 


13 


42 


25 


25 


5 


5 




Negro, etc. 


8 


25 


6 


9 


3 


14 








1 


1 








1 


1 



Emergency Relief in North Carolusta 



387 



ERA STATEjADMINISTRATIVE^EMPLOYEES 
JUNE, 1935 

EXECUTIVE DIVISION 

Mrs. Thomas O'Berry, Administrator 
R. C. Carter, Assistant Administrator 

Mrs. Elisabeth Greer Seese, Secretary to Administrator 

Mrs. Irma Wall, Secretary to Assistant Administrator 

Mrs. Lee Walker, Stenographer 



Mrs. Louise W. Frye, 

Director of Field Staff 
Mrs. M. H. Williams, 

Assistant Director 
Cora Page Godfrey, 

Secretary 
FIELD REPRESENTATIVES : 

T. L. Grier 

W. T. Mattox 

Mary P. Ward 

Columbus Andrews 

Elma H. Ashton 



ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT : 
T. W. Morse, 

Work Project Supervisor 
Mrs. Mary Dunaway Scheld, 

Secretary 
Philip Schwartz, 

Chief Office Engineer 
Mrs. Irene Miller, 

Secretary 
District Engineers: 
John Brady 
E. W. Cole 
J. M. Kennedy 
C. C. McGinnis 
James A. McGeady 
E. L. Winslow 
William Wyatt 
Special Field Engineers: 
W. P. Beckham 
John Donaldson 
Roy L. Gay 
W. A. Harris, 
A. E. Perry 
Field Supervisor of Occupational Records: 

W. C. Wilson 
Office Engineers: 
W. E. Harris, Chief 
Ernest Harris 
W. E. Haynes 
James L. Hales 



SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION 

INSTITUTES FOR SOCIAL TRAIN- 
ING : 

Anna A. Cassatt, 

Director 
Dorothy E. Valantine, 

Assistant Director 
Elinor M. Perkins, 

Director — Adjustment of Complaints 
Clerks and Stenographers: 

{Social Service Division) 
Mrs. Lucy J. Douglas 

WORKS DIVISION 

J. M. Coleman, Director and Purchasing Agent 
Annie Lee Baines, Secretary 

F. O. Pearce 
R. A. Stephenson 
J. D. Swain 
J. A. Winston 

E. I. Wood, Jr. 
C. E. Tutde, 

Progress Engineer 
John Henry Bland, 

Project Register Clerk 
T. F. Wilkinson, Jr., 

Project Inspector 

PURCHASING DEPARTMENT : 

Assistant Purchasing Agents: 

G. W. Hutchinson 

F. O. Arthur 
Edna Mathews, 

Comptometer Operator 

SAFETY DEPARTMENT: 

E. G. Padgett, 

Director 
Evelyn Hampton, 

Secretary 
District Safety Supervisors: 

W. H. Fetter 

Marion McCall 

Anna M. Powell 

Fred E. Smothers 

T. C. Riggs 



Mrs. Mary Lyndon Layton 
Mrs. Emily S. Chapman 
Mrs. Belle M. Fisher 
Eunice Goodwin 
Pearl Mangum 
James P. Moore 
Hattie Morris 
Thelma Hill 
Mrs. Fred Cohn 



WOMEN'S WORK DEPARTMENT 
Mrs. C. S. Hicks,* 

Director of Women's Work 
Mrs. Eugene Armbruster, 
Secretary 

Clerks and Stenographers: 
( Works Division) 
Margaret Guinn 
Mrs. Julia Lundy Wilson 
Viola Hall 

Mrs. Ruth Black Streb 
Mrs. Margaret McCanna 
Mildred Lee 
Marion Cobb 
Cooper J. Hathcock 
Mrs. Ethel G. Moore 
Eula Beth Warner 
Mildred Galloway 
Mrs. Anne Woolridge 
Mrs. Laura Moser 
Helen Gibbs 
lone Moye 
George Bradford 
John L. Ponser 
M. C. Heart (Miss) 
W. H. Andrews 
Burton Sellars 
Frank Busbee 



* Resigned March 15, 1935. 



388 



Emebgenct Relief in North Carolina 



FINANCE DIVISION 

R. C. Carter, Chief Auditor and Director of Finance 
Mrs. Irma Wall, Secretary 



AUDITING DEPARTMENT: 
C. E. Phinney, 

Disbursing Officer 
Fred Ferguson, 

Supervisor of Field Auditors 
Field Auditors: 

R. O. Howard 

Mrs. M. B. Morgan 

C. O. P. Hughey 

L. H. Parham 

C. C. Coppedge 

W. L. Gilbert 

W. E. Vernon 

W. L. Stancil 

H. D. White, Jr. 

H. C. McDaniel 

A. H. Kizer 
G. W. Cobb 

B. P. Pearson 
Willard T, Haynes 
Glenn Southern 
W. C. Barfield 

W. E. Pearce 
STATISTICAL DEPARTMENT : 
Hugh P. Brinton, 

Chief Statistician 
Georgia Biggs 

Secretary 
Statistical Clerks: 

E. J. Bland, Chief 

W. L. Wright 

C. E. Wilkins 

Mrs. Irene Knott Graham 
J. E. Umstead 
Margaret Arrington 



Cora V. Delamar 

Thomas A. Betts 
BOOKKEEPING AND ACCOUNT- 
ING DEPARTMENT: 
J. E. White, 

Director and Assistant State Auditor 
R. L. Deaton, 

Purchase Order Clerk 
J. M. Wood, 

Bookkeeper 
Accounting Clerks: 

E. W. Mathews 

Robert Copeland 

Mrs. Rosa Leigh Barker 

Leah Davidson 

G. A. Boatright 

Hugh A. Ragsdale 

J. V. Soden 
Bookkeepers: 

J. E. King, Chief 

C. J. Harris 

Earle N. Howard 

Sam Rowe 

L. W. Decker 

H. T. Johnson 

L. W. Smith 
Bookkeeping Clerks: 

Mrs. Margaret W. Griffin 

C. B. Denson 
W. R. Pearce, 

Project Clerk 
PAYROLL DEP.ARTMENT : 
Lena Simmons, 

Director and Assistant State Auditor 
Julia Jordan, 

General Clerk 



Payroll Analyzers: 
J. M. Monie 
H. D. Barham 
Bryan Davii 

Register Clerks: 

Mary F. Hunt, Chief 
Lillian Allen 
Mrs. Bonner Smith 
Mrs. Ermah Richardson 
Amanda Brietzke 

Payroll Clerks: 

Mrs. Gladys Taylor 
Cora Richmond 
Helen Britt 
Mrs. Caro Fish Tuttle 
Bessie Lee Britt 
Mrs. F. M. DeMain 
Mrs. Ann Erwin 
Merle Leslie 

Clerks and Stenographers: 
{Finance Division) 
Mrs. Gladys B. Harper 
Josephine Connell 
Mrs. Hazel Shaw 
Mrs. LaRue Battle Betts 
Annie Rose Ivey 
Neuvelle Nowell 
Minnie Murray 
Mary S. Andrews 
Mrs. Marion Rainey 
Mrs. Turner Shaw 
Dudley Womble 
Mrs. Lula M. 0"Daniel 



RURAL REHABILITATION DIVISION 

Vance E. Swift, .Acting Director 

Mrs. May E. Campbell, Assistant Director 

Alice N. Davis, Secretary 



George R. Ross, 

Director of Work Centers and Markets 

John S. Ruggles, 

Manager of Livestock 

Elizabeth Head, 
Statistician 

H. P. Edwards, 

Supervisor of Commodity Projects 

J. P, Smith, 

Supervisor of Marketing 



Field Supervisors: 
R. S. Curtis 
J. W. Sears 
R. E. Nance 
H. N. Steed 
A. M. Johnson 
R. W. Scott 
George Wood 
Abe S. Crosby 

Agriculture Agents: 
J. Paul Shaw 
L. A. Edwards 



Clerks and Stenographers: 

{Rural Rehabilitation Division) 
Mrs. W. C. Pegg 
A. V. Allen 
Mrs. Beulah Stephens 
Mrs. Virginia B, Abrams 
James Hopkins 
C. W. E. Pittman 
N. M. Lawrence 
Mrs. N. G. Berry 
Dorothy Huntley 
Mrs. Jessie B. West 



Emeegency Relief in North Carolina 



389 



TRANSIENT DIVISION 

J. B. Moore, Director 
Grace Sale, Secretary 

STATE OFFICE 
Mrs. J. M. Montague, Case Work Supervisor Dell Shutt, Statistician 

Walter J. Cartier, Recreation Director Athalea Holland, Stenographer 

Oscar Yelverton, Bookkeeper Virginia Stroble, Clerical 



ASHEVILLE CENTER: 
Jean F. Fatten, Director 
Bertha Rogers, Secretary 
Grace W. Ramsey, Case Worker 
Anna Moore, Case Worker 
Sidney Underhill, Case Aide 
H. R. Bradshaw, Assistant Disbursing 

officer 
Lucielle McDade, Stenographer 
Christine Barrus, Statistician 
Kristine Gaither, Stenographer 
Dr. J. H. Worley, Physician 
Carolyn Kiddey, Nurse 
H. B. Simpson, Commissary Clerk . 
M. C. Jackson, Relief Man 
Mrs. H. A. Smith, Dietitian 

GREENSBORO CENTER: 
Harriett R. Whitaker, Acting Director 
W. T. Davis, Jr., Assistant Disbursing 

Officer 
Minnie Pittman, Stenographer 
Edna Wooten, File Clerk 
Ruth Robinson, Statistician 
J. C. Fulton, Work Supervisor 
Margaret Ross, Case Worker 
F. Martin Howard, Case Worker 
Emma Kearns, Case Worker 
W. S. Petree, Case Worker 
Malcolm Heber, Case Worker 
Dr. J. W. Neal, Physician 
H. W. Park, Supt. white shelter 
D. J. Gilmer, Supt. colored shelter 
Thurman Warren, Supt. D u n 1 a p 

Springs 
Donald Parker, Night Watchman 
David Fennell, Night Watchman 
Robert Hendren, Night Watchman 

CHARLOTTE CENTER : 
J. P. Purcell, Acting Director 
Elizabeth Sneed, Case Work Super- 
visor 



E. Eugene Bryson, Assist. Disbursing 

Officer 
Nell H. Cobb, Assist, to Disbursing 

Officer 
Alice Vaughn, Secretary 
Marie LaFonte, Typist 
Francis Little, File Clerk 
Marie T. Rogers, Stenographer 
Wm. H. Rogers, Registrar 
Edward H. Jones, Registration Clerk 
H. B. Hayes, Purchasing Agent 
Harriett Isley, Case Worker 
Mrs. M. B. Munn, Case Worker 
Lucielle L. Beall, Case Worker 
Flora Greene, Case Worker 
Dr. S. B. McPheeters, Physician 
Christine Stanley, Nurse 
E. M. Lowrance, Farm Superintendent 
R. E. Smith, Steward 
J. H. Byers, Superintendent Shelter 
Ruth R. Hatley, Clerk and Typist 
Dr. H. P. Barret, Laboratory Techni- 
cian 

RALEIGH CENTER: 

Mrs. Betsy L. Cordon, Director 

Lula C. Marcom, Assistant Disbursing 

Officer 

Mabel Byron, Statistician 

Fred Crouch, File Clerk 

Katharine Brooks, Stenographer 

Eva Wilbon, Clerical 

Mrs. Thelma Liske, Case Worker 

Mrs. Anna Lewis, Case Worker 

Elizabeth Lassiter, Case Worker 

Lytheriel Estes, Case Worker 

Myrtle Jackson, Case Worker 

Rose Thayer, Nurse 

Dr. E. H. Herring, Physician 

Dr. R. H. Freeman, Physician 

Oscar Cooper, Night Manager 

C. S. Haithcock, House Manager 

Frank Bacon, Steward 



SALISBURY CENTER : 
M. E. Holcomb, Director 
E. B. Neave, Assist. Disbursing Officer 
Lula Mae Roebuck, Secretary 
Etta Ransdell, Stenographer 
Frances Davis, Stenographer 
Ruth Daniels, Stenographer 
Mrs. Annie Marsh, Statistician 
Mrs. Sally Bernhardt, Clerical 
W. F. Davis, Work Superintendent 
Ray Ketner, House Manager 
Leslie Noles, Laundry Foreman 
Margaret Owens, Case Worker 
Nancy Jones, Case Worker 
Mrs. Ada Walker, Case Worker 
Dr. J. R. Lowery, Physician 

M,\RION YOST CAMP: 
J. T. Shackford, Superintendent 
C. B. Worley, Project Supervisor 
H. E. Tandy, Assist. Camp Superin- 
tendent 
Malcolm Heber, Case Worker 
Fred Lyda, Night Watchman 

CAMP WEAVER : 

Rupert E. West, Director 

J. P. Massenburg, Assist. Disbursing 

Officer 
H. B. Bagwell, Steward 
W. T. Ratchford, Recreation Director 
J. C. Weeks, Doctor 
N. V. Smith, Case Worker 

NEW HOPE FARM: 
Murray Linker, Director 
Mack Miller, Assist. Disbursing Officer 
Frank Vass, Clerk 
W. L. Woltz, Steward 
R. E. Nichols, Jr., Physician 
G. J. Smith Farm Foreman 
J. C. Stuart, Construction Foreman 



PUBLIC RELATIONS DIVISION : 

Walter A. Cutter, 
Director 

Mrs. Claude Kitchin, Jr., 
Typist 



OTHER DIVISIONS 

CCC SELECTION: 

George W. Bradshaw, 
Supervisor 

Mary Weathers, 
Stenographer 



SURPLUS COMMODITIES DIVI- 
SION: 

H.J. Johnson, 
Director 

Dora Highsmith, 
Secretary 



390 



Emeegenct Relief in !N"okth Carolina 



Clerks and Stenographers: 

Mrs. Ethel Bunn McKensie 



EMERGENCY RELIEF EDUCA- 
TION DIVISION: 

C. E. Mcintosh, 
Director 

Lucile Stott, 
Secretary 

Mrs. Betty Fowler, 
Clerk 
NUTRITION ADVISER : 

Mrs. Marion Faison, 
Adviser 

Mrs. Carrie MuUican, 
Typist 

LEGAL COUNSEL: 
J. S. Massenburg, 

Legal Counsel 
Carey Parker, 

Legal Clerk 
Mrs. Rosabelle Creighton, 

Secretary 



SELF-HELP CO-OPERATIVE : 
John H. Sikes, 

Director 
Phoebe Doyle, 
Secretary 

GENERAL FILING DEPARTMENT : 
Mrs. Virginia Somers, 

Chief File Clerk 
File Clerks: 

Elizabeth Widdifield 

Mrs. Olive King Marr 

Mrs. Rebekah Glenn 

Helen Dobson 

SUPPLY AND MAILING DIVISION : 
L. H. Williams, 

Chief Clerk - 
Lula Herring, 

Bookkeepei" 
Clerks and Stenographers: 

E. C. Porter 

S. N. Holland 

G. C. Cauthen, Jr. 

Wallace G. Link 



J. H. Monk 

Gertrude Hamilton 

Mrs. Guy Dodson 

Bettie Green 

Mary Matthews 

Thomas H. Passmore 

Louise Riggin 

Frances White 
Joyner W. Davis, 

Warehouseman 
Warren J. Beck, 

Errand Boy 
David Thompson, 

Drayman 
INFORMATION CLERKS : 
Mrs. Locke Craig 
Mrs. Anna B. Thomas 
OFFICE BOYS : 
Jack Peterson 
Jack Vaughn 
JANITORS : 
Will Patterson 
Willie Dennis 
Annie Mire West 



DISTRICT PERSONNEL 
JUNE, 1935 

DISTRICT NO. I— CHEROKEE, CLAY, AND GRAHAM COUNTIES 

Gray, R. VV., Administrator 



Dodd, Ruth 
Plemmons, H. H. 
Keener, Mae 
Padgett, Ruth 
Walker, Wayne 
Foord, Mrs. R. H. 
Lovin, Cleminy 



District Social Service Supervisor 

District Engineer 

District Disbursing Officer 

District Statistician 

District RR Supervisor 

District Home Economist 

Secretary to Administrator 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Head Case-Workers : 
Reister, Ruby 
Sullivan, Jane C. 
Wells, Elizabeth 
Senior Visitors : 
Bales, Lura S. 
Cade, Betty 
Dewer, R. A. 
Howard, Dorothy 
Hunt, Mrs. W. T. 
Latham, Lois 
Lynam, M. J. 
Montony, Mrs. R. H. 
Ricks, Homer 
Snider, Lida 
Secretarial and Clerical : 
A.\eley, Louise 



Cooper, Mrs. W. T. 

Jones, Christine B. 

LeMay, Margaret 

Scoggs, Myrtt 

Walker, Mariun 
Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 

Barnett, L. E. 

Crawford, R. E. 

Slaughter, J. B. 
Clerical : 

Gray, Eula 

Johnson, Josh 
Financial and Statistical Division 
Bookkeeper : 

Axley, J. W. 
Certifying Officer : 

Wakefield, Lucy 



Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 

Hyde, Jessie 

McClure, B. M. 

Payne, William P. 

Scroggs, P. C. 

Shields, John 
Farm Foremen : 

Latham, E. A. 

Mintz, B. H. 
Bookkeeper : 

Leatherwood, Hayes 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Brittian, Carrie 

Sparks, Romie 
Other Division 

Chief Commodity Clerk : 

Alexander, M. H. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



391 



DISTRICT NO. 2- 



-HAYWOOD, JACKSON, MACON, AND SWAIN COUNTIES 

Lancaster, J. E., Administrator 



Dixon, Attawa 
Haynes, J. C. 
Queen, J. A. 
Williams, Dorothy 
Browning, H. P. 
Henson, Louise 
Morrison, Margaret 



District Social Service Supervisor 
District Engineer 
District Disbursing Officer 
District Statistician 
District RR Supervisor 
District Home Economist 
Secretary to Administrator 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



SociAi. Service Division 
Head Case Workers : 

Davis, Rachel 

Stentz, Mary S. 

Woodard, Glenna 
Senior Visitors : 

Bryson, J. D. 

Fisher, Cora Belle 

Gibson, R. H. 

Hill, Carrie 

Howell, Thelma 

Keener, J. E. 

McDowell, Edwina 

Moody, Lyda 

Tessier, Reby 
Junior Visitors : 

Bulgin, Rosalind 

Burnette, Geneive 

Cozard, Margaret 

Daugherty, Ora H. 

Debord, Lottie 

Henson, Myrtle 

Hurst, Ethel 

Hyatt, Sue B. 

Liner, Louise 

Rippetoe, Clara 



Secretarial and Clerical : 
Barnard, Elizabeth 
Collins, Reva 
Garner, Florence 
Hardin, Olive 
Hymans, Ellen 
Jones, Hannah 
Miller, Pauline 
Nolan, Carolyn 
Patterson, M. C. 
Swonger, Karen 
Young, Adah 

Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 

Conley, Z. W. 

Crispe, C. J. 

DeHart, Frank 

Marr, C. C. 

Worthington, Frank 
Women's Work Supervisors : 

Bryson, Carrie 

Hunter, Maude 

Jones, Mrs. Gilmer A. 

Quinlan, Mary E. 
Clerical : 

Nicholson, R. R. 



Financial and Statistical 
Purchasing Officer : 

Patrick, J. C. 
Certifying Officer : 

Moody, Hilda 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Dillard, Helen 

Jones, Coralee 

Russell, Johnnie 

Sutton, Edith 

Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 

Crockett, S. R. 

Freeman, Oscar 

Henson, Carey 

Stamey, George 
Junior Farm Foremen r 

Hughes, R. C. 

Osborne, Carter 

Stewart, George 
Bookkeeper : 

Long, E. W. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Calhoun, Verayle 

Lollis, Essie 



DISTRICT NO. 3— BUNCOMBE AND MADISON COUNTIES 
Miller, E. Grace, Administrator 



James, Evelyn 
Bryson, George W. 
Jones, Margaret 
Simpson, Agnes 
Lee, Elizabeth 
Brooks, J. R. 
Weaver, Elizabeth 



District Social Service Supervisor 

District Engineer 

District Director of Women's Work 

District Disbursing Officer 

District Statistician 

District RR .Supervisor 

District Home Economist 



McCutcheon, Elizabeth Secretary to Administrator 
DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Senior Case- Workers : 
Ai-thur, Helen 
Auld, Elizabeth 
Autin, Edith 
Bennett, Ruth 
Blackburn, Emilie 
Davis, Emma 



Dowling, Meta 
Goodwin, Gussie 
Johnson, Bernadine 
Kinberly, Dorothy 
Lawrence, Edith C. 
Lazton, Mary 
McCall, Mary 
McCouny, Ruth 



McGraw, John 
Runnion, Hannie 
Shuman, Alice 
Junior Case-Workers and Visitors : 
Allman, Jennie 
Ashworth, Clara 
Day, Juanita 
Edwards, W. L. 



392 



Emergency Relief in IN'orth Carolina 



Elmore, Mrs. E. R. 

Jones, Beatrice 

Jordan, Mabel 

Lance, Mrs. Vaughty 

Leemon, Mary Emma 

Love, Betty 

McDevitt, Floyd 

McDevitt, N. B., Jr. 

Patton, Ellen 

Ross, Mary Ann 

Williams, Ruth 

Witt, Reba 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Anders, Gladys 

Baird, Sarah 

Gray, Florence 

Towe, Mary 
Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 

Campbell, Mary 

Cobb, Perry 
Assistant Supervisors : 

Sharp, Jane 

DISTRICT NO. 4- 



Weaver, Marvin 

Whitfield, W. A. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Bertram, Dorothy 

Britt, Emma 

Bryan, Virginia 

Redfern, Nancy ] 

Siel, May 
Financial and Statistical 
Bookkeepers : 

Arvine, J. D. 

Tiddy, Elizabeth 
Certifying Officers : 

Crawford, Elizabeth 

Eckles, F. J. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Beacham, Grace 

Brown, Opal 

Dinkins, S. Y. 

Finley, Floyd 

Fleming, May 

Hackney, Amy 

Jones, Ruth 



McCorkle, Margaret 

Miller, Lela 

Morrow, Edna 

Plummer, Hannah 

Rankin, Georgia 

Webb, Edith 
Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Farm Foremen : 

Ammons, J. C. 

Ashworth, Morgan 

Bennett, Ray 

Brank, Willie 

Brooks, Glenn 

Clay, G. L. 

Gerzentanner, L. H. 

Kirkpatrick, Glenn 

Lawrence, J. F. 

Morrow, Thomas 

Wallin, James 
Bookkeeper : 

Lipe, Jennie 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Kerr, Estelle 



HENDERSON, POLK, AND TRANSYLVANIA COUNTIES 

HoLLOWELL, Noah, Administrator 

District Social Service Supervisor 
District Engineer 
District Disbursing Officer 
District Statistician 
District RR Supervisor 
District Home Economist 
Secretary to Administrator 



McNeill, Mrs. Deen 
Reagan, J. R. 
Hester, Ralph B. 
Arthur, Jeanette 
Miller, J. A. 
Turner, Charlotte R 
Noffz, Katherine 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Jr. 



Social Service Division 
Head Case-Workers : 
Dotson, Nelle 
Johnson, Venie B. 
Ryan, Mrs. F. I. 

Senior Case-Workers : 
Corey, Florence B. 
Franklin, Mrs. B. D. 
Patton, Mrs. C. Y. 
Pridgen, Mrs. C. W., 
Spence, Norma 

Junior Case-Workers and Visitors : 
Hemphill, Alice H. 
Mottsman, Anna 
Whiteside, Pantha 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Beckham, Raymon 
Harllee, Mrs. OUie B. 
Kirk, Josephine E. 
Mitchell, Dorothy 
Smith, Mrs. W. A. 
West, Roxie 

Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 
King, Frank 



Todd, J. H. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 
Durham, Hugh 
Shepherd, John 

Financial and Statistical 
Bookkeeper ; 

Carson, Laurie 
Purchasing Officer : 

Souther, Dorothy 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

.Anderson, Harriett 

McCarson, Margie 

Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 
Creech, J. E. 
Holden, F. H. 
Thompson, Golden 

Farm Foremen : 
Allison, Lloyd 
Brown, Allen E. 
Cannon, Will 
Davis, J. C. 



Duckworth, E. H. 
Duncan, W. K. 
England, A. E. 
Fisher, Walter 
Fitzsiramons, F. L. 
Foster, J. Robert 
Goodman, J. F. 
Hester, M. J. 
Jones, Harry 
Love, W. E. 
Maxwell, George 
Morgan, M. H. 
Moss, D. P. 
Nicholson, F. N. 
Norton, E. N. 
Osborne, J. D. 
Osteen, J. E. 
Pryor, E.J. 
Roberts, C. H. 
Shipman, Walter 
Stroup, J. S. 
Wilkins, Woodrow 
WilHams, J. E. 

Secretarial and Clerical : 

Clayton, Mrs. Mary 
Russ, Claris 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



393 



DISTRICT NO. 5— CLEVELAND, MCDOWELL, AND RUTHERFORD COUNTIES 



Catlin, Ruth, Administrator 

Reinhardt, Helen District Social Service Supervisor 

District Engineer 
District Director Women's Work 
District Disbursing Officer 
District Statistician 
District RR Supervisor 
District Home Economist 
Secretary to Administrator 



Weaver, A. F. 
Reid, Mrs. Gordon 
Dobbins, Mrs. LeRoy 
Huss, Miss Charlie 
Ward, Edgar B. 
Koon, Sue 
Lewis, Lila 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Head Case-Workers : 

Goforth, Mrs. Ben 

Webb, Mrs. Fred 

Yancey, Mary 
Case-Workers and Visitors 

Arledge, Minnie 

Barber, Alice 

Edwards, Dorothy 

Hamrick, Mrs. Mae 

Hill, Zoe 

Howell, John 

Long, Carolyn 

Lonon, Mrs. D. N. 

Mcintosh, Carolyn 

Moore, Mary 

Neal, Mrs. E. W. 

Shurford, Mrs. George 

Thompson, Mrs. George 

Turner, Mrs. Ellis 

Turner, Mrs. O. C. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Biggerstaff, Mrs. Wm. 

King, Alice Goode 

Moss, Mrs. Spurgeon 

Parker, Rheba 

Stauffer, Mrs. Margaret 
Works DrvisiON 
Assignment Clerks : 

Bradsher, F. S. 



Hord, Robert C. 
Justice, C. B. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 
Connor, Aileen 
Marks, Lillie 

Financial and Statistical 

Bookkeeper : 
Grant, Sue 

Purchasing Officer : 
Blanton, Rudolph 

Certifying Officer : 
Overton, Mrs. Fay 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Callahan, Vera 
Grayson, Helen 
Koone, Clara 
McDaniel, Edith 
Royster, Wyn 
Tanner, William 
Ware, Mrs. Miller 
Yelton, Mrs. Horace 



Carpenter, R. L. 
Crawford, R. E. 
Dixon, Max 
Gardner, Sylvanus 
Hampton, B. K. 
Hardin, J. H. 
Harrill, Claude 
Hemphill, Marvin 
Hensley, Edgar 
Hill, J. W. P. 
Hopper, M. D. 
Kincaid, T. W. 
Logan, F. D. 
Mackey, J. M. 
McKinney, W. W. 
Morris, Woodrow 
Porter, William 
Powell, J. C. 
Richbourg, W. W. 
Ryland, John E. 
Sparks, F. L. 
Walker, S. G. 



RoRAL Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 

Burgin, J. G. 

Dedmon, George B. 

Shelton, W. E. 
Farm Foremen : 

Bankhead, W. D. 

DISTRICT NO. 6 (Combined with District No. lo) 



Bookkeeper : 

Greer, Mrs. W. O. 

Secretarial and Clerical : 

Hulick, Mrs. B. D. 
Keith, Clarence E. 
Southern, Furman 



DISTRICT NO. 7— AVERY, MITCHELL, AND YANCEY COUNTIES 
Speck, Mrs. Lillian, Administrator 



Sharpe, E. G. 
Neal, Q.. R. 
Young, R. N. 
Proffitt, C. L. 
McBee, Maye 



District Engineer 
District Disbursing Officer 
District Statistician 
District RR Supervisor 
District Home Economist 



Social Service Division 
Head Case-Workers : 
Dean, Virginia 
Niman, Mrs. Cora 
Wray, Annie 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 

Hamrick, Mrs. C. R. 
Leaverette, Mrs. Lila 
Ray, Grace 
Robbins, Mrs. Thelma 
Wilson, Kate 



Case-Workers and Visitors : 
Banner, Sue 
Cooper, Norman 
Evans, Elizabeth 
Gentry, Lois 



394 



Emeegenct Relief in ISToeth Cabolina 



Yelton, Rayburn 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Banks, Margaret 

Hester, Ruth 

Wilson, Mrs. Helen 
Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 

Murphy, Joe 

Parnell, Charles 

Vance, P. A. 
Clerical : 

Calhoun, O. D. 



Financial and Statistical 

Certifying Officer : 
Wagner, Mrs. Wayne 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Conley, Bessie 
Huskins, Mrs. C. D. 

RuR.AL Rehabilitation Division 

Senior Farm Foreman : 
Landers, E. F. 



Farm Foremen : 

Garland, Bill 

Proffitt, E. R. 

Renfro, Charlie 

Silvers, R. N. 

Thompson, George 
i,',,Tilson, R. Y. 

Tipton, G. B. 

Webb, Grant 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Gordon, Martha 

Stafford, Pauline 



DISTRICT NO. 8 



ASHE, ALLEGHANY, SURRY, WATAUGA, WILKES, 
AND YADKIN COUNTIES 



Bell, Victoria, Administrator 

Smart, Euzelia District Social Service Supervisor 

Smithy, C. H. District Engineer 

Moore, T. E. District Disbursing Officer 

Norman, Guy District Statistician 

Miles, C. A. District RR Supervisor 

Blackman, Alma District Home Economist 

Ballon, Virginia Secretary to Administrator 

DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Head Case-Workers : 

Bason, Ruby 

Choate, Mrs. Ruth 

Harding, Joseline 

Mock, Mrs. E. R. 

Oliver, Bryan 

Watson, Theodosia 
Case-Workers and Visitors : 

Alexander, Mary 

Bagley, Katherine 

Church, W. S. 

Dunnagan, Clallee 

Eller, Mrs. Clyde 

Erwin, Lillie 

Frye, Tommye 

Garvey-Jones, Constance 

Greer, Erie 

Hanby, Lucille 

Hauser, E. L. 

Holman, Ila 

Issaacs, Mrs. L. S. 

Jones, Sidney F. 

McCredie, Mary Ella 

Miller, Howard 

Miller, Margarite 

Mull, Nettie 

Scott, Bina 

Scroggs, Clyde 

Shelton, Mrs. C. B. 

Simpson, Mrs. Dillon 

Stout, Lucy 

Tugman, Ruth 

Vannoy, Charity 

Watts, Mrs. P. E. 



Secretarial and Clerical : 
Absher, Inez 
Arnold, Annie Pearl 
Comer, Mrs. C. G. 
Lewis, Bessie 
Logan, Mrs. Delia 
McNeill, Ruth 
Paul, Ophelia 
Perry, Troy 
Salmon, Lynette 
Scott, Mrs. Ethel 

Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 
Barber, I. W. 
Ferguson, T. W. 
Huff", Charles B. 
Jones, B. W. 
Luther, J. A. 
Thompson, Bert 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Allen, Mrs. James 
Call, Helen 
Cranor, Frances 
Dancy, E. D. 
Foster, Hazel 

Financial and Statistical 
Bookkeeper : 

Ball, Jeanette 
Certifying Officer : 

Lomax, Gladys 
Clerks : 

Alexander, Luna 

Cassel, Alice 



Miller, Mrs. Warner 
Rhodes, Agnes 
Rose, Bertie 
Underwood, Mrs. B. R. 

Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Assistant District R. R. Supervisor : 

Wagoner, Amos 
Farm Foremen : 

Long, J. A. 

McNeill, W. E. 

Miller, Van 

Moretz, Grady 

Proffit, O. M. 

Riden, C. W. 
Assistant Farm Foremen : 

Alexander, S. V. 

Badgett, A. J. 

Badgett, C. K. 

Crouse, J. R. 

Eller, John 

Edwards, D. M. 

Farthing, C. C. 

Fetts,J. B. 

Gentry, E. F. 

Goss, C. L. 

Henson, Dan 

Hollingsworth, J. B. 

Huges, W. L. 

Hutchens, Charles 

Lemy, H. H. 

Martin, Ralph 

Minor, Glenn 

Oliver, J. E. 

Poindexter, J. A. 



Emergency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 



395 



Piather, J. W. 
Shephard, Charlie 
Shoemaker, T. L. 
Shore, Carl 



Taylor, C. G. 
Tygman, S. G. 
Bookkeeper : 
Fletcher, Ruth 



Secretarial and Clerical : 
McMillan, Mellissa 
O'Danicl, Margaret 
Johnson, Elizabeth 



DISTRICT NO. 9— BURKE, CALDWELL, AND CATAWBA COUNTIES 

Du Bruyne, R. M., Administrator 



Rankin, Mary D. 
Kennedy, A. H. 
Powell, R. C. 
Stacy, Paul 
Sharpe, Ralph 
Squires, Mrs. Inah K. 
Newby, Josephine 



District Social Service Supervisor 
District Engineer 
District Disbursing Officer 
District Statistician 
District RR Supervisor 
District Home Economist 
Secretary to Administrator 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



SocLAL Service Division 
Head Case-Workers : 

Lane, Mrs. Fred 

Wilcox, George (Miss) 
Case-Workers : 

Arndt, Elizabeth 

Beach, Elizabeth Poole 

Cobb, Regina 

Duckworth, Lucy 

George, Lois 

McNeal, Mary 

Payne, Lola 

Pearson, Edith 

Smyre, Jane 

Stanton, Margaret 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Abernathy, Jane 



Landon, Mrs. M. J. 

Powell, Sarah 
Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 

Dawkins, J. E. 

Frazier, W. M. 

Waters, J. E. 
Secretarial and Clerical ; 

MuUis, Pearl 
Financial and Statistical 
Bookkeeper : 

Ramseur, Mary 
Certifying Officer : 

Beach, Elizabeth 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Brown, Katherine 



Deitz, Isabel 
Fisher, Gladys 

Rural Rehabilitation Division 

Farm Foremen : 
Bass, Joe 
Erwin, Robert S. 
Greer, Marcus L. 
Jarrett, Guy 
Port, Horace 
Tuttle, Herrod 

Bookkeeper : 
Powell, Howard 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Keever, Katherine 
Whitner, Mrs. H. E. 



DISTRICT NO. 10— GASTON, LINCOLN, AND MECKLENBURG COUNTIES 

Clinton, Mrs. R. S., Administrator 

Kellura, Chloris District Social Service Supervisor 

Bacon, F. R. District Engineer 

Froneberger, Mrs. Dan District Director Women's Work 
Callaham, A. B. District Disbursing Officer 

McComb, Mrs. Jessie District Statistician 
Stewart, J. N. District RR Supervisor 

Armstrong, Mrs. Edwin Secretary to Administrator 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Head Case-Workers : 
Harmon, Mrs. C. C. 
Hough, Sara H. 
Jones, Grace C. 
Lones, J. H. 
Parker, Mary F. 
Rudd, Ingeborg 
Case-Workers and Visitors : 
Albea, Margaret 
Alexander, Bessie 
Anderson, Alice 
Anderson, Mrs. M. A. 
Brown, Mary 



Burns, Mary 
D'Anna, Helen 
Davis, Genieve 
Galloway, Anne 
Gwynn, Ruth 
Harkey, Josephine 
Hayes, Estelle 
Hovie, Doris 
Humphries, Daisy 
Isaacs, Beverly 
Jimison, Maude R. 
Kirby, Mrs. Florence 
Lockhart, Mary 
Massie, Katherine 



McAulay, Elizabeth 
McCoy, Margaret 
McCrary, Mrs. Madeline 
McManeus, Annette 
Montgomery, Lilly 
Moore, Kathleen 
Norris, Edith 
O'Daniel, Bonnie 
Patrick, Mrs. Lucy 
Roberts, Lola 
Robinson, S. E. 
Sansom, Blanche 
Sheffield, Ronie 
Sledge, Julia 



396 



Emergency Relief in TTobth Carolina 



Spratt, Elizabeth 
Stewart, Beth 
Sumers, Audrey 
Summey, Ruth 
Triplett, Elizabeth 
Vaughan, Martha 
Waddill, Francis D. 
Wideman, Elizabeth 
Wiggins, Landee 
Withers, Hannah J. 
Wood, Mary O. 
Woodson, Frances 
Workman, Louise 

Secretarial and Clerical : 

Adams, Johnsie 
Alderman, Alice 
Alexander, Annie 
Alexander, Louise 
Barringer, Irene 
Brackman, Mary 
Brigman, Ruth 
Brittian, Elizabeth 
Burdell, Mary 
Condor, Margaret 
Fisher, Betty 
Hattrick, Madge 
Jackson, Mrs. Carl 
Jackson, Mary N. 
Johnston, Alyce 
Lackey, Mrs. Lona 
Lewin, Annie D. 
McFarland, Era 
Neal, Lois 
Nesbitt, Eloise 
Paschall, Ruth 
Pickett, Helen 
Taylor, Mary L. 
Turner, Clarice 

Works DrvisioN 

Assignment Clerks : 

Cavin, W. M. 
Hickman, H. H. 
Lawrence, Edgar 



Works Supervisors : 
Abernethy, Myrtle 
Emory, S. N. 
Harkey, M. L. 
Lefler, T. S. 
Sutton, H. N. 
Taylor, J. C. 
Wanzer, Mrs. Ruth H. 
Wicker, Mrs. Bess 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Bundy, Sadie 
Erwin, Grace 
Hendricks, Elva 
Lisk, B. L. 
McClelland, Rachel 
Mitchell, Maude 
Neal, Sara 
Pegram, Jennie 
Torrence, Ruth 

Financial and Statistical 

Bookkeeper : 
Beatty, Adrian 

Purchasing Officers : 
Outen, W. E. 
Rhyne, Mrs. Elizabeth 

Certifying Officers : 
Crandall, Maude 
Shelton, L. T. D. 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Batte, R. D. 
Beatty, Rachel 
Brumfield, Mildred 
Burgess, Nettie 
Carpenter, Mrs. Miles 
Corwin, Zudie 
Bellinger, Cecil 
Dempster, Blanche 
Gable, C. L. 
Gilbreth, Aloha 
Glenn, Aline 
Harkey, Gingles 



Henderson, Pauline 
Kirby, Mary 
Laney, W. D. 
Rankin, C. C. 
Rhew, Blanche M. 
Steele, W. C. 
Wallace, Sara 
Wearn, Adelaide 
Wenhold, Isabelle 
Wingate, W. J. 

Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 
Beatty, W. L 
Bowen, G. M. 
Calvin, C. M. 
Corruthers, T. F. 
Costner, J. A. 
Derrick, W. E. 
Gallant, F. S. 
Hovis, Louis 
Knox, A. C. 
Mauney, J. N. 
Ramseur, C. L. 
Saddler, R. P. 
Wilson, Lyndon 

Farm Foremen : 
Baxter, E. E. 
Keener, Roy 
Mull, George 
Rhodes, Tom 

Bookkeeper : 

Morton, J. D. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Ford, Dorothy 

Howard, Nancy 

Prim, Mrs. George B. 

Other DrvisiON 
Commodity Clerks : 
Jetton, H. W. 
Martin, J. W. 

Telephone Operator : 
Smith, Ruby 



DISTRICT NO. II— ALEXANDER, DAVIE, AND IREDELL COUNTIES 

Land, Mrs. E. M., Administrator 



McBride, Mrs. J. L. 
Tsumas, H. P. 
Kincaid, Mrs. J. N. 
Bradley, F. M. 
McGuire, Jane E. 
McHargue, W. R. 
Gibson, Virginia 



Acting Social Service Supervisor and Home Econoist 

District Engineer 

District Director Women's Work 

District Disbursing Officer 

District Statistician 

District RR Supervisor 

.Secretary to Administrator 



Emergency Belief in N'obth Carolina 



897 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Head Case-Workers : 

Craven, Kathleen 

Gwaltney, Mrs. M. L. 

Pou, Mrs. W. C. 
Case-Workers and Visitors : 

Allen, Elsie 

Bessent, Bess W. 

Bryant, Sarah 

Collins, Mrs. J. A. 

German, Leora 

Hallum, Mary 

Holliday, Mary A. 

Patterson, Nell 

Reid, Nell 

Steele, Miriam 

Stroud, Mattie 

Wooten, Rachel 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Bost, Mrs. J. L. 

Bradford, Rose 



Ford, Pauline 

Litaker, Ruth 

Walker, Mary K. 
Works Division 
Assignment Clerk : 

Cooper, Mrs. Albert 

Mooney, C. B., Sr. 

Moore, J. C. 

Nattress, Mrs. W. E. 
Secretarial : 

White, Beth 
Financial and Statistical 
Purchasing Officer : 

Clifford, J. H. 
Assistant Purchasing Officer : 

Wasson, Jake 
Bookkeeper : 

Poston, Mrs. J. R. 
Chief Payroll Clerk : 

McRorie, Mrs. Helen 



Certifying Officer : 

Nicholson, Mrs. Henry 
Secretarial and Clerical ; 

Bristol, Mrs. W. A. 

Watts, Wyllis 

Woollen, Margaret 

Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 

Abernathy, V. A. 

Anderson, J. M. 

Atkins, F. H. 

Green, C. G. 

Hethcox, H. K. 

Kennedy, R. H. 

Millsaps, D. O. 

Ostwalt, Sam 
Bookkeeper : 

Whiting, F. H. 
Secretarial : 

Dietz, Virginia 



DISTRICT NO. 12— ANSON, MONTGOMERY, RICHMOND, 
STANLY, AND UNION COUNTIES 

Hawkins, C. L., Administrator 



Rabin, Constance 
Haywood, Homer 
Liles, N. P. 
Osborne, Mrs. Sallie 
Marsh, J. P. 
Biggs, Martha 
Moore, Inez 



District Social Service Supervisor 
District Engineer 
District Disbursing Officer 
District Statistician 
District RR Supervisor 
District Home Economist 
Secretary to Administrator 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Senior Case-Workers : 

Armfield, Mrs. Emsley 
Batten, Mildred 
Currie, Lucille 
McConnell, Kathleen 
Plott, Vivian 

Case-Workers and Visitors : 
Adams, J. E. 
Barnhardt, Virginia 
Boatwright, Mrs. A. R. 
Brown Mrs. Lula M. 
Capehart, Mrs. Kate 
Crosland, Mrs. Williams 
Curlee, Mrs. W. C. 
Caddy, Mrs. W. E. 
Gore, Miss Bruce 
Harward, James A. 
Haywood, Nan 
Hodges, Charlotte 
Hudson, Rachel 
Ingram, Mrs. B. W. 
Ingram, Mrs. C. B. 



Knotts, Mrs. S. M. 
Long, Irving 
Lynch, Mrs. Mary E. 
McCurry, Mrs. Joel 
McDaniel, Mrs. Mary 
McLucas, Hattie 
Meacham, Ruth 
Middleton, Louise 
Necombe, Mrs. Dorothy 
O'Kelly, Phyllis 
Porter, Mrs. C. B. 
Redfern, Mrs. M. D. 
Redwine, Mrs. Dorothy 
Snyder, Mrs. Bruce 
Stemple, Virginia 
Stewart, Lydia 
Sutton, William A. 

Secretarial and Clerical : 

Barrett, Julia 
Beeker, Mrs. Gertrude 
Blankenship, Mrs. Caccoa 
Covington, Mrs. Mary T. 
GuUedge, Emma 



Kitchen, Helen 

Mclnnis, Mrs. Bertha 

McNair, Mrs. James M. 

McRae, Jennie Wall 

Parsons, Mrs. Anna 

Presler, Irene 

Redfearn, Henrietta 

Shepherd, Mrs. Howard 

Shortridge, Julia 

Warner, Ruth 
Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 

Fesperman, H. D. 

Hicks, R. L. 

Ingram, T. J. 

McCraw, B. C. 

Shelley, O. B. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Burkhead, Margaret 

Lassiter, Orthelia 

Moore, Louise 
Financial and Statistical 
Certifying Officer : 

Russell, Alameda 



3»8 



Emergency Relief in T^okth Carolina 



Secretarial and Clerical : 
Allen, Letha 
Beacham, Miriam 
Dunlap, Lucie Lea 
Johnson, Mrs. J. N. 
Lee, Mrs. Wayne 
Lyles, Miss Willie M. 
Martin, Miss Locke 

Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 
Cranford, E. Wade 
Litde, G. K. 
McAulay, H. Page 



Sturdivant, C. W. 
Utter, C. B. 
Farm Foremen : 
Bowman, Robert 
Diggs, W. K. 
Edwards, Clyde 
Fowler, Cliff 
Kirk, J. D. 
Lilly, Jim 
McDonald, J. A. 
Morris, Walser 
O'Brien, B. M. 
Sims, W. J. 
Swaringer, G. H. 



Tucker, D. T. 

Watson, Hubert 

Yarborough, Alvin 
Bookkeeper : 

Whitley, W. H. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Benton, Margaret 

Bridged, Sarah 

Davis, Ruth 

Evans, Mary Elizabeth 

Galloway, Zona 

Helms, J. Warren 

Watkins, Annabelle 

Winchester, Miss Murray 



DISTRICT NO. 13— CABARRUS, DAVIDSON, AND ROWAN COUNTIES 

White, E. Farrell, Administrator 



Clifford, Cecil R. 
Frick,J. G. 
Isenhour, M. V. 
Weaver, A. L. 
Sechler, W. R. 
Leazer, Mary V. 
Dayvault, Helen 



District Social Service Supervisor 
District Engineer 
District Disbursing Officer 
District Statistician 
District RR Supervisor 
District Home Economist 
Secretary to Administrator 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Senior Case-Workers : 

Cuthrell, M. Claire 

Drake, Mary 

Green, Mrs. J. C. 

Grimes, Grace 

Johnston, Sarah B. 

Kluttz, L. A. 

Kyser, Nan Z. 

Long, Frances B. 

Nussman, Love 

Pemberton, Annie May 

Powers, Pauline 

Reisner, Charles 

Ross, Mary Louise 

Strange, Sadie 

Williams, Leathia 

Yancey, Elizabeth 

Young, Mattie 
Junior Case-Workers : 

Chambers, Julia 

Davis, Ed 

DeWeese, Mildred 

Hughes, Hattie 

Krider, Emily 

Meacham, Lucille 

Patterson, Faye 

Rushing, Bertha 

Thompson, Eula 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Baker, Ellis 



Barrier, Laura 
Boger, Frances 
Clayton, Opal 
Craven, Carolina 
Eagan, Julia 
Fowler, Frances 
Glover, Virginia 
Hackney, Mrs. Fred 
Harrill, Ruby 
Holshauser, Pauline 
Means, Martha 
Paul, Florence 
Rusall, Jessie 

Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 

Fisher, Guy J. 

Peeler, A. H. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Miller, Whitehead 

Murphy, Madeline 

Stewart, Kathleen 

Thomas, Mary E. 

FiN.ANCI.AL AND STATISTICAL DIVISION 

Payroll Clerks : 

Brown, Elizabeth 

Shives, Alma 
Certifying Clerk : 

Roseman, P. D. 
Clerical : 

Blume, Adelaide 



Gardner, Pearl 
Kluttz, Floyd 
Leonard, Hazel 
Warner, Johnsie 

Rural Rehabilitation Division 

Senior Farm Foremen : 
Anderson, Tom 
Counts, Robert H. 
Morrison, J. D. 

Farm Foremen : 
Baggett, W. R. 
Black, Brady 
Cress, J. F. 
Frick, Herman 
Graves, A. A. 
May, John 
McNeely, S. E. 
Patterson, S. W. 
Stallings, P. E. 
Suther, John 
Wynecoff, J. A. 

Bookkeeper : 
Delliner, L. C. 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Breck, Sue K. 
Cecil, Louise 
Johns, Geneiveve 
Smith, Fern 
Underwood, Vivian 



Emergency Eelief in N"oeth Carolina 



399 



DISTRICT NO. 14— FORSYTH AND STOKES COUNTIES 

Hermange, Helena E., Administrator 



McKinney, Margaret 
Powell, H. Walker 
Shaffner, Josephine 
Newton, Annie May 
Cumberland, J. E. 
Williams, Minnie D. 
Kelman, Frances 



District Social Service Supervisor 

District Engineer 

District Director Women's Work 

District Disbursing Officer 

District Statistician 

District RR Supervisor 

Secretary to Administrator 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Head Case-Workers : 

Clark, Beatrice 
Harrel, Kate 
Kafer, Helen 
Singletary, Annie M. . 

Senior Visitors : 

Branes, Georgia 
Browne, Hazel 
Chalmers, Mary 
Crews, Eloise 
Duggins, Thelma 
Haskins, Jessie 
Henney, Joyce 
Henry, Irma Neal 
Lewis, Clayton A. 
Mickle, Robina 
Vogler, Blanche 
Voss, May 

Junior Visitors : 

Allison, Mamie 
Barber, Lucy B. 
Bianchi, Patsy 
Boaz, Adelaide W. 
Brewer, William 
Chesson, Minnie P. 
Coren, Joyce 
Foote, Creola 
Hill, Gertrude 
Kimball, Susan 
Kennan, Queen Bess 
Michael, Nora 
Napier, Alice C. 
Palmer, Julia 
Powell, Martha 
Sentell, Bessie R. . 
Solomon, Beatrice L. 
Stockwell, Winifred T- 
Taylor, Willie G. 
Tillotson, Virginia 
Wilson, Margaret 



Secretarial and Clerical : 

Angel, Mary Belle 
Busick, Elizabeth 
Caldwell, Nellie Mae 
Chavis, Laura 
Conrad, Elsie 
Foy, Helen 
Gambelle, Lillian 
Hall, Theodosia 
Houser, Edity 
Longworth, Pearl 
Johnson, Alice 
Martin, Lucille 
Moorefield, Clarice 
Ogburn, Carrie 
Pepper, Mary 
Pitts, Eva 
Taylor, Sara 
Williamson, Sarah 
Wilson, Ada C. 

Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 

Alley, D. H. 
Brown, C. M. 
Holleman, F. Poole 
Holt, Harry 
Kunze, G. A. 
Parris, W. H. 

Secretarial and Clerical : 

Adams, Zula H. 
Cottingham, L. H. 
Cluck, Ella White 
Stonestreet, Alene ' 

Financial and Statistical 

Chief Payroll Clerks : 

Rathledge, Abe 
Case, Mary B. 

Certifying Officer : 
Braziel, Lessie 



Secretarial and Clerical : 

Atkins, Pearl 
Beorden, Cora 
Brookbank, Dena N. 
Eads, Doris 
Heim, Edna S. 
Mahood, G. R. 
McDaniel, Elizabeth 
Power, Sadye M. 
Shephard, Kenneth 
Snyder, Lina 
Stanley, Martin 
Stockton, Margaret 
Sullivan, Deree 
Whorton, E. R. 

Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 
Baber, Grady 
Whorton, A. C. 

Farm Foremen : 

Crews, J. W. 
Fagg, A. J. 
Heath, Dan 
Lewis, Paul 
Sisk, R. A. 
Strader, G. C. 
Stratton, J. G. 
Thader, Roy Y. 

Bookkeeper : 
McGee, C. C. 

Secretarial and Clerical : 

Hilton, G. W. 
King, Fern 

Other Divisions 

Chief Commodity Clerk : 
Wilson, Charles 

Switchboard Operator : 
Clodfelter, Dorothy A. 



400 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



DISTRICT NO. 15— GUILFORD, RANDOLPH, AND ROCKINGHAM COUNTIES 

Phillips, Charles, Administrator 



Dodson, Mary M. 
Paschall, R. E. 
Benbow, Mrs. E. P. 
Ashcraft, F. B. 
Black, Walton 
Ellis, Joe, Jr. 
Dobson, Sarah 
Wood, Nettie Alice 



District Social Service Supervisor 
District Engineer 
District Director Women's Work 
District Disbursing Officer 
District Statistician 
District RR Supervisor 
District Home Economist 
Secretary to Administrator 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Head Case-Workers : 

Evans, Elizabeth 

Neal, Irene 

Price, Irene 
Case-Workers and Visitors : 

Apple, Margaret 

Archer, LoUie 

Atkins, Dora 

Ayers, Evelyn 

Brisendine, Frances 

Brown, Lucy Cobb 

Bulla, Mariam 

Burgess, Blanche 

Copenhaver, Mrs. B. 

Curtwright, Lola 

Davis, Margaret 

Dean, Linelle E. 

Duflfy, Ruth G. 

HoUowell, Esther 

Hoskins, Rebecca 

Huskins, Mrs. J. P. 

Johnson, Edna W. 

Johnston, Ruth 

Kenyon, Mrs. Minerva 

Kilburn, Leona 

Kivette, Gladys 

LaBarr, Mabel 

Lassiter, Roberta 

Leake, Elizabeth 

Lindeman, E. 

Martin, Melvina 

McPherson, Paul 

Miller, Emily G. 

Moore, Louise 

Morgan, Sadie 

Norcom, Clyde 

Oldham, Hazel P. 

Parrish, Parthenia 

Paul, Mrs. Lenora 

Price, Glady< 

Prince, Bessie 

Regan, Mrs. D. C. 

Reeves, Inez 

Rochelle, B. 

Rudd, Lora 



Scott, Anastasii E. 
Strange, Irene 
Strotz, Alice 
Tenney, Mrs. Edward 
Tesh, Bessie 
Wall, Mrs. Reid 
Wallace, Emma 
Withers, Rosa Mae 
Yates, Nellie 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Anderson, Laura 
Bangs, Mrs. A. C. 
Baxter, Hunter 
Beans, Elizabeth 
Bell, Louise 
Butler, Mary 
Campbell, Alice 
Cheek, Alma 
Cheek, Mrs. John 
Chisholm, Edith 
Coggins, Georgia 
Crowder, Gwendolyn 
Floyd, Hazel 
Gawthrop, J. A. 
Hardee, Exie Lee 
Jackson, Lucy 
Lassiter, Mary 
McPherson, Mrs. Pearl 
Nutting, Naomi 
Partin, Claire 
Pollock, Ruth 
Scoggins, Marie 
Shipman, Hazel 
Smith, Pearl 
Suggs, Rachel 
Talbutt, Nell F. 
Welborn, Jennie Lee 
Williams, Mrs. H. S. 
Wilson, Fern Way 
Drum, Virginia 

Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 
Atkinson, F. L. 
Bulla, John 
Burns, T. J. 



Smith, W. T. Jr., 

Vorhees, Louis 
Works Supervisors : 

Gates, T. J. 

Trogdon, R. D. 

Womack, John 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Bunting, Lucille 

King, Agnes 

Morgan, Lottie 

Scarborough, Mary 
Financial and Statistical 
Bookkeeper : 

Lewis, William 
Purchasing Officer : 

Goodwin, J. E. 
Certifying Officers : 

Currie,J. W. 

Stokes, Susie 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Albright, Dorothy 

Barbour, Inez 

Bennett, Mary E. 

Clarke, Ruth 

Clement, Mrs. Paul 

Culclasure, Annie 

Davis, T. L. 

Enoch, Bonnie 

Field H. E. 

Golding, Mrs. R. D. 

Graham, Hazel 

Gray, Zelda 

Gurr, Lucy 

Hewitt, Zell 

Jones, Mary Scott 

King, Gurney 

Marley, Ann 

Mitchell, Pearl 

Payne, Pearle 

Ridge, J. E. 

Riley, J. A. 

Satterfield, W. S. 

Shaw, Dorothy 

Simpson, Ruby T. 

Smith, Emily 



Emeegency Relief in North CiVKOLiNA 



401 



Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 

Canoy, J. M. 
Moore,.]. V. 
Ray,J. S. 

Farm Foremen : 
Bowman, Roy 
Bunting, E. E. 
Cagle, Lloyd 
Chatham, A. D. 
Craddock, J. W. 



DeLapp, Earl 
Evans, J. C. 
Fletcher, M. L. 
Hall, Thomas 
Hardin, Wade 
Hendricks, D. J. 
Lambert, J. R. 
Lanier, Walter 
Morgan, J. W. 
Phibbs, Earl 
Roach, Lee 
Roberts, Walter 



Rudd,J. F. 
Simpson, Howard 
Varner, G. C. 

Bookkeeper : 

Johnson, N. F. 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Brittain, Mrs. Carl 
Caudle, J. N. 
Forbis, Helen 
Oglesby, Daphne 
Seaboldt, J. C. 



DISTRICT NO. i6— ALAMANCE, CASWELL, DURHAM, 
ORANGE, AND PERSON COUNTIES 

Langston, a. E., Administrator 



Wilson, Martha K. 
Wilkerson, A. E. 
Cole, Mrs. J. E. 
Gardner, Mrs. Lee 
Crawford, G. W. 
Todd, N. J. 
Matlock, Regina 
Allen, Mrs. W. R. 



District Social Service Supervisor 
District Engineer 
District Director Women's Work 
District Disbursing Officer 
District Statistician 
District RR Supervisor 
District Home Economist 
Secretary to Administrator 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Senior Case-Workers : 
Barker, Mrs. W. J. 
Campbell, Mrs. D. R. 
Cheek, Roma S. 
Merritt, Eglantine 
Wilson, Margaret H. 

Junior Case-Workers and Visitors : 

Abernathy, M. K. 
Allen, G. J. 
Allen, Nannie 
Bailey, J. H. 
Bathurst, E. L. 
Brandon, Eddie T. 
Brandon, Virginia 
Cordice, Eugenia 
Davis, Julia C. 
Douty, Mrs. Ester 
Garrison, Mrs. M. B. 
Hitt, Ethel 
Ingram, Wilhelmenia 
King, Mrs. E. P. 
Lineberger, Ruth 
Maddrey, Marion 
Moore, Anna H. 
Page, Evelyn S. 
Parker, Virginia 
Peele, Mrs. Catherine 
Roberts, Goldie 

26 



Robinson, Sue 
Stevenson, W. B. 
Thompson, Horace 
Tolbert, Elizabeth 
Troxler, Edwina 
Turner, Mrs. R. E. 
Vincent, Bertha 
Wagstaff, Mrs. T. C. 
Wallace, Martha G. 
Wilkerson, Edna 
Wilkerson, O. C. 
Williams, Minnie 
Wilson, Willie 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Blalock, Ruth 
Bowles, Katherine 
Bruce, Laura 
Carver, Evelyn A. 
Cobb, Mrs. W. B. 
De Vlaming, Mrs. A. S. 
Edwards, Irene 
Fleming, Catherine 
Glenn, Zelma 
Holmes, Annie 
Jones, Mrs. Hazel 
Jones, Lillian 
Lewis, Tunell 
Maultsby, Margaret 
Montgomery, Mabel K. 
Parker, Margaret 



Powell, Garnette 

Sprinkle, Mrs. C. O. 

Wicker, Mary E. 
Works Division 
Assignment Clerk : 

Vickers, Berta 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Long, Hazeline 

Matthews, Blanche 

Whitson, Mrs. F. C. 

Taylor, Mrs. Jack 
Financial and Statistical 
Bookkeepers : 

Jenkins, F. M. 
'1 iWyrick, Mrs. E. S. 
Purchasing Officer : 

Long, James 
Certifying Officer : 

Chappell, William 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Aldridge, W. H. 

Branson, Mary 

Gates, Mason 

Crabtree, Katherine 

Hall, Helen 

Horton, Carolyn 

Latta, Mrs. F. L. 

Moore, Mrs. L. S. 

Stephens, Foye 

Stoner, Virginia 



402 

Strickland, C. P. 
Strickland, Mrs. Jos. 
Vickers, M. R. 
Wright, Virginia 

Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 
Watkins, H. W. 
Watson, A. H. 
Wilkinson, H. E. 

Farm Foremen : 
Day, Roy 
Gentry, W. H. 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



Harrison, C. P. 
King, J. H. 
Liner, G. F. 
Mise, J. E. 
Moore, C. C. 
Moore, E. L. 
Moore, F. L. 
Pendergrast, J. ] 
Phillips, R. W. 
Rogers, B. M. 
Shoe, F. A. 
Sparrow, T. A. 
Taylor, W. C. 



Vernon, Clay 

Walker, E. G. 

Waters, D. F. 
Bookkeeper : 

Cole, Virgie 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Gray, Virginia 

Horton, Mary A. 

Knight, Mary 

O'Brien, Mrs. Blanche 

Silver, Lillian 

Vickers, Frances 

Willard, Mrs. Pauline 



DISTRICT NO. 17 CHATHAM, HARNETT, LEE, AND MOORE COUNTIES 

Paschal, Mary, Administrator 



Wilkie, Mrs. L D. 
Phillips, G. P. 
Johnson, W. H. 
Reynolds, C. L. 
Oswalt, Mabel 
Osborne, Kathleen 



District Social Service Supervisor 
District Engineer 
District Disbursing Officer 
District RR Supervisor 
District Home Economist 
Secretary to Administrator 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 

Head Case-Workers : 

Bendigo, Mrs. C. W. 
Menius, Mrs. Flora M. 
Strowd, Mrs. C. K. 

Case- Workers and Visitors : 

Boggs, Mrs. M. F. 
Broadwell, Eunice 
Butler, Mrs. H. K. 
Campbell, Mae 
Hockaday, Belle 
Johnson, Lillian 
Lo\'ing, Lucile 
Markham, Mrs. Lydia 
Matthews, Sadie 
McCallum, Mrs. David 
McEwan, Mrs. Sam 
Pearsall, Mrs. David 
Pegram, J. D. 
Seawell, Cecil A. 
Smith, Mrs. C. J. 
Swett, Mrs. J. B. 
Thornton, C. H. 
Tucker, Mrs. Clara 
Wicker, Mrs. M. V. 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Harrington, Mary Ruth 



Mathews, Mrs. Brantley 
Nooe, Mrs. Henry 
Ross, Betsy 

Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 
Frye, Haj'wood, H. 
McLamb, C. E. 
Siler, R. W. 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Matthews, Sallie 

Financial and Statistical 
Bookkeeper : 
Cole Dorothy 

Certifying Officer : 
McLean, Ruth 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Bolton, Harvey 
Cameron, Annie 
Gunter, Mrs. A. M. 
Henderson, Mary Lee 
Hood. Mildred 
Hurwitz, Sarah 
McCain, Lillian 
McMillan, M>Ttle 
Sharpe, Margaret W. 

Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 
Fowler, A. F. 



McLeod. John D. 
Nance, P. H. 
Reeves, M. C. 

Farm Foremen : 

Byrd, L. R. 
Cameron, Edgar L. 
Edwards, J. M. 
Hancock, John 
Ivey, J. J.. 
Kelly, J. A. 
Measmer, L. F. 
Monroe, Fuller 
Murchison, D. E. 
Paschal, G. R. 
Perry, J. J. 
Phillips, Ed. S. 
Reed, R. J. 
Thompson, T. A. 
Wilson, E. E. 

Bookkeeper : 
Barnes, J. K. 

Secretarial and Clerical : 

Frazier, Mrs. Marguerite 
Martin, Louise 
Patton, Margaret 
Thomas, Mrs. Sankie P. 
Vansant, Emma 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



403 



DISTRICT NO. i8— WAKE COUNTY 
Farrell, H. D., Administrator 



Banning, Eloise 
Steele, George B. 
Walker, Mrs. N. L. 
Honeycutt, Roy L. 
Bunn, Phillip 
Russel, A. R. 
Green, Virginia 
Litchford, H. E. 
Brock, Betsy 



Acting District Social Service Supervisor 

District Engineer 

District Director of Women's Work 

District Disbursing Officer 

District Statistician 

District RR Supervisor 

District Home Economist 

District Office Manager 

Secretary to Administrator 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Senior Case-Worker : 

Lewis, Venita 
Junior Case-Workers : 
Adams, Mary Jane 
Bennett, Helen 
Bizzelle, Bessie 
Britt, Irma 
Delaney, Mary 
Flowers, B. B. 
Fogg, Juanita 
Frye, Elizabeth 
Harper, Emily 
Hayes, Lewyn 
Hopkins, Mrs. J. H. 
Howell, Emma 
Isbell, Kathryn 
Jones, Florence 
McClennan, Louise 
McLean, Robena 
Perrin, Louise 
Perry, Sadie 
Raper,J. R.,Jr. 
Ray, Macy 
Robinson, Etholia 
Smith, Bonita 
StockstUl, George L. 
Stoker, Elizabeth 
Wilkerson, Josephine 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Beal, Ruby 
Bibb, Virginia 
Hinton, Connie 
Lee, Mrs. E. G. 



Lightner, Margaret 
Lundy, C. E. 
Parker, Jimmie 
Renfrow, Marie 
Rogers, Pansy 
Turner, Marvin 
Wooten, Ann 
Young, Kathryn 
Works Division 

Assignment Officer : 
Ellis, W. T. 

Works Supervisor : 

Johnson, E. M. 
Bookkeepers ; 

Mangum, G. D. 

Phillips, T. M. 

Richardson, G. D. 

Palmer, V. D. 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Batts, Florence 
Jones, Brancy 
Rhoney, Daisy 
Rubenstein, Ida 
Wall, Mary Louise 

Financial and Statistical 
Bookkeepers : 

Ratcliffe, David 

Pippin, Hugh 
Purchasing Officer : 

Clifton, J. V. 

Certifying Officers : 
Hawkins, W. E. 
Perry, Roland 



Secretarial and Clerical : 

Davis, Henry 

Hayes, Emma 

Hicks, Mary G. 

Lewis, William 

Patton, Bonnie 

Poe, Clara 

Puller, Mrs. E. P. 

Rideout, Addie Lee 

Sturdivant, Dorothy 
Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 

Lewis, R. B. 

Winder, G. L. 
Farm Foremen : 

Brown, P. J. 

BuflFaloe,J.J. 

Holt, M. E. 

House, Eddie L. 

Jones, A. N. 

Lane, J. G. 

Mattox, J. J. 

Perry, P. B. 

Weaver, C. R. 
Bookkeeper : 

Young, W. V. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Batchelor, Dave 

McLean, Margaret 

Silver, H. A. 
Other DrvisiONs 
Commodity Clerk : 

Gray, T. P. 
Telephone Operator : 

Hester, Ora 



DISTRICT NO. 19— FRANKLIN, GRANVILLE, VANCE, AND WARREN COUNTIES 

DoRsEY, E. G., Administrator 



Tyer, Kathleen 
Jennette, S. E. 
Rooker, J. E. 
Jobe, H. H. 
Richards, Doshia 
EUis, Clara Mae 



District Social Service Super\'isor 
District Engineer 
District Disbursing Officer 
District RR Supervisor 
District Home Economist 
Secretary to Administrator 



404 



Social Service Division 
Senior Case-Workers : 
Pope, Eunice Mae 
Satterfield, Clyde 
Walters, Edna R. 
Nash, Mary White 

Case-W^orkers and Visitors : 
Austin, Mrs. Jeanie 
Bowers, Pauline 
Harris, Mrs. Will 
Jones, Mrs. J. S. 
Pitchford, Winkle 
Rooker, Susie 
Stephens, Margaret 
Sills, Jeannette 
Woody, Ava 
Warren, Josephine 
Yancey, L. B. 



Emergency Relief in Xokth Carolina 
DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Secretarial and Clerical : 

Crowell, Lillian 

Currin, Helen 

Frazier, Mildred 

Holland, Mary V. 

Wimberly, L. P. 
Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 

Niles, John A. 

Powell, T. T. 

Riggan, J. D. 

Whitfield, R. C. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Aycock, Virginia 
Financial and St.\tistical 
Bookkeeper : 

Moore, George W. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Duke, Mary Meadows 



Felts, Christine 

Garrett, Ora 

Jones, Frances 
Rural Reh.abilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 

Bulluck, W. E. 

Day, I. W. 

Mitchener, F. A. 

Person, W. T. 

Stallings, Theo. 

Tarry, W. B. 

Woodlief, W. D. 
Farm Foremen : 

Bulluck, A. D. 

Hendricks, C. F. 

Tarry, A. R. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

McFarlan, Thelma 

Usry, Edna 



DISTRICT NO. 20— HALIFAX, HERTFORD, AND NORTHAMPTON COUNTIES 

Shepherd, N. J., Administrator 

Rogers, Evelyn District Social Service Supervisor 

Bobbitt, G. L. District Engineer 

Harper, J. S. District Disbursing Officer 

House, Mrs. E. H. District Statistician 

Hoover, I. J. District RR Supervisor 

Riley, Majorie District Home Economist 

Hale, Anne L. Secretary to Administrator 

DISTRICT .AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Head Case-Workers : 

Flythe, Mrs. J. A. 

Hall, J. B. 

Kite, Mrs. Hilda 
Case-Workers : 

Benthall, Inez 

Brown, Mrs. J. W. 

Burt, Winnie 

Coleman, Anne 

Cox, Mrs. L. M. 

CuUom, Hattie 

Dunn, Mrs. Cora 

Flythe, Iris 

Hitchens, Bernice 

Holoman, Anna G. 

Holoman, Mrs. H. D. 

Jenkins, Mrs. T. M. 

Joyner, Emily 

Leight, Mary 

Moss, Marie 

Ramsey, Mrs. J. H. 

Smith, Mrs. Myrtle 



Snipes, Mrs. I. F. 
Swaringen, Mrs. Helen 
Thigpen, Mavis 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Carter, Tempie 
Elmore, Mrs. J. G. 
Holoman, Margaret 

Works Di\'ision 

Assignment Clerks : 
Hedspeth, C. E. 
Newsome, A. T. 
Parker, E. S. 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Bounds, Frances 
Cola, Nathalie 

Financial and Statistical 
Certifying Officer : 
Parker, Mrs. Sara 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Collier, Mamie Lee 
Freid, Isabell 



Johnson, Mrs. Mabel 

Joyner, Dozene 

Whitehead, Ola Belle 
Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Farm Foremen : 

Britton, Guy 

Brown, H. T. 

Conner, Lindley 

Cooke, W. W. 

Dickens, C. M. 

Dickens, Willis 

Ewing, K. B., Jr. 

Gupton, L. W. 

Pope, John H. 

Stephenson, E. L. 

White, R. G. 

Whitley, J. B. 
Bookkeeper : 

Josey, N. B. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Corbett, Mrs. Robert 

Faison, Catherine 

Lassiter, A., Jr. 



Emergency Eelief in North Carolina 



405 



DISTRICT NO. 21— CAMDEN, CHOWAN, CURRITUCK, GATES, 
PASQUOTANK, AND PERQ,UIMANS COUNTIES 
LoRDLEY, E. W., Administrator 

Wales, Mrs. Charles P. District Social Service Supervisor 

Richardson, T. P. District Engineer 

Ryan, Walter District Disbursing Officer 

Dixon, M. H. District Statistician 

Williams, T. B. District RR Supervisor 

Capel, Frances District Home Economist 



Dozier, Mattie W. 



Secretary to Administrator 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Head Case- Workers : 

Johnson, Chas. E. 

McMuUan, Mrs. J. H. 

Taylor, Mary W. 

Wilkins, Lillian 
Case-Workers and Visitors : 

Bateman, Ursula 

Carter, Mrs. C. H. 

Davenport, Ruth 

Edwards, Mrs. W. R. 

Evans, Mrs. B. U. 

Fields, Edna 

Grandy, Mrs. Elizabeth 

Hastings, Mrs. Joe 

Perry, Mrs. P. G. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Morgan, Bertie 

Munden, Mildred 



Murray, Mrs. Maude A. 

Stephenson, Nolie 

White, Kate 

Wood, Gussie 
Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 

Ansell, H. B. 

Baker, W. E. 

Chalk, Fred 

Edney, C. S. 

Hinton, C. W. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

White, Emma V. 
Financial and Statistical 
Certifying Officer : 

Koonce, B. G. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Bagley, Doris 

Bunch, Corie 



Davenport, Evelyn 

Heath, Verdie 

Lowry, Ethel 
Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Farm Foremen : 

Brinn, R. T. 

Cannon, E. H. 

Evans, O. C. 

Flora, W. C. 

Forbes, Clayton 

Hale, E. L. 

Lamb, H. W. 

Miller, J. F. 

Rawls, R. E. 

Sherlock, E. L. 
Bookkeeper ; 

Raper, Mrs. R. M. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Meads, Selma 



DISTRICT NO. 22— BERTIE, MARTIN, TYRRELL, AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

GiBBs, Julian E., Administrator 



Social Service Division 
Head Case-Workers : 
Ayers, Selma 
Carawan, Mrs. W. S. 
Leadbetter, Florence 
Pruden, C. H., Jr. 
Case- Workers : 

Beasley, Mrs. J. C. 
Brewer, Mrs. Gertrude 
Burden, Millie 
Burgess, J. E. 
Cratch, C. A. 
Downing, Lena 
Gaylord, Ella Mae 
Gibbs, Mrs. L. L. 
Harris, Sadie P. 



Wiggins, Winnifred Y. 
Pratt, W. O. 
Gardner, Athalia 
Smith, Guilford C. 
Hutcheson, C. G. 
Smith, Margaret 



District Social Service Supervisor 

District Engineer 

District Disbursing Officer 

District Statistician 

District RR Supervisor 

Secretary to Administrator 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY 

McNair, E. Ludford 

Pledger, D. M, 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Bateman, Vantilla 

Peal, Louise 

Roberson, Huldah 
Works Division 

Assignment Clerks : 

Barnes, W. J. 

Blount, Clarence 

Brinkley, D. J. 

Combs, D. G. 

House, M. C. 
Financial and Statistical 
Bookkeeper : 

Ausbon, Sara 



DIVISIONS 

Secretarial and Clerical : 

Bateman, Catherine 

Duvall, Louise 

Harrison, Catherine 

Pickett, Nevie 

Waters, Mildred 

Weatherly, Archie 
Rural Rehabilit.ation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 

Bell, John C. 

Blount, Fred 

Liverman, H. T. 

Modlin, David G. 
Farm Foremen : 

Armstrong, J. J. 

Austin, J. H. 



406 



Emergency Relief in K'oeth Carolina 



Copeland, Robert 
Davenport, L. M. 
Davis, S. D. 
Gaskins, E. V. 
Marrow, W. L. 



Mizelle, Pedro 
Morris, Plato 
Bookkeeper : 
Stillman, Willie 



Secretarial and Clerical : 
Cobb, Sarah 
Hardy, Ann 



DISTRICT NO. 23— DARE COUNTY 

Meekins, Theo. S., Administrator 



Spry, Paul 
Wescott, Majore 



District Disbursing Officer 
District Statistician 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Case-Workers : 
Ferebee, Josie 
Lennon, Gladys 



White, Maude 
Works Division 
Assignment Clerks: 
Baum, O. L. 



Financial and Statistical 
Secretarial and Clerical : 
Dowdy, Bernice 



DISTRICT NO. 24— EDGECOMBE AND NASH COUNTIES 
BuLLUcK, Mrs. R. D., Administrator 



Johnston, Nellie 
Lane, F. S. 
Dozier, A. D. 
Cone, Paul D. 
Graham, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Whitehead, Elizabeth 



District Social Service Supervisor 
District Engineer 
District Disbursing Officer 
District RR Supervisor 
District Home Economist 
Secretary to Administrator 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Case-Workers : 

Avent, Mrs. Vernon 
Battle, Susie 
Bowling, Mrs. W. H. 
Childress, R. N. 
Coppedge, Marion 
Gaitley, Annie C. 
Howell, Annie Lee 
Hughes, George 
Jenkins, Lossie 
Parker, Cora 
Phillips, R. A. 
Thorpe, Louis 
Wilder, Mrs. Roy E. 
Williams, Mrs. W. Gray 



Winstead, Mrs. T. B. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Brant, Dolores 

Taylor, Mrs. Elsie D. 

Wharton, Mrs. Mary C. 
Works Division 
Assignment Clerk : 

Doar, Frank 
Financial and Statistical 
Bookkeeper : 

Harris, R. C. 
Purchasing Officer : 

DeBerry, Howell 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Edwards, Willie 



Ivey, Blanche 
Smith, Mrs. J. M. 
Vaughn, Mrs. Russell 
Wells, Swan 

Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foreman : 

Fountain, Leon 

Stone, L. M. 
Farm Foremen : 

Anderson, S. T. 

Bennett, Ashley 

Strickland, Emmett 

Wilder, Marven 
Bookkeeper : 

Wiggans, Julia N. 



DISTRICT NO. 25 (Combined with District No. 26) 

DISTRICT NO. 26— CARTERET, CRAVEN, JONES, ONSLOW, 
AND PAMLICO COUNTIES 

Clark, Chatham C, Administrator 



Hammitt, Rhea 
Matthews, T. Gates 
McWhorter, Davis L. 
Cowell, M. A. 
Uzzle, Elizabeth 
Whitehurst, Julia 



District Social Service Supervisor 
District Engineer 
District Disbursing Officer 
District RR Supervisor 
District Home Economist 
Secretary to Administrator 



Emekgency Relief in North Carolina 



407 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Head Case- Workers : 

Burt, Mr . J. R. 

Farnell, Mrs. G. T. 

Gossard, L. J. 

Land, Mis. B. B. 

Venters, Sallie Lee 
Case- Workers and Visitors : 

Attmore, Blanche 

Boylan, Mrs. M. H. 

Daves, Winifred 

Duffy, Frank 

George, Helen 

Hooker, Bessie 

Lawrence, Betty 

Marriner, Sarah H. 

Mason, J. I. 

Mebane, Mrs. W. G. 

Reel, Mabel 

Rhone, C. S. 

Roberts, Mrs. A. B. 

Roberts, Ruth 

Roundtree, Mrs. A. M. 

Rumley, Sarah 

Sadler, Joella 

Sanders, Sallie 

Whitley, D. D. 

Wynn, Mary S. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Bryan, Maude 

Godwin, Mamie 

Jones, Melba 

Meadows, Clelia 

Rhone, A. C. 



Rooker, Mrs. J. W. 

Smith, Sybil 

Teague, Olethia 

Williams, Rena 

Witherington, Mary M. 
Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 

Burkhart, Glenn 

Flowers, R. J. 

Kelly, T. E. 

Pittman, Kenneth D. 

Simmons, Bruce 
Secretarial and Clerical i 

Fulcher, Eloise 

Wilson, A. U. 
Financial and Statistical 
Bookkeepers : 

Herritage, T. M. 

Major, Roy 
Purchasing Officer : 

Daughtery, U. W. 
Certifying Officer : 

Ramsey, Eleanor 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Dewey, Pauline 

Gilliken, Elizabeth 

Gwaltney, Maude 

Ireland, Hannah 

Lane, Sarah 

Scott, R. N. 

Wade, Davie 
Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 

Harris, Joseph 



Justice, D. D. 
King, R. E. 
McLawhorn, H. D. 
Parker, H. A. 

Farm Foremen : 
Ballinger, J. R. 
Brinson, Leo T. 
Caston, David 
Daniels, Joe 
Elliott, J. H. 
Koonce, Charlie Mack 
Laughinghouse, J. E. 
Millis, L. H. 
Murdock, Lee 
Nelson, Harry 
Parker, Richard 
Stewart, Floyd 
Taylor, T. E. 

Bookkeeper : 
Styron, H. S. 

Secreterial and Clerical : 
Badham, Caroline 
Holland, Mildred 
Miller, Homer 
Parker, Joy 
Williams, Pauline 

Homemakers : 

Havis, Mrs. Hubert 
Kornegay, Mrs. L. T. 
Morrison, Jean 
Simmons, Clellie 
Starling, Mrs. I. W. 



DISTRICT NO. 27— BEAUFORT, HYDE, AND PITT COUNTIES 
Hodges, Mrs. I. P., Administrator 



Payne, Mrs. T. S. 
Baughan, C. G. 
Ross, M. C. 
Old, George 
Koonce, Z. T. 
Stancill, Mrs. W. ( 
Parker, Ellen 



District Social Service Supervisor 
District Engineer 
District Disbursing Officer 
District Statistician 
District RR Supervisor 
District Home Economist 
Secretary to Administrator 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 

Senior Case- Workers : 

Davis, Sallie Mae 

Purser, Lucille S. 

Spencer, Mrs. E. D. 

Junior Case- Workers and Visitors : 

Bragg, Kathleen 
Credle, Mrs. Clifton 
Harding, Mrs. W. B. 
Jackson, Mrs. W. H. R. 
Jones, Katharine 
Lanier, Mrs. Ida 



Mann, Mrs. N. L. 
McLawhorn, Kitchin 
Murray, Mrs. Edward 
Owens, Nelle 
Perkins, William M. 
Smith, Mrs. Lucy 

Secretarial and Clerical : 

Madrin, Elizabeth 
Mayo, R. G. 
Swindell, Mrs. J. L. 
Taylor, Mrs. Ada 
Tunnell, Mary Lilly 



Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 
Harrell, E. L. 
Midyette, A. L. 
Pettigrew, W. J. 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Formy-Duval, Lucy 
Handy, Rena 
Robinson, Alma 

Financial and Statistical 
Purchasing Officer : 
Riddick, R. B. 



408 



EiiEKGENCY Relief in North Carolina 



Shelburne, Mary 
Walter, Mary 

Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 

Galloway, W. F. 
Mackely, M. 
Smithwick, D. L. 



Farm Foremen : 
Butt, T. Elwood 
Credle, Jeff 
Fields, R. A. 
Hodges, Earl 
Lowe, W. G. 
Mayo, C. H. 
Silverthorne, J. D. 



Secretarial and Clerical : 
AUigood, Gladys S. 
Mcllhenny, Mary Bell 
Wallace, Ethel 

Secretarial and Clerical : 

Capehart, Mary 
Ross, Christine 



DISTRICT NO. 28— BLADEN, BRUNSWICK, AND COLUMBUS COUNTIES 
Proctor, Gladys B., Administrator 

McRackan, Ada District Social Ser\ice Super\isor 

Reynolds, R. E. District Engineer 

Newton, E. C. District Disbursing Officer 

Powell, Etta Hamilton District Statistician 

Pickerrell, C. D. District RR Supervisor 

Wallace, Irma P. District Home Economist 

Land. Frances Secretary to Administrator _ 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Senior Case-Workers : 

Greer, C. L. 

Johnson, Mrs. Lillian 

Raddatz, Leslie 
Case-Workers ; 

Barnhardt, Mrs. Agnes 

Campbell, Mrs. C. L. 

Cox, Isabella 

Jones, J. L. 

Lyon, Mrs. K. V. 

Marks, Louise 

McQueen, Mary Ruth 

Mercer, Frances 

Moore, Betty 

Spurgeon, Mary E. 

Stearns, J. S., Jr. 

Welch, J. L. 

Williams, Henry D. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Bragdon, Katherine 

Carnes, Dorothy 



Creech, Edna 

Grimes, Elizabeth 

Hall, Elma 

Heath, P. M. 

Marran, Victoria 

Moore, Duta C. 

Toon, Pauline 
Works Division 

Assignment Clerks : 

Black, D. B. 

Murray, W. J. 

Smith, H. B. 
Secretarial and Clerical ; 

Lowe, Margaret 

Shelton, Mrs. John 
Financial and Statistical 
Certifying Officer : 

Young, Frances 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Barkley, John 

Burns, Eleanor 

Jennette, Robert 



Lewis, Elizabeth 

Moore, Roma 

Nance, Etta 

Smith, Carolyn 
Rural Rehabilit.\tion Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 

Daniels, E. G. 

Dorward, Kenneth 

Elliott, Roy 

Gause, Charles E. 
Farm Foremen : 

Applewhite, B. F. 

Davis, Will J. 

McKeithan, L.J. 

Ownes, A. T. 

Townsend, Dan 

Ward, G. B. 

Ward, J. M. 
Bookkeeper : 

Phifer, E. C. 
.Secretarial and Clerical : 

Bridger, Julia Vann 



DISTRICT NO. 29— GREENE, JOHNSTON, AND WILSON COUNTIES 

Barnes, James T., Administrator 



Minshall. Susan 
Jones, G. B. 
Barkley, W. T. 
Rittenbury, B. C. 
Home, Ashley 
Benton, Mrs. Helen W. 
Duncan, Claudia 



District Social Service Super\'isor 

District Engineer 

District Disbursing Officer 

District Statistician 

District RR Supervisor 

District Home Economist 

Secretary to Administrator 



Social Service Division 
Senior Case-Workers : 
Crawford, Virginia 
Llewellyn, R. H. 
Palmer, Mrs. N. F. 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 

Case-Workers : 
Alphin, Edna 
Brown, A. L. 



Church, Letta 
Coffman, Mrs. N. W. 



Etheridge, Margaret 
Fulghum, Mrs. Nina 
Harrison, Mrs. O. J. 
Holland, Mrs. Y. M. 
James, Elizabeth 



Emeegbncy Relief in North Carolina 



409 



McCracken, Sarah 
Meadows, Arbutus 
Mosely, Nett 
Pou, Mattie 
Ruffin, Mrs. Lula 
Smith, WiUie A. 
Spiers, J. D. 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Baker, Henrietta 
Gold, Mrs. C. M. 
Prines, Ellen 
Spruill, Katherine 
Swain, Pauline 
Works Dh'ision 

Assignment Clerks : 
Harper, E.J. 
Winstead, Clarence 



Clerical : 

Morton, Mary 
Financial and Statistical 
Bookkeeper : 

Beaman, K. D. 
Purchasing Agent : 

Frink, H. G. 
Secreterial and Clerical : 

Bagby, R. C. 

Bissett, Paul 

Creech, Narvin 

Lamm, Margaret O. 

Stanton, Lucille 

Tucker, Mrs. O. M. 
Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 

Bailey, R. H. C. 



Cobb, Alton P. 
Walton, C. B. 

Farm Foremen : 

Clark, Alex 
Griffin, Mrs. Russell 
Hall, J. L. 
Hales, J. P. 
Home, C. W. 
Jomp, John W. 
Myatt, John 
Stancil.J. M. 
Wilson, N. H. 
Wood, Frank 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Johnson, Mrs. Ola 



DISTRICT NO. 30— DUPLIN, LENOIR, AND WAYNE COUNTIES 
Spicer, Laura K., Administrator 



Sugg, Rachel Payne 
Murphy, J. L. 
Byrd, A. D. 
Carraway, A. O. 
Southerland, Ben W. 
Shine, Ruth R. 
Marrow, Margaret 



District Social Service Supervisor 

District Engineer 

District Disbursing Officer 

District Statistician 

District RR Supervisor 

District Home Economist 

Secretary to Administrator 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Head Case-Workers : 
Doan, Wilmot 
Freeman, Mrs. Laura 
Huggins, Mrs. Nell 
Case-Workers : 
Ballentine, Lee 
Barwick, Arnold 
Beems, Helen H. 
Brown, Mrs. C. R. 
Brown, Emily 
Canady, Murphy 
Clayton, Sarah 
Collier, Cora Fuller 
Dail, Rachel M. 
Exum, Susan 
Freeman, Myrtice 
Hall, Ida H. 
Hayes, Mrs. Perrine 
Heyward, L. 
Hines, Mary Bright 
Kern, Rosella 
Lee, Mrs. P. O. 
McDaniel, Mrs. D. 
McNewkirk, J. 
Mintz, Mrs. Carrie 
Parker, W. B. 



Pearman, Mary D. 

Pruitt, Anne 

Stewart, Horace 

Thomas, David 

Ward, Horace 

Westbrook, Edna M. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Blackmore, Mary Alice 

Chestnutt, Elizabeth 

Dobson, Marie 

Moye, Anne Belle 

Murphy, Velma 

Parrott, L. B. 

Satterfield, Mary C. 

Sloan, Gertrude P. 

Turnage, Ercelle 

Turner, Maggie P. 

Ward, Mrs. Lillian 
Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 

Barfield, P. H. 

Jones, R. B. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Morris, Margaret 

Pate, Troy 

Pike, Evelyn 



Financial and Statistical 
Bookkeeper : 

Rainey, J. W. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Broadhurst, Marion 

Flowers, Mackie 

Roundtree, Moses 

Stanley, Ruth 

Wooten, Mrs. Janie 
Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 

Bass, John H. 

Dail, J. P. 

Marshburn, C. J. 
Farm Foremen : 

Brown, J. B. 

Campbell, W. D. 

Coombs, Earl 

Crew, J. E. 

Kornegay, A. R. 
Bookkeeper : 

Monk, Ralph 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Hooker, W. T. 

Loftin, Mrs. Ella 

Tyndall, Kathleen B. 



410 



Emekgency Relief in ISTorth Carolina 



DISTRICT NO. 31— NEW HANOVER, AND PENDER COUNTIES 
MgEachern, Mrs. Eloise, Acting Administrator 



McEachern, Mrs. Eloise 
Hibbs, W. M. 
Rawls, C. F. 
Williams, J. Carlyle 
Jones, Mrs. Elizabeth R. 
Merritt, Fleurette 



District Social Service Supervisor 
District Engineer 
District Disbursing Officer 
District RR Supervisor 
District Home Economist 
Secretary to Administrator 



DISTRICT .\ND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 

Head Case- Workers : 

Copper, Augusta 

Corbett, H. M. 

Johnston, Mary 

Case-Workers and Visitors : 
Bailey, .\ustin A. 
Batts, Estella 
Blair, Katherine 
Blake, Juanita 
Ellis, Mrs. L. O. 
Greene, Margaret 
Hargrave, Carrie 
Harper, Carrie 
Home, Elizabeth 
Howard, Susie 
Jackson, Nathaniel 
Jones, Mrs. Emma B. 
McRae, Edward 
Miller, Mrs. Mary N. 
Miller, Olivia 
Nash, Lucy 
Saunders, Theodosia 
Scott, Viola 
Shelton, Mable B. 
Sneeden, Mrs. Helen B. 
Telfair, Reginald 



Walton, Helene 

White, Robert 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Dempsey, Carolyn 

Ennett, Doris 

Hall, Sadie 

Hutchinson, Mrs. Chas. 

Nixon, Ernestine 

Peterson, M. C. 

Sadgwar, Felice 

Willis, Dorothy 

Zellers, Ruth 
Works Division 
.Assignment Clerks : 

Morton, Percy 

Ward, G. Monroe 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Chadwick, David 

Dempsey, Mary 

Phelps, Lillie May 
Financial and Statistical 
Certifying Officer : 

Thomas, J. A. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Burriss, Myrtle 

Duke, Mrs. Mary R. 

Elfrink, Alberta 

Gore, Mrs. Victor 



Hartley, Mrs. Mercy 

Perry, Ena 

Roderick, Violet 

Shepherd, Hugh D. 

Schroeder, Lilly 

Stanland, Mrs. Charles 

Thomas, Mrs. E. C. 

Wagner, Mrs. Marguerite 
Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 

Klein, J. F. 

Murphy, C. D. 
Farm Foremen : 

Bosite, C. B. 

Edens, Luther 

Huggins, J. D. 

Hunt, R. T. 

Rourk, J. C. 

Walton, A. J. 

Woodcock, T. C. 

Wooten, Roby C. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Co.K, Olivia 

Darden, C. H. 

Lodor, S. H. 

Neal, Virginia 

Scott, Rena 

Shiel, Mrs. Anne L. 



DISTRICT NO. 32— ROBESON AND SCOTLAND COUNTIES 
Caldwell, R. D., Administrator 

Kuralt, W. H. District Social Service Supervisor 

Meeks, D. T. District Engineer 

Cottingham, Vernon District Disbursing Officer 
Woodhouse, W. W., Jr. District RR Supervisor 
Booe, Lucy District Home Economist 

Wishart, Elizabeth Secretary to Administrator 



Social Service Division 
Head Case-Workers : 
Giles, Mrs. E. M. 
McDonald, Mabel 

Case-Workers : 
Bourdelat, George 
Caldwell, Edith 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 

F. McMillan, D. G. 



Cottingham, Mrs. C. 
Croom, Maude 
Harrington, Rosalie 
Jemette, Mrs. W. T. 
Joyce, AUie W. 
McCormac, Mrs. Glennie 
McLeod, Mrs. J. W. 
McManus, Frances 



Moore, Mrs. J. R. 
Paul, E. M.,Jr. 
Rozier, Mrs. R. G. 
Shaw, Mrs. Eliza 
Secretarial and Clerical : 
Allen, Mary Lois 
Bundy, Mrs. Preston 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



411 



Mason, Kathryne 

Sanders, Mrs. L. P. 

Wright, W. D. 
Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 

McGugan, Layton 

Talbert, G. H. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Kearns, Louise 
Financial and Statistical 
Bookkeeper : 

Redmon, Mary F. 

DISTRICT NO. 33- 



Secretarial and Clerical : 
Caldwell, Mrs. E. W. 
Carter, Marie 
Gibson, Lucy 
Gray, Pendleton 
Guthrie, Elizabeth 
Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Senior Farm Foremen : 
McGirt, Dan 
Thompson, Geo. E. 



Farm Foremen : 
Brown, John 
Cogswell, R. V, 
Gibson, W. W. 
Jenrette, W. T. 
McCormick, A. 
McNeill, Carroll 
Powers, Boyd 
Wooley, Z. R. 

Bookkeeper ; 

Townsend, L. B. 



C. 



-CUMBERLAND, HOKE, AND SAMPSON COUNTIES 
Hawkins, S. J., Administrator 



Ives, Bertha M. 
Clark, C. E. 
Merritt, V. H. 
McKeithan, Herbert 
Carraway, Lois 
MofRt, AUene 



District Social Service Supervisor 
District Engineer 
District Disbursing Officer 
District RR Supervisor 
District Home Economist 
Secretary to Administrator 



DISTRICT AND COUNTY PERSONNEL BY DIVISIONS 



Social Service Division 
Head Case- Workers : 

Burt, Lucy 

Butler, Mrs. James W. 

HoUingsworth, Geneva 
Case-Workers and Visitors : 

Bridges, Ruth 

Cameron, Alberta 

Clark, Willie 

Downing, Abbie 

Ennis, Mary G. 

Ferrell, Mrs. T. M. 

Hollinshed, T. E. 

Jackson, Alice 

McFadyen, D. G. 

Perry, Isaiah P. 

Pickler, Beatrice 

Royal, Mrs. Robert 

Taylor, Lou E. 

Vann, Mrs. Isaiah 

Watson, Robert 

Williams, John C, Jr. 

Williston, Frank 

Wilson, Mrs. R. B. 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Bain, Myra 



Butler, Mrs. Mary E. 
Davis, Nita 
Jackson, Cleo 
Johnson, Grissom 
Newton, Mary 
Rose, Bertie 
Simmons, Esther 
Smith, Annie Bell 

Works Division 
Assignment Clerks : 
Campbell, L. J. 
Jernigan, Angus 
Powell, Clarence 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Dunson, AUie 
Huske, Addie C. 

Financial and Statistical 
Purchasing Officer : 
Cobb, T. K. 

Certifying Officers : 
Boynton, Carolyn 
Terry, H. S. 

Secretarial and Clerical : 
Ayer, Margaret 



Blue, Louise 
Bolton, Grace 
Cobb, Hazel 
Griffin, Ruth 
Kivette, Lillian 
Smith, A. D. 
Smith, Velma 

Rural Rehabilitation Division 
Farm Foremen : 
Beard, W. C. 
Bullard, E. M. 
Culbreth, Martin 
Currie, J. M. 
Dalton, D. J. 
Grady, J. B. 
McKeithan, M. L. 
McQueen, J. A. 
Oakes, B. W. 
Spell, A. R. 
Wright, W. I. 

Bookkeeper : 

Peoples, Estelle 
Secretarial and Clerical : 

Merritt, Sallie 



412 



Emergency Relief in North Carolina 



STATE ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF 
SEPTEMBER, 1935 

Mrs. Thomas O'Berry, Administrator 



T. L. Grier, Assistant Administrator 



Mrs. Elisabeth Greer Seese, Secretary to 
Administrator 

Cora Page Godfrey, Secretary to Admin- 
istrator 

Mrs. Mary Dunaway Scheld, Secretary 
to Assistant Administrator 

SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION : 
Anna A. Cassatt, Director 
J. S. Kirk, Director of Social Studies 
Grace Williams, Director — Adjustment 
of Complaints 

WORKS DIVISION : 
J. B. Martin, Chief Engineer 
W. A. Harris, Spscial Field Engineer 
Howell DeBerry, Jr., Purchasing .'\gent 

FINANCE DIVISION: 
R. C. Carter, Chief Auditor 
Fred Ferguson, Assistant Auditor 
R. O. Howard, ."Xssistant .'Kuditor 
C. E. Phinney, Disbursing Officer 
S. V. Rowe, Head Bookkeeper 
Julia Jordan, Chief Payroll Clerk 
Dr. H. P. Brinton, Statistician 

TRANSIENT DIVISION : 
J. B. Moore, Director 
Grace Sale, Secretary 
Miss Ethel Sneed, Case Work Super- 
visor 



AsHEViLLE Center : 
Jean F. Patton, Director 
H. R. Bradshaw, Assistant Disbursing 

Officer 
Christine Barrus, Statistician 
Bertha Rogers, Secretary 

Greensboro Center : 

Harriett R. Whitaker, Director 

W. T. Davis, Jr., Assistant Disbursing 

Officer 
Lula Mae Roebuck, Statistician 
Minnie Pittman, Secretary 

Charlotte Center : 

M. E. Holcomb, Director 

Elizabeth Sneed, Case Work Super- 
visor 

E. Eugene Bryson, Assistant Disbursing 
Officer 

Annie Moran Marsh, Statistician 

Alice H. Vaughn, Secretary 

New Hope Farm : 
W. L. Woltz, Director 
Mack Miller, Assistant Disbursing 
Officer 

Raleigh Center : 

Mrs. Betsy L. Gordon, Director 

Lula C. Marcom, Assistant Disbursing 

Officer 
Mary Daniel, Statistician 
Eva Wilbon, Secretary 
Bonnie K. Stewart, Nurse 



S.ALisBURV Center : 

E. B. Neave, Assistant Disbursing Offi- 
cer 
Marion Yost Camp : 
J. H. Byers, Director 
H. E. Tandy, Assistant Camp Super- 
intendent 
Camp Weaver : 
J. L. Murphy, Director 
J. P. Massenburg, Assistant Disbursing 
Officer 

Dunlap Springs Camp : 
Thurman Warren, Director 

PUBLIC RELATIONS DIVISION: 

Walter A. Cutter, Director 
SELF-HELP C00PER.\TIVE : 
John H. Sikes, Director 

CCC SELECTION: 

George W. Bradshaw, Supervisor 

LEGAL COUNSEL DIVISION: 
Carey Parker, Legal Counsel 

SURPLUS COMMODITIES DIVI- 
SION: 
H. J. Johnson, Director 
T. P. Gray, Jr., Director 

SUPPLY AND MAILING DIVISION : 
L. H. Williams, Supply Officer 
E. C. Porter, Assistant Supply Officer 



DISTRICT ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF— SEPTEMBER, 1935 
DISTRICT NO. I— FORMER DISTRICTS 20, 21, 22, and 23 

LoRDLEY, E. W., Administrator 
Shepherd, N. J., Assistant Administrator 



Tyer, Kathleen 
Bobbitt, G. L. 
House, Mrs. E. H. 
Bateman, Catherine 



District Social Service Supervisor 
District Engineer 
District Disbursing Officer 
District Statistician 



DISTRICT NO. 2— FORMER DISTRICTS 26, 27, and 30 

Clark, C. C, Administrator 

Spiger, Laura K., Assistant Administrator 



Hammitt, Rhea 
Ball, Phillip K. 
Ross, M. C. 
Old, George 



District Social Service Supervisor 
District Engineer 
District Disbursing Officer 
District Statistician 



Emeegency Eelief in Worth Carolina 413 

DISTRICT NO. 3— FORMER DISTRICTS i6, i8, 19, 24, and 29 

DoRSEY, E. C, Administrator 
Farrell, H. D., Assistant Administrator 
Barnes, James T., Assistant Administrator 

Wilson, Martha H. District Social Service Supervisor 

Jennette, S. E. District Engineer 

Steele, George B. District Engineer 

Wilkerson, A. E. District Engineer 

Cole, Mrs. J. E. District Director Women's Work 

Walker, Mrs. N. L. District Director Women's Work 

Barkley, W. T. District Disbursing Officer 

Gardner, Mrs. Lee District Disbursing Officer 

Honeycutt, Roy L. District Disbursing Officer 

Moore, George District Statistician 

DISTRICT NO. 4— FORMER DISTRICTS 28, 31, 32, and 33 

Hawkins, S. J., Administrator 

Ives, Bertha M. District Social Service Supervisor 

Clark, C. E. District Engineer 

Merritt, V. H. District Disbursing Officer 

DISTRICT NO. 5— FORMER DISTRICTS 12, 15, and 17 

Langston, a. E., Administrator 
Crawford, G. W., Assistant Administrator 

Dodson, Mrs. Mary M. District Social Service Supervisor 

Phillips, S. W. District Engineer 

Smith, W. L. District Engineer 

Benbow, Mrs. E. P. District Director Women's Work 

Liles, N. P. District Disbursing Officer 

Osborne, Mrs. Sallie District Statistician 

DISTRICT NO. 6— FORMER DISTRICTS 8, 11, 13, and 14 

Land, Mrs. E. M., Administrator 
Bason, Ruby, Assistant Administrator 
Kafer, Helen S., Assistant Administrator 

Clifford, Mrs. A. T. District Social Service Supervisor 

McKinney, Margaret Assistant District Social Service Supervisor 

Tsumas, Harry District Engineer 

Kincaid, Mrs. J. H. District Director of Women's Work 

Bradley, F. M. District Disbursing Officer 

Newton, A. M. District Disbursing Officer 

Cumberland, J. E. District Statistician 



414 Emergency Relief in Nokth Carolina 

DISTRICT NO. 7— FORMER DISTRICTS 7, 9, and 10 

Clinton, Mrs. R. S., Administator 
IsENHOUR, M. v., Assistant Administrator 
WiNGATE, Wm. J., Assistant Administrator 

Harmon, Fay D. District Social Service Super\isor 

Bacon, F. R. District Engineer 

Froneberger, Rebecca District Director Women's Work 

McComb, Jessie C. District Disbursing Officer 

Stacy, Paul J. District Statistician 

DISTRICT NO. 8— FORMER DISTRICTS i, 2, 3, 4, and 5 

Miller, E. Grace, Administrator 
Gray, R. W., Assistant Administrator 
HoLLOWELL, Noah, Assistant Administrator 
Lancaster, J. E., Assistant Administrator 

James, Evelyn District Social Service Supervisor 

Bryson, George W. District Engineer 

Jones, Margaret District Director Women's Work 

Simpson, Agnes District Disbursing Officer 

Lee, Elizabeth District Statistician 



PERSONNEL ON STATE ADMINISTRATIVE PROJECTS 
(Not included in Directory of State Personnel) 



EDUCATION PROGRAM : 

Mary Dirnberger, Supr. Women's 

Camps 
Rachel McKernon, Secretary 
Slate Supervisors: 

Mrs. Mary G. Scarborough 

Howard Bridgman 

J. T.Jerome, Supr. Prison Education 
District Supervisors: 

Mabel L. Bacon 

Mrs. J. M. Day 

W. H. Jones 

C. C. Sorrels 

Carrie B. Wilson 

E. Louise Cooper 
Marie Mclver 
Juliette Phifer 

PERMANENT INVENTORY : 
R. L. Moore, Director 
J. F. Hatch, Field Representative 
Minnie Mae Mitchem, Typist 
Assistant Field Representatives: 
C. W. Duke 

F. J. Thurston 
Neill McRae 
W. L. Powell 
Wiley G. Fish 
J. N. Bryan 

E. G. Johnston, Jr. 
P. L. Sutton 
Scott Jones 

Clerks and Stenographers: 
R. P. Snell 
Charles E. Creech 
Allen Nelms 
Frank Harris 
C. L. Hatcher 

F. A. Carter 
C. E. Booker 
Sherwood Coxe, Jr. 
Lloyd Nooe 

John Duke 

Willie Bryan 

Mary Hicks 

Mrs. Heyward Long 

Anne Olive 

Mrs. M. B. McCurdy 

SURVEYS : 
Displaced Tenants and Rural Relief Fami- 
lies: 
Gordon Blackwell, Supervisor 
Bessie Mae Cowan, Stenographer 



Field Workers: 

Mrs. Marie Rowe 
Elizabeth Carter Grant 
Mary Frances Parker 
J. R. Raper, Jr. 
L. A. Edwards 
R. D. Jenkins 
Gilbert Craig 

Rural Social Research: 

{.Supervised by Dr. C. H. Hamilton, 
Extension Department, State Col- 
lege) 
Olaf Wakefield, As.sistant Supervisor 
M. Taylor Matthews, Assistant Su- 
pervisor 

Current Relief Changes: 

Elizabeth Pierce, Schedule Editor 
F. N. Finks, Field Worker 
Beatrice Godfrey, Field Worker 
Lena Hall Pounds, Field Worker 
Charles M. Reid, Field Worker 

Plantation Tenant Study: 

Ralph Raper, .Supervising Enu- 
merator 
Robin Williams, Tabulation Super- 
visor 
E. L. Green, Clerk 
W. H. Malone, Clerk 

Mineral Resources: 

A. E. Randolph, Chemical Engineer 
W. D. Pool, Chemical Engineer 

Rural Electrification: 

(Supervised by Dr. D. S. Weaver, 
Engineering Department, State 
College) 

C. W. Burton, Assistant .Supervisor 
J. M. Granger, Electrical Engineer 
George M. Jordan, Electrical Engi- 
neer 

W. A. Faulkner, Electrical Engineer 

W. H. Cross, Clerk 

Sam Pearson, Clerk 

Lelia M. Ingalls, .Stenographer 

Unemployment Insurance: 
Dr. H. D. Wolfe, Director 
Robin Hood, Research Worker 
Mertie Merritt, Typist 
Stanley Stevens, Research Worker 
John Pugh Abernethy, Statistician 
Mrs. S. P. Williams, Clerk 
Adelaide Southerland, Stenographer 

D. W. Markham, Lawyer 



Nathan Lipscomb, Clerk 
J. W. Gunter, Machine Operator 
Walter W. King, Machine Operator 
Jessie Ah-erson, Clerk 

DRAINAGE FOR MALARIA CON- 
TROL: 
(Directed by Warren H. Booker, State 
Board of Health 

Marion Cowper, Assistant Director) 
Mrs. Etta F. Mauldin, Stenographer 
Engineers: 

W. D. Alexander 

O. K. LaRoque, Jr. 

C. L. White, Jr. 

C. M. White , 

M. F. VVooten, Jr. 

COMMUNITY S.ANITATION PRO- 
GRAM : 

(Directed by Warren H. Booker, State 

Board of Health 

M. F. Trice, Assistant Director) 
District Supervisors: 

John E. Floyd 

A. B. Freeman 

B. L. Jessup 
John .'\. McLeod 
M. M. MeKin 
E. B. Roach 

OYSTER PLANTING SUPERVI- 
SION : 
L. W. Nelson, State Supervisor 
B. S. Barnes, Assistant State Super- 
visor 

SPECIAL ENGINEERING AND 
PLANNING : 

J. B. Martin, Engineer 
Iva O. Gray, Stenographer 
R. .-V. Shaw, Junior .Architect Drafts- 
man 
J. S. Trescot, .Architect Engineer 
R. F. Smallwood, Architect Engineer 

PROP.\G.ATION SCUPPERNONG 
GRAPE VINES : 
Donald McDonald, Assistant Super- 
visor 

FARM DEBT ADJUSTMENT COM- 

MLSSION : 

(Dr. G. W. Forster, E.xecutive Secre- 
tar>') 

Harry F. Watkins, .State Representa- 
tive 



Assistant State Representatives: 
Joseph P. Greenleaf 
J. Edward Kirby 
J. W. Lamberson 

David W. McPherson 

Mary Nordan, Secretary 

Katie Dean, .Secretary 

Willie .Andrews, .Stenographer 

COMPILING D.ATA OF ERA AC- 
TIVITIES : 
Clerks and Bookkeepers: 
Walter H. Geddy 
Edith B. Smith 
Leon Whitehurst 
Louise Pridgen 
Edgerton M. Vaughn 
Leuria Holmes 
Edward R. Thomas 
James McKimmon 

CONSERVATION OF MEAT CAN- 
NERY AND AB.ATTOIR EQUIP- 
MENT: 

G. E. Winston, Steam Fitter 
George Cross, Truck Driver 
Kathleen F. Nicholson, Home Eco- 
nomics Worker 
James F. Doyle, Plumber 

CATTLE TESTING : 

Dr. L. J. Faulhaber, State Supervisor 
G. A. Charles, Chief Clerk 
J. T. Farmer, Field Inspector 
.Annie Johnson, Stenographer 
N. H. Rose, Clerical 

STATE WAREHOUSE SUPERIN- 
TENDENT : 
R. D. Gates 

CONSTRUCTION OF FISH FREEZ- 
ING PLANTS : 
Herbert Brown, Tiuck Dri\'er 
C. P. Rogers, Purchase and Material 

Clerk 
Earl Piner, Material Clerk 
C. Brownie, Material Clerk 
David Breece, Time Keeper 
W. B. Bandy, Jr., Time Keeper 
Elliott Mathews, Time Keeper 
R. H. Wright, Superintendent 
J. L. West, Superintendent 



APPENDIX 

Congressional Acts* 
title i of the reconstruction finance corporation legislation, july, 1932 

(as published by the United States Government Printing Office, 1932) 

TITLE I— RELIEF OF DESTITUTION 

Section i. (a) The Reconstruction Finance Corporation is authorized and empowered to make available out of the funds of the corporation the sum of S300,- 
0110.000, under the terms and conditions hereinafter set forth, to the several States and Territories, to be used in furnishing relief and work relief to needy and dis- 
iK ^<cd people and in relieving the hardship resulting from unemployment, but not more than 15 per centum of such sum shall be available to any one State or 
1 crritoiy. Such sum of 8300,000,000 shall, until the expiration of two years after the date of enactment of this act, be available for payment to the governors of 
ilie several States and Territories for the purposes of this section, upon application therefor by them in accordance with subsection (c), and upon approval of such 
application by the corporation. 

(b) .AH amounts paid under this section shall bear interest at the rate of jj per centum per annum, and, except in the case of Puerto Rico and the Territory of 
Al.Tska, shall be reimbursed to the corporation, with interest thereon at the rate of 3 per centum per annum, by making annual deductions, beginning with the fiscal year 
I'iIt. from regular apportionments made from future Federal authorizations in aid of the States and Territories for the construction of highways and rural post 
roads, of an amount equal to one-fifth of the share which such State or Territory would be entitled to receive under such apportionment, except for the provisions 
111' this section or of an amount equal to one-fifth of the amounts so paid to the governor of such State or Territory pursuant to this section and all accrued interest 
ilnreon to the date of such deductions, whichever is the lesser, until the .sum of such deductions equals the total amounts paid under this section and all accrued 
interest thereon. Whenever any such deduction is made, the Secretary of the Treasury shall immediately pay to the corporation an amount equal to the amount 
^' i deducted. If any State or Territory shall, within two years after the date of enactment of this act, enter into an agreement with the corporation for the repay- 
iiic nt to the corporation of the amounts paid under this section to the governor of such State or Territory, with interest thereon as herein provided, in such install- 
imnts and upon such terms as may be agreed upon, then the deduction under this subsection shall not be made unless such State or Territory shall be in default 
m the performance of the terms of such agreement. In the case of a default by the State or Territory in any such agreement, the agreement shall thereupon be 
terminated and reimbursement of the unpaid balance of the amount covered by such agreement shall be made by making annual deductions in the manner above 
pro\ ided (beginning with the fiscal year next following such default) from regular apportionments made to such State or Territory from future Federal authoriza- 
[ions in aid of the States and Territories for the construction of highways and rural post roads. Before any amount is paid under this section to the Governor of 
Puerto Rico or of the Territory of Alaska, Puerto Rico or the Territory of Alaska shall enter into an agreement with the corporation for the repayment of such amount 
with interest thereon as herein provided, in such installments and upon such terms and conditions as may be agreed upon. 

(c) The governor of any State or Territory may from time to time make application for funds under this section, and in each application so made shall certify 
tlie necessity for such funds and that the resources of the State or Territory, including moneys then available and which can be made available by the State or 
Territory, its political subdivisions, and private contributions are inadequate to meet its relief needs. All accounts paid to the governor of a State or Territory 
under this section shall be administered by the governor, or under his direction, and upon his responsibility. The governor shall file with the corporation and with 
the auditor of the State or Territory (or, if there is no auditor, then with the official exercising comparable authority) a statement of the disbursements made by 
him under this section. 

(d) Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize the corporation to deny an otherwise acceptable application under this section because of consti- 
tutional or other legal inhibitions or because the .State or Territory has borrow'ed to the full extent authorized by law. Whene\'er an application under this section 
is approved by the corporation in whole or in part, the amount approved shall be immediately paid to the governor of the State or Territory upon delivery by him 
to the corporation of a receipt therefor stating that the payment is accepted subject to the terms of this section. 

(e) Any portion of the amount approved by the corporation for payment to the governor of a State or Territory shall, at his request, and with the approval 
of the corporation, be paid to any municipality or political subdivision of such State or Territory if (i) the governor makes to such municipality or political 
subdivision a like certificate as provided in subsection (c) as to the .State or Territory, and (2) such municipality or political subdivision enters into an agreement 
with the corporation for the repayment to the corporation of the amount so paid, with interest at the rate of 3 per centum per annum, at such times, and upon 
such other terms and conditions, as may be agreed upon between the corporation and such municipality or political subdivision. The amount paid to any munici- 
pality or political subdivision under this subsection shall not be included in any amounts reimbursable to the corporation under subsection (b) of this section. 

(f) As used in this section the term "Territory" means Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. 

.ACT OF CONGRESS, MARCH 31, 1933, CREATING THE CCC 

.An ."Xct for the relief of unemployment through the performance 
of useful public work, and for other purposes. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled: That for the purpose of relieving the acute condition of 
widespread distress and unemployment now existing in the United States, and in order to provide for the restoration of the country's depleted natural resources 
and the advancement of an orderly program of useful public works, the President is authorized under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe and by utiliz- 
ing such existing departments or agencies as he may designate, to provide for employing citizens of the United States who are unemployed, in the construction, 
maintenance and carrying on of works of a public nature in connection with the forestation of lands belonging to the United States or to the several States which 
are suitable for timber production, the prevention of forest fires, floods and soil erosion, plant pest and disease control, the construction, maintenance or repair of 
paths, trails and firelanes in the national parks and national forests, and such other work on the public domain, national and State, and Government reser\'ations 
incidental to or necessan.' in connection with any projects of the character enumerated, as the President may determine to be desirable : Provided, That the Pres- 
ident may in his discretion extend the provisions of this Act to lands owned by counties and municipalities and lands in pri\ate ownership, but only for the purpose 
of doing thereon such kinds of cooperative work as are now provided for by Acts of Congress in preventing and controlling forest fires and the attacks of forest 
tree pests and diseases and such work as is necessary in the public interest to control floods. The President is further authorized, by regulation, to provide for hous- 
ing the persons so employed and for furnishing them with such subsistence, clothing, medical attendance and ho.spitalization, and cash allowance, as may be neces- 
sary, during the period they are so employed, and, in his discretion, to provide for the transportation of such persons to and from the places of employment. That 
in employing citizens for the purpose of this Act no discrimination shall be made on account of race, color, or creed ; and no person under conviction for crime and 



•The full texts of Congressional Acta, allusion to which is made in the introductory historical statement. 



416 Appendix 

serving sentence therefor shall be employed under the provisions of this Act. The President is further authorized to allocate funds available for the purposes o 
this Act, for forest research, including forest products investigations, by the Forest Products Laboratory. 

Sec. 2. For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this Act the President is authorized to enter into such contracts or agreements with States as may h 
necessary, including provisions for utilization of existing State administrative agencies, and the President, or the head of any department or agency authorized b' 
him to construct any project or to carry on any such public works, shall be authorized to acquire real property by purchase, donation, condemnation, or otherwise 
but the provisions of section 355 of the Revi.sed Statutes shall not apply to any property so acquired. 

Sec. 3. In so far as applicable, the benefits of the Act entitled ".-^n Act to provide compensation for employees of the United States suffering injuries while ir 1 
the performance of their duties, and for other purposes," approved September 7, 1916, as amended, shall extend to persons given employment under the provision; 
of this Act. I 

Sec. 4. For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this Act, there is hereby authorized to be expended, under the direction of the President, out of am 
unobligated moneys heretofore appropriated for public works (except for projects on which actual construction has been commenced or may be commenced withii. 
ninety days, and except maintenance funds for river and harbor improvements already allocated), such sums as may be necessary; and an amount equal to th( 
amount so expended is hereby authorized to be appropriated for the same purposes for which such moneys were originally appropriated. 

Sec. 5. That the unexpended and unallotted balance of the sum of $300,000,000 made available under the terms and conditions of the Act approved July 21 
1932, entitled "An Act to relieve destitution," and so forth, may be made available, or any portion thereof, to any State or Territory or States or Territories withi 
out regard to the limitation of 15 per centum or other limitations as to per centum. 

Sec. 6. The authority of the President under this .^ct shall continue for the period of two years next after the date of the passage hereof and no longer. 

THE FEDERAL EMERGENCY RELIEF ACT OF MAY 12, 1933 ; 

An Act to provide for cooperation by the Federal Go\'ernment with the several States and Territories and the District of Columbia in relieving the hardshipi 
and suffering caused by unemployment, and for other purposes. ' 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that the Congress hereby declares that the present economic 
depression has created a serious emergency, due to widespread unemployment and increasing inadequacy of State and local relief funds, resulting in the existing oi 
threatened depri\'ation of a considerable number of families and individuals of the necessities of life, and making it imperative that the Federal Government co- 
operate more effectively with the several States and Territories and the District of Columbia in furnishing relief to their needy and distressed people. 

*SEC. 2. (a) The Reconstruction Finance Corporation is authorized and directed to make available out of the funds of the Corporation not to exceed $500,1 
000,000, in addition to the funds authorized under title I of the Emergency Relief and Construction .Act of 1933, for expenditure under the provisions of this Acl 
upon certification by the Federal Emergency Relief Administrator provided for in section 3. 

(b) The amount of notes, debentures, bonds, or other such obligations which the Reconstruction Finance Corporation is authorized and empowered undei 
section 9 of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation ,\ct, as amended, to have outstanding at any one time is increased by $500,000,000 : Provided, That no such 
additional notes, debentures, bonds or other such obligations authorized by this subsection shall be issued except at such times and in such amounts as the Presideni 
shall approve. 

(c) After the expiration often days after the date upon which the Federal Emergency Relief Administrator has qualified and has taken ofRce, no application 
shall be approved by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation under the provisions of title I of the Emergency Relief and Construction Act of 1932, and the Federal 
Emergency Relief .\dministrator shall ha\'e access to all files and records of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation relating to the administration of funds undei 
title I of such .\ct. .\t the expiration of such ten-day period, the unexpended and unobligated balance of the funds authorized under title I of such Act shall bt 
available for the purposes of this Act. 

SEC. 3. (a) There is hereby created a Federal Emergency Relief .Administration, all the powers of which shall be exercised by a Federal Emergency Reliel 
Administrator (referred to in this Act as the "Administrator") to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Admin 
istrator shall receive a salary to be fixed by the President at not to exceed $10,000, and necessary traveling and subsistence expenses within the limitations prescribed 
by law for ci\'ilian employees in the executive branch of the Government. The Federal Emergency Relief .Administration and the office of Federal Emergenc) 
Relief .\dministrator shall cease to exist upon the expiration of two years after the date of enactment of this .\ct, and the unexpended balance on such date ol 
funds made available under the provisions of this .Act shall be disposed of as the Congress may by law provide. 

(b) The Administrator may appoint and fix the compensation of such experts and their appointment may be made and compensation fixed without regard tc 
the ci\'il service laws, or the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, and the Administrator may, in the same manner, appoint and fix the compensation of such 
other officers and employees as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act, but such compensation shall not exceed in any case the sum of $8,000 ; and ma) 
make such expenditures (including expenditures for personal services and rent at the seat of government and elsewhere and for printing and binding), not to exceed 
$350,000, as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act, to be paid by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation out of funds made available by this Acl 
upon presentation of vouchers approved by the Administrator or by an officer of the .Administration designated by him for that purpose. The Administrator may 
under rules and regulations prescribed by the President, assume control of the administration in any State or States where, in his judgment, more effective and effi- 
cient cooperation between the State and Federal authorities may thereby be secured in carrying out the purposes of this Act. 

(c) In executing any of the provisions of this Act, the Administrator, and any person duly authorized or designated by him, may conduct any investigatior 
pertinent or material to the furtherance of the purposes of this Act and, at the request of the President, shall make such further investigations and studies as the 
President may deem necessary in dealing with problems of unemployment relief. 

(d) The Administrator shall print monthly, and shall submit to the President and to the Senate and the House of Representatives (or to the Secretary of thf 
Senate and the Clerk of the House of Representatives if those bodies are not in session), a report of his activities and expenditures under this .Act. Such reports 
shall, when submitted be printed as public documents. 

SEC. 4. (a) Out of the funds of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation made available by this Act, the .Administrator is authorized to make grants to the 
several States to aid in meeting the costs of furnishing relief and work relief and in relieving the hardship and suffering caused by unemployment in the form 0: 
money, service, materials, and/or commodities to provide the necessities of life to persons in need as result of the present emergency, and/or to their dependents 
whether resident, transient, or homeless. 

(b) Of the amounts made available by this .Act not to exceed $250,000,000 shall be granted to the several States applying therefor, in the following manner 
Each State shall be entitled to receive grants equal to one third of the amount expended by such State, including the civil subdivisions thereof, out of public money: 
from all sources for the purposes set forth in subsection (a) of this section ; and such grants shall be made quarterly, beginning with the second quarter in the cal 
endar year 1933, and shall be made during any quarter upon the basis of such expenditures certified by the States to have been made during the preceding quarter 



• Additional appropriations (also for CWA program) S950,000,000 to June 30, 1935— Act of February 13, 1934. 



Appendix 417 

I c) The balance of the amounts made available by this Act, except the amount required for administrative expenditures under section 3 shall be used for grants 
.' lie made whenever, from an application presented by a State, the Administrator finds that the combined moneys which can be made available within the State 
Klin all sources, supplemented by any moneys, available under subsection (b) of this section, will fall below the estimated needs within the State for the purposes 
ptiified in subsection (a) of this section : Provided, That the Administrator may certify out of the funds made available by this subsection additional grants to 
-latos applying therefor to aid needy persons who have no legal settlement in any one State or community, and to aid in assisting cooperative and self-help asso- 
iations for the barter of goods and services. 

! (d) After October i, 1933, notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b), the unexpended balance of the amounts available for the purposes of subsection 
111 may, in the discretion of the Administrator and with the approval of the President, be available for grants under subsection (c). 

ie) The decision of the Administrator as to the purpose of any expenditure shall be final. 

f) The amount available to any one State under subsections (b) and (c) of this section shall not exceed 15 per centum of the total amount made available 
i\ such subsections. 

SEC. 5. ."^ny State desiring to obtain funds under this Act shall through its Governor make application therefor from time to time to the Administrator. Each 
pplication so made shall present in the manner requested by the Administrator information showing (i) the amounts necessary to meet relief needs in the State 
luring the period covered by such application and the amounts available from public or private sources within the State, its political subdivisions, and private agen- 
ics, to meet the relief needs of the State, {2) the provision made to assure adequate administrative supervision, (3) the provision made for suitable standards of relief, 
I lid (4) the purposes for which the funds requested will be used. 

SEC. 6. The .-kdministrator upon approving a grant to any State shall so certify to the Reconstruction Finance Corporation which shall, except upon revoca- 
ion of a certificate by the Administrator, make payments without delay to the State in such amounts and at such times as may be prescribed in the certificate. 
riie Governor of each State receiving grants under this Act shall file monthly with the Administrator, and in the form required by him, a report of the disburse- 
ncnts made under such grants. 

SEC. 7. .-Xs used in the foregoing provisions of this .'\ct, the term "State" shall include the District of Columbia, Alaska, Hawaii, the Virgin Islands, and Puerto 
vico ; and the term "Governor" shall include the Commissioners of the District of Columbia. 

SEC. 8. This -Act may be cited as the "Federal Emergency Relief Act of 1933." 
I Approved May 12, 1933. 

FEDERAL APPROPRIATIONS FOR THE FEDERAL EMERGENCY RELIEF ADMINISTRATION AND THE FEDERAL CIVIL WORK 
ADMINISTR.ATION— A SUMMARY OF THE FUNDS MADE AVAILABLE TO FERA AND THE SOURCE OF THESE FUNDS 

(From FERA Monthly Report, June, 1934 — Pages 12-14) 

The total amount of Federal funds made available to the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (including the Federal Surplus Relief Corporation) and to 
he Federal Civil Works Administration, from May 12, 1933, through June 30, 1934, aggregated 82,043,790,000. 

The Federal Emergency Relief Act, approved May 12, 1933, which established the Federal Emergency Administration, made available $500,000,000 out of the 
iinds of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation for the purpose of cooperating with the States, Territories, and the District of Columbia in the relief of unemploy- 
nent. Out of this 8500,000,000 fund, 8250,000,000 under subsection (b) of section 4 of the Act were made available to the States on a matching basis, i.e., each 
itate was entitled to receive Federal grants equal to one-third of the amount expended for unemployment relief from all public funds during the preceding quarter. 
The remainder of the appropriation constituted a discretionary fund for grants to those States whose relief requirements exceeded the grants under subsection (b). 

Grants totaling 8199,808,344 were made under subsection (b) on basis of expenditures of public funds in the States during the first three quarters of 1933, but 
n November 1933, under subsection 4 (d) of the Federal Emergency Relief Act, the operation of subsection (b) was suspended, an unexpended balance of S50,- 
91,656, under this subsection (which would have been insufficient to make grants on the basis of fourth-quarter expenditures) because available for discretionary 
^ants, and all further grants have been made under subsection (c). Of the original 8500,000,000, there was transferred $88,960,000 to the Federal Civil Works 
Vdministration in January and February 1934. 

By February 1934 the 8500,000,000 fund appropriated by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration of 1933 was nearing depletion. The need for additional 
unds was met by the Act of February 15, 1934, appropriating 8950,000,000 to carry out the purposes of the Federal Emergency Relief Act of 1933 and to continue 
he Civil Works -Administration. From the total appropriation, 8500,000,000 were allocated on February 15, 1934 to the Federal Emergency Relief Administration 
by Executive Order No. 6603) of which $150,000,000 were made available for expenditure during the fiscal year endingjune 30, 1934, and $350,000,000 were made 
ivailable for the fiscal year endingjune 30, 1935. The balance of the appropriation, 8450,000,000 was allocated to the Federal Civil Works Administration (by 
Executive Order No. 6602). On .\pril 24, 1934, $75,000,000 were transferred from this Civil Works' allocation to the Federal Emergency Relief Administration 
or expenditure during the fiscal year 1934 (by Executive Order No. 6689). Additional funds for expenditure during the fiscal year 1934 were transferred from the 
miount which had been allocated in February for the fiscal year 1935. On May 14, 1934, $100,000,000 (by Executive Order No. 6709) and on June 1 1, 1934 an 
idditional $50,000,000 (by Executive Order No. 6735) were then reallocated from the $350,000,000 earlier allocated for expenditure during the fiscal year 1935. 

These reallocations gave the Federal Emergency Relief Administration out of the February 15, 1934 appropriation a total of $375,000,000 for expenditure during 
he fiscal year 1934. 

The 1935 Emergency Appropriation Act, approved on June 19, 1934, included two specific appropriations, out of which allocations could be made to the Federal 
Ijmergency Relief Administration. It appropriated 8899,675,000 to carry out the purpose of the Federal Emergency Relief Act of 1933, the Tennessee Valley 
Authority .\ct of 1933, and the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933. Out of this amount $100,000,000 were allocated on June 29, 1934, by letter from the 
'resident to the Secretary of the Treasury, to the Federal Emergency Relief Administration for expenditure during the fiscal year 1935. 

The .\ct further provided that any savings or unobligated balances in funds of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, aggregating not more than $500,000,000, 
nd any unobligated balances in appropriations (including allocations of appropriations) of the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works, may, in the 
liscretion of the President, be transferred and applied to the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. No allocations to the Federal Emergency Relief Admin- 
stration under this authorization were made before June 30, 1934. 

The 1935 Emergency Appropriation Act also appropriated 8525,000,000 to meet the emergency and the necessity for relief in the drought-stricken agricultural 
reas. From this appropriation, there were allocated to the Federal Emergency Relief Administration on June 23, 1934, 856,250,000 for making grants to States 
or drought relief purposes and 812,500,000 to purchase land in the drought areas (by Executive Order No. 6747). 

Under the National Industrial Recovery Act, the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works, on December 28, 1933, allotted $25,000,000 for the pur- 
hase of submarginal land under the direction of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. A further sum of $35,000 was transferred by the Federal Emergency 
Administration of Public Works to the Federal Emergency Relief Administration for the purpose of aiding self-help organizations and cooperatives. 

Upon the creation of the Federal Civil Works Administration in November, 1933 (Executive Order No. 6420-B), the Federal Emergency Administration of Pub- 
ic Works allotted to the new .'Administration $400,000,000 out of the $3,300,000,000 appropriated by the National Industrial Recovery Act. An additional $5,000 
vas allocated subsequently from the same fund, bringing the total to $400,005,000. Later, the Federal Emergency Relief Administ